Viatori, Maximilian, U. of California, Davis, CA - To aid research on 'Amazonian Communities and the State: Language and the Construction of Authenticity,' supervised by Dr. Martha J. Macri
MAXIMILIAN VIATORI, then a student at the University of California, Davis, California, was awarded funding in December 2003 to aid research on 'Amazonian Communities and the State: Language and the Construction of Authenticity,' supervised by Dr. Martha J. Macri. Funding supported dissertation research focused on several communities in the Ecuadorian Amazon that previously identified as part of a pan-ethnic cultural group united by the use of a common indigenous language, Kichwa. In the 1990s, these communities broke from this pan-ethnic identity and started a project to revive the Zápara language, spoken by fewer than five elders, as a way to identify themselves as a distinct Zápara ethnicity. The research was primarily concerned with two things: 1) understanding how Zilpara communities use the Zápara language to obtain state recognition and resources, while simultaneously challenging state models of indigenous identity and organization; and 2) learning how this process of recognition and resistance fits into larger historical spheres of national and international economic systems and labor demands, and discourses of governance in the Ecuadorian Amazon during the past two centuries.
Viatori, Maximilian. 2007. Zápara Leaders and Identity Construction in Ecuador: The Complexities of Indigenous Self-Representation. Journal of Latin American and Caribbean Anthropology 12(1):104-133.
Natarajan, Venkatesan, New York U., New York, NY - To aid research on 'The Power of Memory: Transitional Justice and the Aftermath of Argentina's Dirty War,' supervised by Dr. Sally Engle Merry
RAM NATARAJAN, then a student at New York University, New York, New York, received funding in October 2010 to aid research on 'The Power of Memory: Transitional Justice and the Aftermath of Argentina's Dirty War,' supervised by Dr. Sally Merry. This project is a study of human rights movements, law, and military soldiers in the context of contemporary Argentine dictatorship trials, one of the most lionized, discussed, and circulated forms of judicial responses to Latin American authoritarian regimes. It is about how efforts to prosecute violence committed during the 1976-1983 Argentine military rule become implicated with and generate new forms of violence, and about how the legal construction of categories of perpetrators is so shaped by social forces that such construction is never simply about identifying who is responsible for a crime. It draws from twenty months of fieldwork with retired and convicted military men; women and men affiliated with human rights' victim groups; and employees of the Argentine state judiciary system to ask what happens to these individuals' senses of self, social relationships, and national belonging, once the Argentine executive, legislative, and judicial branches began enforcing and instituting a new understanding of the past. This research helps shed light on why closure in the aftermath of political violence becomes, in the context of Argentina, a national impossibility.
Fattal, Mr. Alexander, Harvard, U. Cambridge, MA - To aid engaged activities on 'Guerrilla Marketing: Information War and the Demobilization of FARC Rebels,' 2014, Bogota, Colombia
ALEXANDER FATTAL, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts, was awarded an Engaged Anthropology Grant in February 2014 to aid engaged activities on 'Guerilla Marketing: Information War and the Demobilization of FARC Rebels,' Bogota, Colombia. Over the course of late July and August 2014, the grantee traveled to four cities in Colombia to share the findings from dissertation research that was funded in part by the Wenner-Gren Foundation. The grantee presented conclusions in a political context in which peace negotiations with the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC) have reached an advanced stage, with provisional agreements signed for three of the five agenda items. This made the research into the individual demobilization of FARC combatants all the more germane to Colombian scholars, students, and policy-makers. Research results were presented at four different universities: La Universidad de Antioquia in Medellin, ICESI Universidad in Cali, la Universidad del Norte in Barranquilla, and the Universidad de los Andes in Bogota. The audiences were very engaged at the presentations, often asking lively questions about Colombia's much-anticipated 'post-conflict' future. The grantee also extended the engagement project to Colombian audiences, as planned, with a few regional and national media outlets, and by sharing an initial cut of an ethnographic film about the psychological worlds of former guerrilla fighters.
Ponce, Tilsa, Harvard U., Cambridge, MA - To aid research on ''Potato Kings:' Indigenous Elites Challenging Social and Spatial Mobility in the Andes,' supervised by Dr. Gary Urton
Preliminary abstract: My dissertation project examines how 'potato kings,' an indigenous rural bourgeoisie who emerged with a potato boom in the 1950s in the Peruvian central highlands, challenge class, racial, and spatial boundaries. The mobility of this emergent elite is disruptive and traditional mestizo elites have found in the label 'potato kings' a way to 'root' them back in their Indian and peasant origins in the highlands. Through intense ethnographic engagement with two generations of 'potato king' families, wageworkers, and traditional mestizo elites, as well as archival research, my project challenges a 'romanticization' of the rural world and its traditional associations with marginality and poverty. By weaving together political economic studies of the peasantry with critical studies of race and space, my project will analyze different dimensions of mobility in the making of this class of 'potato kings,' in order to explain how struggles of class formation are predicated upon complex politics of racial and spatial belonging.
