Greenleaf, Maron Estelle, Stanford U., Stanford, CA - To aid research on 'Making More Than a Market: Carbon Credits and Distributive Politics in Acre, Brazil,' supervised by Dr. Lisa Curran
Preliminary abstract: The carbon stored in forests has new monetary value, created in the effort to mitigate climate change. The Brazilian state of Acre--renowned for its social movement against deforestation and related social dislocation--is developing what is considered the world's most advanced effort to activate this value. There, environmentalists in the state government and their partners are creating 'carbon credits': commodities representing carbon emissions avoided by reducing the state's projected deforestation rate, which are sold to outside polluters. They want to distribute revenues from these sales as forest protection 'incentives' to support rural producers, who are celebrated as central to Acre's forest-based identity. This project investigates how the production of these 'credits' might reshape the distributive practices of the Acriano state and its partners and, simultaneously, configure both credit developers and 'beneficiaries' as political subjects. I seek to reveal the political practices that marketizing carbon emissions may engender, such as claims for carbon ownership or compensation for forgoing deforestation. I ask: 1) what visions and rationales do officials and their private partners employ to produce credits? 2) how does credit production shape distributive practices of the Acriano state and its partners? and 3) what kinds of political subjects emerge through credit production? Through ethnographic research with officials, project developers, and credit 'beneficiaries,' this project aims to investigate whether and how, contrary to conventional expectations, the marketization of carbon is buttressing social welfare programs and redistributive politics in Acre.
Abadia-Barrero, Dr. Cesar E., Harvard U., Cambridge, MA - To aid research and writing on 'Children's Subjectivities, AIDS, and Social Responses in Brazil' - Richard Carley Hunt Fellowship
Dr. César Abadía-Barrero, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts, was awarded a Richard Carley Hunt Fellowship in July 2004 to aid writing on the lived experiences of children affected by the HIV/AIDS epidemic in Brazil. Dr. Abadía-Barrero's main interest was to describe and conceptualize how the Brazilian social responses to the AIDS epidemic have mediated the relationship between experiences of illness and the social world. He was able to show in several authored and co-authored articles and a co-edited book that the lived experiences of children affected by HIV/AIDS, both individual and collective experiences, are largely influenced by how the Brazilian AIDS Social Movement (BASM) has altered the context of poverty and social inequalities that largely define the vulnerability and suffering of these children and their families. The BASM belongs to the Latin American social medicine tradition and is a complex amalgam of actors coming from several NGO organizations, medical and academic institutions, the AIDS national and regional programs, and the country's health care system. He argues that anthropological analyses should take into account not only the importance of structural violence in defining the individual experience, but also how different social responses shape this relationship and can reduce or increase suffering. This approach requires a set of comparisons: within groups to identify individual differences, between groups to identify local or regional differences, and between nation-state borders to identify country differences. These comparative analyses allow anthropological theory to link differences in subjective experiences with trends in social responses, and to inform public policy.
Abadia-Barrero, Cesar E. 2006. SIDA y Niñez en Brasil: Respuestas Sociales que Promueven la Madurez de los Derechos Humanos. Colección Monografías. No. 22. Caracas: Programa Cultura, Comunicación y Transformaciones Sociales, CIPOST, FaCes, Universidad Central de Venezuela.
Abadia-Barrero, Cesar E. 2006. Pobreza y Desigualdades Sociales: Un Debate Obligatorio en Salud Oral. Acta
Abadia-Barrero, Cesar E. 2004. Políticas y Sujetos del SIDA en Brasil y Colombia. Revista Colombiana de
Abadia-Barrero, Cesar E. and M. LaRusso. 2004. The Disclosure Model versus a Developmental Illness Experience Model for Children and Adolescents Living with HIV/AIDS in Sao Paulo, Brazil. AIDS Patient Care and STDs 20(1):36-43.
Abadia-Barrero, Cesar E. and A. Castro. 2004. Experiences of Stigma and Access to HAART in Children and Adolescents Living with HIV/AIDS in Brazil. Social Science and Medicine 62:1219-1228.
Abadia-Barrero. Cesar E.,and E.F. Cruz (eds.) 2005. Criança, Adolescente e AIDS: Abra este Diálogo. 2004-Forum de ONG AIDS do Estado de São Paulo: Brasil.
