Munoz Arbelaez, Santiago, Yale U., New Haven, CT - To aid research on 'The New Kingdom of Granada: The Making and Unmaking of Spain's Atlantic Empire, 1530-1650,' supervised by Dr. Stuart B. Schwartz
Preliminary abstract: My project examines the Spanish empire's project to create a centralized 'kingdom,' a political configuration they called the New Kingdom of Granada, amidst the variety of native groups and fractured geographies of present-day Colombia. Unlike Peru or Mexico, where the Spanish empire co-opted indigenous states, in this area decentralization posed specific challenges to colonial officials. How did the New Kingdom of Granada bring together such diverse peoples and areas? My study is a spatial history of the making and unmaking of the Spanish empire. I ask how colonial administrators tried to create landscapes of rule and how native peoples used space both to contest and to accommodate colonialism into their lives, or to flee and create spaces of refuge outside the Spanish area of influence. By drawing insights from ethnohistory and scholarship on state formation, I will argue that to extend the empire's tentacles to new groups and zones, colonial officials tried to standardize peoples and spaces of South America to make them legible for state rule, but they were also forced to mold their own domination strategies and to negotiate the meaning and scope of rule. This process produced a malleable political configuration that found ways to accommodate within it diverse groups of people and whose possibilities and constrains were defined on the ground in relation to the specific characteristics of native groups and landscapes. I examine this new spatial and political formation through the rubric 'ethnohistory of empire:' a dual concept that aims to show how the imperial state molded its institutions to fit local ethnic groups and how colonial institutions provided the conditions for the emergence of new ethnic groups both from within and from without imperial rule.
de la Cadena, Dr. Marisol, U. of California, Davis, CA - To aid research on 'Alternative Archives: Understanding Indigenous Politics the Andean Way'
DR. MARISOL DE LA CADENA, University of California, Davis, California, received funding in May 2008 to aid research on 'Alternative Archives: Understanding Indigenous Politics the Andean Way.' The grantee interrogates the relationship between indigeneity and 'politics' and, more specifically, the epistemic maneuver through which the power to decide what and who counts as its objects and subjects was invented. The study draws inspiration from Mariano Turpo and his son, Nazario -- two politicians/ritual specialists with whom the grantee started ethnographic conversations in January 2002. Mariano, in conventional terms an illiterate and monolingual Quechua-speaker, was close to 100 years old when he died in April 2004. Back in the 1970s he had successfully organized a local movement to recover lands that had once belonged to his community, Pacchanta, a small hamlet located in the Andean sierras at 14,000 feet above sea level and a 14-hour drive from the city of Cuzco in Peru. Physically distant from national centers, Pacchanta is a place barely imagined by central Peruvian politicians. However, during his heyday as an organizer, Mariano was frequently visited by revolutionary leftists, who were frustrated at his refusal to abandon shamanism and had discarded him as a politician -- yet maintained him as an ally, instrumental in organizing local opposition to landowners. Today, Euro-American New Age healers guided by national and international travel agencies based in Cuzco, flock to Pacchanta every Northern summer seeking Mariano's (and now his son Nazario's) 'shamanic wisdom' -- yet they ignore the ways this practice affects the material world that surrounds Pacchanta, and makes politicians out of these ritual specialists. At this intriguing crossroads, the research studies: 1) local indigenous political practices that integrate nature and culture, secular, and sacred spheres; and 2) the exclusions (and inclusions) enacted on indigenous politics, nationally and globally, through notions of secularized politics and spiritualized ritual.
Shakow, Dr. Miriam N., Vanderbilt U., Nashville, TN - To aid research and writing on 'States of Discontent: Patronage, Liberalism, and Indigenous Democracy in Bolivia' - Hunt Postdoctoral Fellowship
DR. MIRIAM N. SHAKOW, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee, received a Hunt Postdoctoral Fellowship in October 2010 to aid research and writing on 'States of Discontent: Patronage, Liberalism, and Indigenous Democracy in Bolivia.' This monograph narrates the surprising dilemmas of new middle classes in central Bolivia as they participate in and respond to the rise of a left-wing indigenous movement and party. Over the past decade, Bolivians have been at the forefront of movements for indigenous autonomy and against free market economic policies. The recent success of 'new left' parties in Latin American countries marked by longstanding social and economic inequalities, such as Bolivia, raises important questions about political change. How do people re-think their identities as citizens after the election of indigenous leaders? How are political ideals and practices affected by the rapid turnover of state regimes and ideologies? Following the election of Evo Morales, Bolivia's first indigenous President, first-generation professionals in central Bolivia wrestled earnestly with how to distinguish their identity from those of their 'Indian' and 'peasant' parents, cousins and neighbors-and their new President. By tracing everyday dilemmas of class, racial, and political identification from 1995 to present in the central Bolivian municipality of Sacaba, States of Discontent highlights the unexpected hybridity of radicalism and neoliberal political practices. The book also traces Bolivians' attempts to reconcile conflicting social and political ideals of equality, upward mobility, and middle class distinction.
