Samet, Robert Nathan, Stanford U., Stanford, CA - To aid research on 'Writing Crime: Journalism, Insecurity, and Narratives of Violence in Caracas, Venezuela,' supervised by Dr. Sylvia Junko Yanagisako
ROBERT N. SAMET, then a student at Stanford University, Stanford, California, received funding in October 2008 to aid research on Writing Crime: Journalism, Insecurity, and Narratives of Violence in Caracas, Venezuela,' supervised by Dr. Sylvia Yanagisako. The overarching objective of the dissertation research is to describe the social processes through which violent events are framed as journalistic narratives by focusing on the everyday practices of crime reporters in Caracas. While there is a wealth of social scientific material that refers to news coverage of crime and violence, there have been surprisingly few attempts to understand the processes of cultural production from the inside out. This project set out to accomplish four specific goals: 1) examine the culture of crime reporters; 2) describe the key factors shaping the day-to-day practices of journalists who cover the crime beat; 3) explain what influences the selection and composition of images and stories of crime; and 4) show the larger context in which these images and stories circulate. Together, these strands of inquiry will provide a nuanced understanding of how journalist and journalism have helped to shape 'the politics of security' in Venezuela during the Hugo Chavez era.
Henfrey, Dr. Thomas W., U. of Kent, Canterbury, UK - To aid research and writing on 'Ethnoecology, Resource Use, Conservation, and Development in a Wapishana Community in Southern Guyana' - Richard Carley Hunt Fellowship
DR. THOMAS W. HENFREY, University of Kent, Canterbury, United Kingdom, was awarded a Hunt Postdoctoral Fellowship in November 2004 to aid research and writing on 'Ethnoecology, Resource Use, Conservation, and Development in a Wapishana Community in Southern Guyana.' The role of traditional ecological knowledge in the engagement with conservation and development of Wapishana populations in Guyana was investigated using a holistic analytical framework. This framework was based upon an informative mutual critique of integral ecology, and holistic approaches within ecological anthropology, leading to a model more complex and detailed than the former, broader and more coherently organised than the latter. Its application to Wapishana subsistence practices identifies the employment by actors of a pluralistic cognitive perspective as the key factor in reconciling ecological and productive criteria. The same is true for intercultural interchanges: if dominated by a uniformly rationalistic perspective, as is typical in conservation and development, these will be intercultural frontiers at which cultural diversity is diminished, rather than intercultural edges at which it is enhanced. For conservation and development initiatives to be enhancing rather than destructive to cultural diversity requires that they be based upon pluralistic perspectives consistent with those identified as being characteristic of traditional knowledge systems.
Skrabut, Kristin Joy, Brown U., Providence, RI - To aid research on 'Only the 'Truly Needy' Need Apply: Exploring Formal/Focal Intersections in Peru's Fight Against Poverty,' supervised by Dr. Kay B. Warren
DR. STEPHEN WALTER SILLIMAN, University of Massachusetts, Boston, Massachusetts, received a grant in October 2010, to aid research on 'Beyond Change and Continuity: Native American Community Persistence in Colonial New England.' Funding supported an archaeological project on the impacts of colonialism on Native American communities in southern New England, specifically the Eastern Pequot's reservation (established in 1683) in southeastern Connecticut. The project was oriented toward tackling a larger conceptual issue: the problem of discussing Native American societies in colonial periods as either changing or staying the same, rather than understanding how they did both (or neither) on trajectories of 'persistence.' The project had two goals: 1) to search for elusive 17th-century sites from the founding decades of the reservation; and 2) to excavate a newly identified late 18th-century household to understand variations during that period. Despite intensive searching with shovel test-pits in a never-before-tested section of the reservation, no sites sought in the first objective were located. The second objective was met with great success. A late 18th-century Eastern Pequot house site was located, mapped, and excavated, producing approximately 4,500 artifacts, 3,500 animal bones, and 14 kg of shellfish remains associated with what was once a wooden house with window glass, nailed frames, rock chimney, cellar, and trash pits. Its results have contributed significantly to the interpretation of Native American reservation history and cultural persistence in the face of economic, material, and political pressures.