Gessaghi, Maria Victoria, University of Buenos Aires - To aid training in anthropology at L'Ecole des Hautes Etudes en Sciences Sociales (EHESS), Paris, France, supervised by Dr. Monique de Saint Martin
Abadia-Barrero, Dr. Cesar E., Harvard U., Cambridge, MA - To aid research and writing on 'Children's Subjectivities, AIDS, and Social Responses in Brazil' - Richard Carley Hunt Fellowship
Dr. César Abadía-Barrero, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts, was awarded a Richard Carley Hunt Fellowship in July 2004 to aid writing on the lived experiences of children affected by the HIV/AIDS epidemic in Brazil. Dr. Abadía-Barrero's main interest was to describe and conceptualize how the Brazilian social responses to the AIDS epidemic have mediated the relationship between experiences of illness and the social world. He was able to show in several authored and co-authored articles and a co-edited book that the lived experiences of children affected by HIV/AIDS, both individual and collective experiences, are largely influenced by how the Brazilian AIDS Social Movement (BASM) has altered the context of poverty and social inequalities that largely define the vulnerability and suffering of these children and their families. The BASM belongs to the Latin American social medicine tradition and is a complex amalgam of actors coming from several NGO organizations, medical and academic institutions, the AIDS national and regional programs, and the country's health care system. He argues that anthropological analyses should take into account not only the importance of structural violence in defining the individual experience, but also how different social responses shape this relationship and can reduce or increase suffering. This approach requires a set of comparisons: within groups to identify individual differences, between groups to identify local or regional differences, and between nation-state borders to identify country differences. These comparative analyses allow anthropological theory to link differences in subjective experiences with trends in social responses, and to inform public policy.
Abadia-Barrero, Cesar E. 2006. SIDA y Niñez en Brasil: Respuestas Sociales que Promueven la Madurez de los Derechos Humanos. Colección Monografías. No. 22. Caracas: Programa Cultura, Comunicación y Transformaciones Sociales, CIPOST, FaCes, Universidad Central de Venezuela.
Abadia-Barrero, Cesar E. 2006. Pobreza y Desigualdades Sociales: Un Debate Obligatorio en Salud Oral. Acta
Abadia-Barrero, Cesar E. 2004. Políticas y Sujetos del SIDA en Brasil y Colombia. Revista Colombiana de
Abadia-Barrero, Cesar E. and M. LaRusso. 2004. The Disclosure Model versus a Developmental Illness Experience Model for Children and Adolescents Living with HIV/AIDS in Sao Paulo, Brazil. AIDS Patient Care and STDs 20(1):36-43.
Abadia-Barrero, Cesar E. and A. Castro. 2004. Experiences of Stigma and Access to HAART in Children and Adolescents Living with HIV/AIDS in Brazil. Social Science and Medicine 62:1219-1228.
Abadia-Barrero. Cesar E.,and E.F. Cruz (eds.) 2005. Criança, Adolescente e AIDS: Abra este Diálogo. 2004-Forum de ONG AIDS do Estado de São Paulo: Brasil.
Abadia-Barrer, Cesar E., and E.F. Cruz (eds.) 2005. GT: Grupo de Trabalho de Crianças e Adolescentes Viviendo e Convivendo com HIV/AIDS do Forum de ONG/AIDS de São Paulo. In Criança, Adolescente e AIDS: Abra este Diálogo
Abadia-Barrero, C.E. and E.F. Cruz, (eds.) 2004. Forum de ONG AIDS do Estado de São Paulo: Brasil. 2005 Abriendo Diálogo, Buscando Novos Caminhos. In Crianca, Adolescente e AIDS: Abra este Diálogo. Abadia-Barrero, C.E. and E.F. Cruz, eds. 2004-Forum de ONG AIDS do Estado de São Paulo: Brasil.
Franco Cruz, Elizabete, and César Abadia-Barrero (eds.). 2005. Crianças, Adolescentes e AIDS: Abra Este Diálogo. Fórum das ONG’s-AIDS do Estado de São Paolo: São Paolo, Brasil.