Franzen, Margaret, U. of California, Davis, CA - To aid research on 'Intra-Community Food Sharing and Extra-Community Trading in Two Huaorani Communities in Ecuador,' supervised by Dr. Monique B. Mulder
Theidon, Dr. Kimberly S., Harvard U., Cambridge, MA - To aid research on 'States of Concern: Coca, Conflict and Control in the Apurimac and Ene Valley, Peru'
DR. KIMBERLY S. THEIDON, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts, received funding in November 2004 to aid research on 'States of Concern: Coca, Conflict and Control in the Apurimac and Ene Valley, Peru.' This project was ethnographically grounded study of alternative development, the administration of conflict, and forms of governmentality in the foremost coca-growing region of Peru. It takes the Apurimac and Ene River Valley and the cocaleros' movement as an organizing frame for examining how coca eradication efforts and the alternative development programs that accompany them create the conditions for a resurgence of political violence in a region characterized by multiple armed actors and massive discontent. It argues for examining the structures of conflict and historicizing the violence in the VRAE. The grantee emphasizes the importance of regional histories when designing policy recommendations, convinced that 'theoretically informed particularity can lead to alternatives to alternative development. She considers this one of the most pressing social issues in the Andean Region. It can be said that current counter- narcotics and anti-terrorism policies create the conditions for escalating violence; thus this research has an explicitly preventive aim. By conducting research with both the cocaleros as well as the myriad national and transnational entities with which they interact, the grantee aims to build on people's struggle for the defense of life and livelihood by generating policy alternatives to current counternarcotics and antiterrorism interventions.
Grimson, Dr. Alejandro, U. Nacional de San Martin, Buenos Aires, Argentina - To aid 'VIII Reunión de Antropología del MERCOSUR: Diversity and Power in Latin America,' 2009, Buenos Aires, in collaboration with Axel Lazzari
'8th Meeting of Anthropology of the Mercosur'
September 29 - October 2, 2009, Buenos Aire, Argentina
Organizers: Alejandro Grimson and Axel Lazzari (Universidad Nacional de San Martín)
'Diversity and Power in Latin America' was the theme for this 8th Meeting of Anthropology of the Mercorsur. Hosted by the Instituto de Altos Estudios Sociales (IDEAS) at the National University of San Martin in Bueons Aires, more than 3,000
researchers and graduate students from across Latin America, North America, and Europe gathered to participate in 30 special sessions, 75 working groups, and 14 forums, making this the largest meeting of Anthropology in the Mercosur to date A photographic exhibition, 35 ethnographic films, and a special session on the uses of photography and video in anthropological research were included among many other activities.
Winchell, Mareike, U. of California, Berkeley, CA - To aid research on 'The Politics of Ayllu Justice: Translations of Tradition and Law among Quechua Activists in Cochabamba, Bolivia,' supervised by Dr. Charles Hirschkind
MAREIKE WINCHELL, then a student at University of California, Berkeley, California, received a grant in October 2010 to aid research on 'The Politics of Ayllu Justice: Translations of Tradition and Law among Quechua Activists in Cochabamba, Bolivia,' supervised by Dr. Charles Hirschkind. Research focused on the ways recent legal reforms reshape existing practices of historical consciousness and ethical subjectivity in Bolivia, with emphasis on the frictions between the Bolivian state's vision of revolutionary change, on the one hand, and rural experiences of state reform among Quechua and Spanish-speaking descendents of landowners, and servants in ex-hacienda regions on the other. Through research with land reform officials and rural Quechua-speakers, the study shed light on: 1) how emergent ideals of revolutionary citizenship and temporal change become institutionalized; and 2) the ways institutional efforts coexist uneasily with a set of vertical relational practices that rural residents imbue with ethical significance.