The Foundation's early interest in developing more sophisticated technical aids (Laboratory and Loan Equipment Program, 1948-1952) led to the exploration of new technologies for the safe and more accurate replication of fossils and associated artifacts.
An ambitious seventeen-year program started in 1959 with a sizable grant to the University Museum of the University of Pennsylvania, under whose aegis the late chemist David Gilbert could experiment with plastics in the development of methods to reproduce high-quality casts of fossil materials with minimum risk to the original specimens. (An earlier grant to the University Museum had purchased the Barlow collection of plaster molds on which the museum's hand-produced plaster casts were based.) Gilbert's research eventually moved to the Foundation's laboratory. For the next seven years, the Foundation fostered the project's evolution from a manual operation to a factory-controlled, batch-production manufacturing process.
The technical process was perfected by 1962, the year in which the Foundation began to make molds from original specimens. Political, academic and personal blocks to accessing original finds were overcome through the generous cooperation of the late L. S. B. Leakey in East Africa. Dr. John Robinson also cleared the way for inclusion of the South African material in the collection of new molds. Under their supervision, hundreds of molds were produced by three mold makers over several weeks of intensive work in Africa.
With the technical skill and the first molds in hand, the Foundation launched a formal program to produce cast replicas and to expand the repertory of its available inventory. But these activities were a manifestation of only part of the more sweeping objectives underlying this program. Those goals were to help preserve original materials, to stimulate research and teaching in the field of human evolution, to encourage scientific communication within a scholarly community