Abadia-Barrer, Cesar E., and E.F. Cruz (eds.) 2005. GT: Grupo de Trabalho de Crianças e Adolescentes Viviendo e Convivendo com HIV/AIDS do Forum de ONG/AIDS de São Paulo. In Criança, Adolescente e AIDS: Abra este Diálogo
Abadia-Barrero, C.E. and E.F. Cruz, (eds.) 2004. Forum de ONG AIDS do Estado de São Paulo: Brasil. 2005 Abriendo Diálogo, Buscando Novos Caminhos. In Crianca, Adolescente e AIDS: Abra este Diálogo. Abadia-Barrero, C.E. and E.F. Cruz, eds. 2004-Forum de ONG AIDS do Estado de São Paulo: Brasil.
Franco Cruz, Elizabete, and César Abadia-Barrero (eds.). 2005. Crianças, Adolescentes e AIDS: Abra Este Diálogo. Fórum das ONG?s-AIDS do Estado de São Paolo: São Paolo, Brasil.
Schiller, Naomi Ann, New York U., New York, NY - To aid research on 'Making Media, Making Producers: Community Media and the Production of Collective Subjectivity in Caracas, Venezuela,' supervised by Dr. Thomas Abercrombie
NAOMI SCHILLER, then a student at New York University, New York, New York, was awarded funding in April 2006 to aid research on 'Making Media, Making Producers: Community Media and the Production of Collective Subjectivity in Caracas, Venezuela,' supervised by Dr. Thomas Abercrombie. This research examined efforts of 'community' media producers in Caracas, Venezuela, to transform the relationship of the marginalized poor with the state and respond to the Chavez government's political and financial support for their grassroots media projects. Research was conducted among producers from one prominent community television station and three community radio stations based in barrios (poor neighborhoods) of Caracas. The findings draw on participant observation at community- and state-run media organizations and interviews with media producers and government officials. Research argues that participation of barrio-based media producers in local neighborhood projects and in state-run media productions changed the way that producers from poor neighborhoods understood themselves and the state. Grassroots media producers skillfully negotiated the recent increase in the symbolic and political value of their media productions. This project reveals how community media leaders depended on normative theoretical notions about the boundary between state and society to leverage power by asserting themselves as a non-state authentic popular voice, while in their daily practice they regularly questioned, traversed, and challenged the boundary between state and society. This research contributes to an understanding of the intersection of social movement building, activist use of media, subjectivity, and processes of everyday state formation.
Howe, Dr. James, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA - To aid research on 'Scribes, Chiefs, and Anthropologists: A Study of Collaborative Ethnographic Representation'
DR. JAMES HOWE, of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in Cambridge, Massachusetts, was awarded a grant in December 2001 to aid research on collaborative ethnographic representation by scribes and anthropologists in Panama. Early in the twentieth century, the Kuna of Panama developed a cadre of young, literate scribes, who played key roles in struggles to retain cultural and political autonomy and who eventually brokered the Kuna's adaptation to national society. In 2002 and 2003, Howe studied the roles and practices of these scribes, their historical import, and most of all the scribes' participation in ethnography as an adaptive strategy. One key topic was a Kuna collaboration with Swedish anthropologists between 1927 and 1960. During a research trip to Göteborg in September 2002 Howe copied and studied documents resulting from this collaboration, the most important of which were translated into English by two assistants. In a joint effort with the indigenous research organization Koskun Kalu, two dozen recordings of interviews concerning the early scribes were made. The results of the project were to be published in book form.