Krokoszynski, Lukasz, U. of St. Andrews. St. Andrews, United Kingdom - To aid research on ''Capanahua Used to Live Here': Study of Intergenerational Relations in Western Amazonian Kinship,' supervised by Dr. Peter Gow
LUKASZ KROKOSZYNSKI, then a student at University of St. Andrews. St. Andrews, United Kingdom, was awarded funding in April 2011 to aid research on ''Capanahua Used to Live Here': Study of Intergenerational Relations in Western Amazonian Kinship,' supervised by Dr. Peter Gow. By focusing on understandings of intergenerational relations, the research was designed to explore possible human formulations of consanguinity, to test the anthropological theories on the Amazon by addressing an under-analyzed element of kinship, and to contribute to understanding social change. The fourteen-month fieldwork combined participant observation with qualitative inquiries. The most important research findings preliminarily demonstrate, first, the dynamic of owning/taking is at the heart of Capanahua sociality and has implications for understanding conception, intergenerational relations, and kinship generally. This invites a larger theoretical question of the applicability of the category of the gift for understanding the workings of an Amazonian society. Second, findings illustrate the notion of intransformability of the daily world, which also applies to kinship. At odds with Amazonian anthropology's recent discourse, this feature may provide an important input to thinking about region's kinship. Third, the study shows various factors contributing to the discourse of intergenerational discontinuity and directing a particular process of 'acculturation:' the idea of originality of ancestors; descent understood through the idiom of blood and owning coupled with the encouragement to separate from ascending generations; emotional strain of grieving provoking forgetting the deceased relatives; corresponding and encouraged ideas of the surrounding mestizo society, articulated in the idiom of 'development.'
Brunnegger, Dr. Sandra, U. of Cambridge, Cambridge, United Kingdom - To aid research on 'Culture and Human Rights in Colombia: Negotiating Indigenous Law'
DR. SANDRA BRUNNEGGER, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, United Kingdom, was awarded funding in April 2009 to aid research on 'Culture and Human Rights in Colombia: Negotiating Indigenous Law.' The grantee explored the cultural stakes of legal pluralism in Colombia, conducting ethnographic research to document both the many transformations that the constitutional recognition of indigenous law has brought about in indigenous communities and the new forms of political subjectivity it has sponsored. Specifically, the study focused on indigenous leaders and their organizations among Pijao and Nasa communties, and examined how these indigenous leaders, as intermediary figures, creatively interact with local, national, and international norms, customs, and laws, reshaping social relations.
Uribe, Mr.Simon, London School of Economics, London, UK - To aid engaged activities on 'Strengthening the Citizen Oversight Movement of the San Francisco-Mocoa Road Project in the Colombian Putumayo,' 2014, Putumayo, Columbia
Preliminary abstract: This project seeks to support a veeduría ciudadana (citizen oversight movement) around a road project in the Putumayo region of Colombia, where I carried out my ethnographic research. The veeduría was established in 2010 by a group of Putumayenses concerned with the environmental and social impacts of the road, to be constructed across the Amazon-Andes Piedmont, home to indigenous and peasant communities and one of the regions of greatest biodiversity in the world. The engagement project, conceived in conjunction with members of the veeduría, will develop a community blog and a radio program aimed at encouraging a wider involvement of the local community in the movement, as well as strengthening and giving visibility to its different activities around the road project.
Colloredo-Mansfeld, Dr. Rudolf, UNC, Chapel Hill, NC; & Quiroga, Dr. Diego, U. San Francisco de Quito, Ecuador - To aid research on 'Territories, Stewardship, & Place-Based Economies in Andean Communities: Building Participatory Research Capacity'
Preliminary abstract: Building on studies that frame heritage as a common pool resource (CPR), the research tests a central finding of CPR scholarship: the starting point for community economic management is the assertion of some proprietary and exclusive rights to use. In Ecuador and Peru, World-Heritage sites attract hundreds of thousands of visitors, create markets, and open opportunities for community-based businesses. Yet local economies often lose control of their heritage or the earnings it affords. Given the growing legal means for communities to assert local control, the questions of this research are: (1) Under what conditions do communities develop jurisdictions over heritage-based trades? (2) If jurisdictions can be established, do residents mobilize in the defense of their heritage? And (3) where territories exist, do they stabilize earnings, mitigate competition, and encourage stewardship? The project begins with a training workshop on participatory GIS mapping. It continues with fieldwork at three sites in Ecuador and Peru. Over the course of its 18 months, the study will support the Universidad of San Francisco de Quito's effort to establish an undergraduate anthropology major and develop the capacity of the Center of Social Sciences and Humanities Research at USFQ to provide methodological support to anthropological research.