Sosa, Joseph Jay, U. of Chicago, Chicago, IL - To aid research on 'Sao Paulo Has Never Been Pinker: Dilemmas in Representing LGBT People in the Public Sphere,' supervised by Dr. William Mazzarella
JOSEPH J. SOSA, then a student at University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois, was awarded a grant in October 2011 to aid research on 'São Paulo Has Never Been Pinker: Dilemmas in Representing LGBT People in the Public Sphere,' supervised by Dr. William Mazzarella. This research examines the aesthetic and public modes by which Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender (LGBT) activists demand justice and equality within larger society. The activists and state actors considered in São Paulo, Brazil, faced particular dilemmas and contradictions, which shaped the claims that could be made both on the state and within the public sphere. In the past fifteen years, media representations of LGBT people have multiplied significantly, while violent assaults against LGBT people remained the same or, by some accounts, have increased. This ethnographic study questions an assumption endemic to liberal thought: increased media attention and recognition of minorities within a society leads to greater tolerance. On the contrary, one interlocutor described the period of fieldwork (2011-2012) as when 'homophobia came out of the closet.' After contentious presidential elections in 2010 took an unexpected 'culture wars' turn, debates over the legalization of abortion and the criminalization of homophobia dominated the political public sphere. Through participant observation and interviews with LGBT activists and pro-LGBT advocates within the municipal, state, and federal governments, the study examined how different actors utilized this fairly unique historical moment to enact change inside and outside of the state.
Leinaweaver, Jessaca B., U. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI - To aid research on 'Imagining the Family in Highland Peru: Rural and Urban Conceptions of Fosterage in Ayacucho,' supervised by Dr. Bruce Mannheim
JESSACA LEINAWEAVER, while a student at the University of Michigan in Ann Arbor, Michigan, received funding in July 2001 to aid research on rural and urban conceptions of fosterage in Ayacucho, Peru, under the supervision of Dr. Bruce Mannheim. Leinaweaver conducted four months of fieldwork on the ways in which recent migrants to urban Ayacucho experienced family and a sense of belonging, focusing specifically on how children were incorporated into families they had not been born into. She interviewed people whose life histories shed light on the fosterage practices strategically employed throughout the Peruvian Andes, as well as representatives of official institutions such as the government adoption office and orphanage. She also traveled with migrant families back to their hometowns during holidays, observing how family was located and thought about in different spaces. By considering fosterage and adoption and the contrasts between the two, she explored the different ways in which families were produced and reproduced, what families meant in highland Peru, and the ways in which children became, over time, the children of parents, sisters of brothers, and nephews of aunts.
Leinaweaver, Jessaca B. 2005. Improving Oneself: Young People Getting Ahead in the Peruvian Andes. Latin American Perspectives 35 (161):60-89.
Leinaweaver, Jessaca B. 2007. On Moving Children: The Social Implications of Andean Children Circulation.
American Ethnologist 34 (1):163-180.
Leinaweaver, Jessaca B. 2007. Choosing to Move: Child agency on Peru’s Margins. Childhood 14 (3):375-392.
Leinaweaver, Jessaca B. 2008. The Circulation of Children: Kinship, Adoption and Morality in Andean Peru.
Duke University Press: Durham and London.
Leinaweaver, Jessaca B. 2009. Raising the Roof in the Transnational Andes: Building Houses, Forging Kinship.
Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute 15(4):777-796.
Cervone, Dr. Emma, Johns Hopkins U., Baltimore, MD - To aid workshop on 'Repositioning Indigeneity in Latin America,' 2010, Johns Hopkins U.
Preliminary abstract: We propose to organize a workshop to bring together Latin American and US based anthropologists and activists whose work explores (a) the shifting conceptualizations of indigeneity, sovereignty and political subjectivity articulated in recent years by indigenous movements and organizations in Latin America and (b) the challenges these new conceptualizations present to culturalist framings of 'indigeneity' as an artifact of colonialism and the liberal nation state. The main goal of the workshop is to explore what new theoretical approaches to identity and politics emerge from the strategies of engagement and contestation deployed in recent years by Latin American indigenous movements, and the contribution made by anthropology in understanding of these indigenous movements. The main question this workshop seeks to answer is what are the space and the meanings of indigeneity after the granting of ethnic and cultural rights with the neoliberal constitutional reforms of the 1990s, and the expansion of ethnic protest beyond national boundaries in the last decade? We propose to invite scholars and activists from Colombia, Peru, Mexico, Bolivia, Ecuador and Guatemala to discuss the extent to which the participation of indigenous movements in transnational legal domains, hemispheric politics and multilateral trade agreements has expanded notions of indigeneity and replaced the nation state in defining the political stakes of indigenous movements.