Bessire, Dr. Lucas, U. of Oklahoma, Norman, OK - To aid filmmaking on 'The Payipie Ichadie / New World Collaborative Film Project' - Fejos Postdoctoral Fellowship
Preliminary abstract: The Payipie Ichadie / New World film project is an experiment in Indigenous empowerment through collaborative video-making by Ayoreo-speaking people, members of a small, cross-border, recently contacted and severely marginalized Indigenous group of the Bolivian and Paraguayan Gran Chaco region. Threatened by the massive destruction of their ancestral homelands, the impoverished Ayoreo now struggle to survive in widely scattered rural villages and urban slums. Building on a decade of field-based research with Ayoreo, the project examines the intersection of Indigenous media, performative subjectivity and ethnographic advocacy. It does so by means of ethnofiction, a genre famously described by Jean Rouch 'as an art of the double ... the passage from the world of reality to the world of the imaginary' (Piault 2007: 364). The project involves three stages. First, I will train a team of Ayoreo in two communities to write, direct, co-shoot and co-edit a series of ethnofiction short films on topics of their choice. Then I help put these films into motion, with filmmakers presenting their works in other Ayoreo communities. Both processes will be chronicled on video. Finally, the films and the sensibilities emerging from these interwoven mediations will be the subject of one 60-minute ethnographic documentary, focusing on the constitutive tensions between Indigenous and anthropological knowledge-making practices. In sum, the project aims to develop a visual anthropology of Indigenous self-fashioning, extend the legacies of indigenous media and ethnographic film into a context of extreme oppression, and ask how audio-visual media production articulates new terms that contribute to Native struggles for self-determination.
Tarducci, Dr. Monica Lucia del Valle, U. of Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires, Argentina - To aid 'I Coloquio Latinoamericano de Antropología Feminista,' 2013, U. of Buenos Aires, in collaboration with Dr. Deborah Edith Daich
'First Latin American Colloquium of Feminist Anthropologist (I CLAF)
August 22-23, 2013. U. Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires, Argentina
Organizers: Dr. Mónica Tarducci (U. Buenos Aires), Dr. Deborah Daich (CONICET), and Victoria Keller
The First Latin American Colloquium of Feminist Anthropologists (I CLAF) brought together Latin American scholars to discuss and debate the challenges of academic production in this global world of changing political, cultural and economical contexts. Goals of the conference included bringing different research in dialogue with one another, reporting on the current progress and challenges of the discipline within the academic field in various countries, and debating the current contributions and tensions between feminist anthropology and anthropology, other social sciences, and the Latin American feminist movement. The colloquium was organized around four themes: 'Feminist Anthropology in a Global Context', 'Current Latin American Feminist Anthropology: What Happens in our Countries?', 'Feminist Anthropology, Women's Movement and Feminist Movement: Frictions and Articulations', and 'Feminist Anthropology and Public Policy: Contributions and Contradictions'. The panels were organized such that each established a dialogue between the panel to follow and the one that preceded it, foregrounding the complex articulations between feminist anthropology, women's and feminist movements, and the design and implementation of public policies in global contexts. One of the meeting's outcomes was a feminist anthropology network, created to further scholarly exchange between participants as well as promote opportunities for collaborative research.
Leinaweaver, Jessaca B., U. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI - To aid research on 'Imagining the Family in Highland Peru: Rural and Urban Conceptions of Fosterage in Ayacucho,' supervised by Dr. Bruce Mannheim
JESSACA LEINAWEAVER, while a student at the University of Michigan in Ann Arbor, Michigan, received funding in July 2001 to aid research on rural and urban conceptions of fosterage in Ayacucho, Peru, under the supervision of Dr. Bruce Mannheim. Leinaweaver conducted four months of fieldwork on the ways in which recent migrants to urban Ayacucho experienced family and a sense of belonging, focusing specifically on how children were incorporated into families they had not been born into. She interviewed people whose life histories shed light on the fosterage practices strategically employed throughout the Peruvian Andes, as well as representatives of official institutions such as the government adoption office and orphanage. She also traveled with migrant families back to their hometowns during holidays, observing how family was located and thought about in different spaces. By considering fosterage and adoption and the contrasts between the two, she explored the different ways in which families were produced and reproduced, what families meant in highland Peru, and the ways in which children became, over time, the children of parents, sisters of brothers, and nephews of aunts.
Leinaweaver, Jessaca B. 2005. Improving Oneself: Young People Getting Ahead in the Peruvian Andes. Latin American Perspectives 35 (161):60-89.
Leinaweaver, Jessaca B. 2007. On Moving Children: The Social Implications of Andean Children Circulation.
American Ethnologist 34 (1):163-180.