Heckert, Dr. Carina, U. of Texas, El Paso, TX - To aid engaged activities on 'Improving Experiences of Care for People Living with HIV/AIDS in Santa Cruz, Bolivia,' 2016, Bolivia
Preliminary abstract: Bolivia is in the process of transforming its public healthcare system, moving away from a neoliberal model characterized by privatization and reliance on foreign aid. However, one consequence of severing ties with foreign donors has been a funding crisis for HIV/AIDS, as such programs had previously been reliant on foreign aid and international development organizations. As a result, multiple local stakeholders are in the midst of reformulating local responses to HIV/AIDS. As they create a new vision for HIV care, issues that remain a key concern are high rates of AIDS deaths and low rates of antiretroviral (ARV) adherence, despite the availability of free ARVs. My dissertation research captured early stages of this AIDS funding crisis, focusing on how the system of HIV-related care and services play a role in shaping individual illness experiences. Illness experiences illuminate how and why HIV services failed in addressing the multidimensional needs of people with HIV, making ARV adherence difficult, thus contributing to AIDS deaths. Through this project, I will disseminate findings with key stakeholders, including public health officials and employees of civil society organizations. I will do so through a series of small group meetings and a panel discussion that will foster discussion of results and explore ways to implement research findings with the goal of improving the system of care that exists for people with HIV.
Bessire, Dr. Lucas, U. of Oklahoma, Norman, OK - To aid filmmaking on 'The Payipie Ichadie / New World Collaborative Film Project' - Fejos Postdoctoral Fellowship
Preliminary abstract: The Payipie Ichadie / New World film project is an experiment in Indigenous empowerment through collaborative video-making by Ayoreo-speaking people, members of a small, cross-border, recently contacted and severely marginalized Indigenous group of the Bolivian and Paraguayan Gran Chaco region. Threatened by the massive destruction of their ancestral homelands, the impoverished Ayoreo now struggle to survive in widely scattered rural villages and urban slums. Building on a decade of field-based research with Ayoreo, the project examines the intersection of Indigenous media, performative subjectivity and ethnographic advocacy. It does so by means of ethnofiction, a genre famously described by Jean Rouch 'as an art of the double ... the passage from the world of reality to the world of the imaginary' (Piault 2007: 364). The project involves three stages. First, I will train a team of Ayoreo in two communities to write, direct, co-shoot and co-edit a series of ethnofiction short films on topics of their choice. Then I help put these films into motion, with filmmakers presenting their works in other Ayoreo communities. Both processes will be chronicled on video. Finally, the films and the sensibilities emerging from these interwoven mediations will be the subject of one 60-minute ethnographic documentary, focusing on the constitutive tensions between Indigenous and anthropological knowledge-making practices. In sum, the project aims to develop a visual anthropology of Indigenous self-fashioning, extend the legacies of indigenous media and ethnographic film into a context of extreme oppression, and ask how audio-visual media production articulates new terms that contribute to Native struggles for self-determination.
Schiller, Naomi Ann, New York U., New York, NY - To aid research on 'Making Media, Making Producers: Community Media and the Production of Collective Subjectivity in Caracas, Venezuela,' supervised by Dr. Thomas Abercrombie
NAOMI SCHILLER, then a student at New York University, New York, New York, was awarded funding in April 2006 to aid research on 'Making Media, Making Producers: Community Media and the Production of Collective Subjectivity in Caracas, Venezuela,' supervised by Dr. Thomas Abercrombie. This research examined efforts of 'community' media producers in Caracas, Venezuela, to transform the relationship of the marginalized poor with the state and respond to the Chavez government's political and financial support for their grassroots media projects. Research was conducted among producers from one prominent community television station and three community radio stations based in barrios (poor neighborhoods) of Caracas. The findings draw on participant observation at community- and state-run media organizations and interviews with media producers and government officials. Research argues that participation of barrio-based media producers in local neighborhood projects and in state-run media productions changed the way that producers from poor neighborhoods understood themselves and the state. Grassroots media producers skillfully negotiated the recent increase in the symbolic and political value of their media productions. This project reveals how community media leaders depended on normative theoretical notions about the boundary between state and society to leverage power by asserting themselves as a non-state authentic popular voice, while in their daily practice they regularly questioned, traversed, and challenged the boundary between state and society. This research contributes to an understanding of the intersection of social movement building, activist use of media, subjectivity, and processes of everyday state formation.