Viatori, Maximilian, U. of California, Davis, CA - To aid research on 'Amazonian Communities and the State: Language and the Construction of Authenticity,' supervised by Dr. Martha J. Macri
MAXIMILIAN VIATORI, then a student at the University of California, Davis, California, was awarded funding in December 2003 to aid research on 'Amazonian Communities and the State: Language and the Construction of Authenticity,' supervised by Dr. Martha J. Macri. Funding supported dissertation research focused on several communities in the Ecuadorian Amazon that previously identified as part of a pan-ethnic cultural group united by the use of a common indigenous language, Kichwa. In the 1990s, these communities broke from this pan-ethnic identity and started a project to revive the Zápara language, spoken by fewer than five elders, as a way to identify themselves as a distinct Zápara ethnicity. The research was primarily concerned with two things: 1) understanding how Zilpara communities use the Zápara language to obtain state recognition and resources, while simultaneously challenging state models of indigenous identity and organization; and 2) learning how this process of recognition and resistance fits into larger historical spheres of national and international economic systems and labor demands, and discourses of governance in the Ecuadorian Amazon during the past two centuries.
Viatori, Maximilian. 2007. Zápara Leaders and Identity Construction in Ecuador: The Complexities of Indigenous Self-Representation. Journal of Latin American and Caribbean Anthropology 12(1):104-133.
Morris, Meghan Lisa, U. of Chicago, Chicago, IL - To aid research on 'Relations of Dispossession: Property and Sovereignty in Colombia's Land Restitution Program,' supervised by Dr. Stephan Palmie
Prliminary abstract: This project examines the making of property, sovereignty, and legality through an ethnographic study of dispossession and restitution of land in Colombia. I will undertake this research through an ethnographic examination of Colombia's state-sponsored restitution program, which aims to restore and grant title to over six million hectares of land -- approximately five percent of the country's territory -- to people displaced and dispossessed in the country's ongoing armed conflict. In Colombia, about five million people are internally displaced -- more than in any other country in the world. By following several restitution cases, I will examine how displaced claimants, opposing parties, armed actors, and state officials create and contest property rules in the processes of dispossession and restitution that are at issue in those cases. Understanding the property relations and rules involved in claims to dispossession and restitution, and how they are negotiated in these processes of contestation, becomes a crucial window into how sovereignty is made in the region, as the state, guerrilla and paramilitary groups, and local communities assert authority through control over land. These processes also provide insight into how notions of legality are created, as citizens and armed actors mobilize formal and informal rules in order to claim land. Through this research, I aim to bring into conversation and contribute to continuing anthropological debates around property and social relations, sovereignty, and law and legality.
de la Cadena, Dr. Marisol, U. of California, Davis, CA - To aid research on 'Alternative Archives: Understanding Indigenous Politics the Andean Way'
DR. MARISOL DE LA CADENA, University of California, Davis, California, received funding in May 2008 to aid research on 'Alternative Archives: Understanding Indigenous Politics the Andean Way.' The grantee interrogates the relationship between indigeneity and 'politics' and, more specifically, the epistemic maneuver through which the power to decide what and who counts as its objects and subjects was invented. The study draws inspiration from Mariano Turpo and his son, Nazario -- two politicians/ritual specialists with whom the grantee started ethnographic conversations in January 2002. Mariano, in conventional terms an illiterate and monolingual Quechua-speaker, was close to 100 years old when he died in April 2004. Back in the 1970s he had successfully organized a local movement to recover lands that had once belonged to his community, Pacchanta, a small hamlet located in the Andean sierras at 14,000 feet above sea level and a 14-hour drive from the city of Cuzco in Peru. Physically distant from national centers, Pacchanta is a place barely imagined by central Peruvian politicians. However, during his heyday as an organizer, Mariano was frequently visited by revolutionary leftists, who were frustrated at his refusal to abandon shamanism and had discarded him as a politician -- yet maintained him as an ally, instrumental in organizing local opposition to landowners. Today, Euro-American New Age healers guided by national and international travel agencies based in Cuzco, flock to Pacchanta every Northern summer seeking Mariano's (and now his son Nazario's) 'shamanic wisdom' -- yet they ignore the ways this practice affects the material world that surrounds Pacchanta, and makes politicians out of these ritual specialists. At this intriguing crossroads, the research studies: 1) local indigenous political practices that integrate nature and culture, secular, and sacred spheres; and 2) the exclusions (and inclusions) enacted on indigenous politics, nationally and globally, through notions of secularized politics and spiritualized ritual.