Leinaweaver, Jessaca B. 2007. Choosing to Move: Child agency on Peru?s Margins. Childhood 14 (3):375-392.
Leinaweaver, Jessaca B. 2008. The Circulation of Children: Kinship, Adoption and Morality in Andean Peru.
Duke University Press: Durham and London.
Leinaweaver, Jessaca B. 2009. Raising the Roof in the Transnational Andes: Building Houses, Forging Kinship.
Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute 15(4):777-796.
Cardenas Gonzalez, Roosbelinda, U. of California, Santa Cruz, CA - To aid research on 'Remaking the Black Pacific: Place, Race, and Afro-Colombian Territoriality,' supervised by Dr. Mark David Anderson
ROOSBELINDA CARDENAS GONZALEZ, then a student at University of California, Santa Cruz, California, was awarded funding in April 2008 to aid research on 'Remaking the Black Pacific: Place, Race, and Afro-Colombian Territoriality,' supervised by Dr. Mark David Anderson. This research project examines the political articulations of blackness and territoriality in Colombia by looking ethnographically at two processes of deterritorialization: forced displacement and confinement of black communities. The project takes the current moment of exacerbated violence as a critical conjuncture in which the articulation of blackness and territoriality is both unmade and remade. The research looks at the history of this articulation, how it came under fire in the late 1990s, and how it is currently being remade into a hybrid notion of blackness that incorporates a uniquely Colombian-ethnicized link to territory, and diasporic notions of racial discrimination. The research findings gleaned from a year of fieldwork suggest that displacement has presented an unexpected opportunity to re-craft ethno-territorial blackness into an identity that refuses to choose between ethnic rights and racial redress. While denouncing the human rights violations that displaced and confined Afro-Colombians suffer, the project focuses not on what has been lost, but on exploring the real and imagined landscapes of belonging that are constructed while in displacement and under fire. Thus, this work approaches urban settlements of Afro-Colombian internally displaced persons and black collective territories under dispute as rich contact zones where black identities are resurrected, invented, and rearticulated in the unexpected encounters with new others and new places.
Cárdenas, Roosbelinda. 2012. Green Multiculturalism: Articulations of Ethnic and Environmental Politics in a Colombian 'Black Community'. Journal of Peasant Studies 39(2):309-333.
Cardenas, Roosbelinda. 2012. Multicultural Politics for Afro-Colombians: An Articulation 'Without Guarantees'. In Black Social Movements in Latin America: From Monoculture Mestizaje to Multiculturalism. Jean Muteba Rahier Palgrave, ed. Macmillan: New York
Watson, Margaret Kathleen, U. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM - To aid research on 'From Rural Street Theater to Big City Extravaganza: The Manaus Boi-Bumba in an Urbanizing Brazil,' supervised by Dr. Suzanne Oakdale
MARGARET K. WATSON, then a student at University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, New Mexico, received funding in October 2010 to aid research on 'From Rural Street Theater to Big City Extravaganza: The Manaus Boi-bumbá in an Urbanizing Brazil,' supervised by Dr. Suzanne Oakdale. This study focused on the Boi-bumbá festival of Manaus, capital of the Brazilian state of Amazonas. Over the last few decades the Boi-bumbá, which tells the folkloric story of the death and resurrection of a rancher's favorite bull, has grown from a humble street drama associated with the rural poor into a highly mediated, government-sponsored, urban extravaganza in which teams battle to present the best version of the drama. Through life historical interviews with festival participants, musicians, artists, neighborhood politicians, and city tourism officials, this research investigated the meaning of Boi-Bumbá festivals to participants in the neighborhood of Educandos, where increasingly individuals self-identify as Caboclos. This research showed that the Boi-bumbá serves as a core of neighborhood sociality, providing a safe space for otherwise marginalized individuals, including older women, at-risk youth, and transvestites. Additionally, the festival functions as a realm for local musicians and artists to professionalize. Finally, the Boi-bumbá, the 'Caboclo opera,' is being implemented as a branding device for cities throughout Brazilian Amazônia. In short, the Boi-bumbá of Educandos is an emblem of Caboclo pride for participants. This, however, is part of a regional process of image creation aimed at distinguishing Amazônia from the rest of Brazil.