Perez, Federico, Harvard U., Cambridge, MA - To aid research on 'Rethinking the City: The Making of Policy and Space in Bogotá, Colombia,' supervised by Dr. Kimberly Theidon
FEDERICO PÉREZ, then a student at Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts, received a grant in April 2011 to aid research on 'Rethinking the City: The Making of Policy and Space in Bogotá, Colombia,' supervised by Dr. Kimberly Theidon. This project explored the making of contemporary urban policy in Bogotá, Colombia, through the ethnographic study of the city's planning department and its related communities of practice. Employing collaborative research, participant observation, and in-depth interviews, the grantee studied the everyday discourses and practices of policy actors -- planners, experts, developers, and citizens, among others -- involved in the implementation of Colombia's progressive planning instruments. Focusing on the production and circulation of knowledge, the socio-political contexts of policymaking, and the heterogeneity of socio-spatial assemblages, this project examined ongoing efforts to bridge the gaps between the rhetoric and practice of socio-spatial justice. Research findings obtained with the support of this grant emphasize the processual, political, and networked dimensions of urban planning and policymaking. Furthermore, they call attention to emergent forms of knowledge, shifting modes of political action, and power-laden policy circuits through which the 'urban' is being produced and reassembled in contemporary Latin America.
Folch, Christine, City U. of New York - Graduate Center, New York, NY - To aid research on 'Territory Matters in the Triple Frontera: Geographic Imaginary, Identity, and the Paraguayan State,' supervised by Dr. Marc Edelman
CHRISTINE FOLCH, then a student at City University of New York - Graduate Center, New York, New York, was awarded funding in April 2008, to aid research on 'Territory Matters in the Triple Frontera: Geographic Imaginary, Identity, and the Paraguayan State,' supervised by Dr. Marc Edelman. Leftist former Bishop Fernando Lugo was able to topple the ruling Colorado Party in Paraguay in April 2008 by channeling discontent over unfulfilled promises, linking these grievances to one issue: Paraguay's hydroelectric dam shared with Brazil, Itaipú Binacional. Criticism of corruption and capitulation to foreign interests in the dam existed from the 1960s, but were dismissed as the complaints of a marginalized left. Four decades later, with the unexpected election of Lugo, these have become the chief diplomatic target of a government -- an issue supported by the left and the right. These changes portend a redefinition in the obligation of 'state' to 'nation' as stitched together in territory and development. 'Territory Matters' traces the course of this transformation and its outcomes-high-level renegotiations with Brazil, the redirection of millions of dollars in Paraguay-to show that what can be seen in the struggles over Itaipú is the reconfiguration of the Paraguayan nation-state. This historical ethnography is drawn from ethnographic data from unparalleled access to leaders in Lugo's government (as they negotiated with Brazil and administered the dam) and observation with popular social movements as they mobilized for 'hydroelectric sovereignty,' as well as rich archival evidence from the Stroessner-era secret police found in the Archives of Terror in Asunción.
Folch, Christine. 2013. Surveillance and State Violence in Stroessner's Paraguay: Itaipú Hydroelectric Dam, Archive of Terror. American Anthropologist 115(1):44-57.
Renfrew, Daniel E., State U. of New York, Binghamton, NY - To aid research on 'Lead Contamination, Grassroots Environmentalism, and State Interventions in Uruguay,' supervised by Dr. Carmen A. Ferradas
DANIEL E. RENFREW, while a student at the State University of New York, Binghamton, New York, was awarded funding in January 2005 to aid research on 'Lead Contamination, Grassroots Environmentalism, and State Interventions in Uruguay,' supervised by Dr. Carmen A. Ferradas. The grant supported the final six months of a seventeen-month field research project on the socio-political responses to the recent discovery of widespread lead contamination in Montevideo, Uruguay. Research included interviews with grassroots, state, and intermediate level social and political actors; direct observation and participant observation along these three levels; and the collection of primary and secondary documents and texts. Other activities included public speaking engagements, media outreach, student advising, and participation in a bio-ethics workshop. Research addressed the strategies and responses of a grassroots environmental justice movement against lead, as well as NGO, scientific, and academic engagements with the problem, and local and state-level official interventions. Findings reveal differences in environmental ideologies along the different sociopolitical levels of analysis, with differing strategies, methodologies, practices, and framings of the problem and its perceived victims. There were variations within these levels as well, with place identity, class character, and history playing a primary role in stimulating activism in one working-class neighborhood, while in some squatter settlements, municipal and NGO actors took the initiative. The state largely attempted to minimize the problem and associate it exclusively with poverty, while selectively appropriating international scientific norms and expertise, which in turn were contested by grassroots 'counter-expertise.' The coming to power of the center-left Frente Amplio nationally did not significantly alter state interventions or the terms of the debate, with factors such as class, social distance, and methods of engagement playing a primary role in distancing the state from the grassroots.
Greenleaf, Maron Estelle, Stanford U., Stanford, CA - To aid research on 'Making More Than a Market: Carbon Credits and Distributive Politics in Acre, Brazil,' supervised by Dr. Lisa Curran
Preliminary abstract: The carbon stored in forests has new monetary value, created in the effort to mitigate climate change. The Brazilian state of Acre--renowned for its social movement against deforestation and related social dislocation--is developing what is considered the world's most advanced effort to activate this value. There, environmentalists in the state government and t