Jordan, Michael Paul, U. of Oklahoma, Norman, OK - To aid research on 'Descendants' Organizations and Cultural Heritage in Kiowa Society,' supervised by Dr. Daniel Charles Swan
MICHAEL P. JORDAN, then a student at University of Oklahoma, Norman, Oklahoma, received funding in April 2008 to aid research on 'Descendants' Organizations and Cultural Heritage in Kiowa Society,' supervised by Dr. Daniel Charles Swan. At the core of recent research on heritage and historical consciousness is the premise that interpretations and representations of the past must be understood as rooted in the contemporary moment. This study addressed the ways in which heritage and historical consciousness are implicated in the social dynamics of the Kiowa Tribe of Oklahoma by focusing on formal descendants' organizations, groups organized by lineal descendants to commemorate their nineteenth-century ancestors. Research has focused upon identifying individuals' motivations for participating in descendants' organizations, documenting cultural performance events sponsored by descendants' organizations, and delineating the position of these organizations within the broader social network of indigenous organizations that sponsor cultural performance events in southwestern Oklahoma. In addition, the research has examined the ways in which contemporary Kiowa people employ intellectual property as a means of visibly asserting their ties to prominent nineteenth-century ancestors. Ultimately, research on Kiowa descendants' organizations has contributed to an understanding of the ways in which heritage and historical consciousness are produced, deployed, accessed, and contested in comparatively small, but culturally distinct social settings, providing a much-needed counterbalance to previous studies which have focused on their role in large-scale nationalist and separatist movements.
Colwell-Chanthaphonh, Dr. Chip, Denver Museum of Nature & Science, Denver, CO - To aid research on 'Repatriation and Reconciliation: The Ethical Effects of NAGPRA'
DR. CHIP COLWELL-CHANTHAPHONH, Denver Museum of Nature & Science, Denver, Colorado, was awarded funding in May 2010 to aid research on 'Repatriation and Reconciliation: The Ethical Effects of NAGPRA.' This ethnographic study investigated how repatriation law in the United States has directed and configured the beliefs, values, and behaviors of Native Americans and museum professors. Specifically, this project examined how the 1990 Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act (NAGPRA) has been variously applied by individuals and institutions over the last 25 years, and in what ways the law's implementation has rearranged the moral relationship between museums and tribes. This question was answered by following the 'ethnographic biographies' of four cultural items repatriated from the Denver Museum of Nature & Science-two sacred objects and two sets of human remains-as they originated, were collected and curated, were claimed, and were returned home. Additionally, a systematic survey of tribal repatriation workers was conducted to understand the broad impacts of NAGPRA on Native American communities across the United States. The results of this research to date include one article (Colwell-Chanthaphonh, C. 2012. The Work of Repatriation in Indian Country. Human Organization 71(3):278-291) and a book manuscript under contract with the University of Chicago Press. This project ultimately illuminated the interplay between juridical laws and moral duties, while shifting the repatriation dialogue towards an ethnographically grounded anthropology.
Colwell-Chanthaphonh, C. 2012. The Work of Repatriation in Indian Country. Human Organization 71(3):278-291
Santoro, Daniella Shlomit, Tulane U., New Orleans, LA - To aid research on ''The Wheelchair Life': Navigating Visibility and Social Mobility After Violently Acquired Injury in New Orleans,' supervised by Dr. Adeline Masquelier
Preliminary abstract: Despite recent scholarly and popular attention to the legacy of the war on drugs, and to the consequences of 'inner city violence' in communities of color in the U.S., physical disability as result of gun violence is topic that remains largely unexamined. Individuals with violently acquired spinal cord injuries are rendered both statistically and socially invisible. This research seeks to understand the experiences of so-called 'street veterans', the social and cultural worlds they embody in the liminal space of rehabilitation, how they construct identity at the intersectionality of race, gender, and disability, and how they self-organize and build community around wheelchair specific mobility.
Labrador, Angela Marie, U. of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA - To aid research on 'Entrusting the Commons: Agricultural Land Conservation in Post-Industrial New England,' supervised by Dr. Elizabeth Chilton
ANGELA M. LABRADOR, then a student at University of Massachusetts, Amherst, Massachusetts, was awarded funding in April 2011 to aid research on 'Entrusting the Commons: Agricultural Land Conservation in Post-Industrial New England,' supervised by Dr. Elizabeth Chilton. This research explored how a rural New England community has leveraged the legal instrument of the conservation easement to protect their cultural landscapes and associated cultural identities and values. The fieldwork documented the social impacts of conservation easements, framing their application as part of a wider social ethic, deeply embedded in local cultural heritage. Traditionally, the protection of heritage is conceptualized as a 'preservation' process enacted by experts using etic standards of cultural and material 'authenticity.' However, this approach has alienated communities from their heritage. This research contributes a dynamic framework of heritage as a creatively shared component of community life and its safeguarding as an ethos informed by emic values and enacted by a broader base of stakeholders. The resulting ethnography -- which combined archival research, participant observation, and Photovoice -- actively engaged with the social ethic that supports the landscape protection program. Two sets of findings resulted: one assessed the potential and shortcomings of the heritage commons created through the usage of conservation easements and the other proposed a methodology for facilitating community-based and deliberative reflection on the past and future in rural places struggling with the socio-economic transformations of modernity.
Duarte, Columba Gonzalez, U. of Toronto, Toronto, Canada - To aid research on 'The Monarch Butterfly Assemblage: A Transnational Study of Environmental Knowledge, Politics and Conservation Networks,' supervised by Dr. Hilary Cunningham
Preliminary abstract: In the last two decades Canada, Mexico and United States have jointed efforts to protect the monarch butterfly and this migration route from southern Canada and northern United States to the central mountains of Mexico. The result is the recent creation of a trilateral conservation space formed by a network of protected areas, animals, humans and institutions across the three countries that has affected near 1 million people in the Mexican habitat and prompted a citizen-science group without precedents in the other two countries. Biodiversity conservation projects have been approached by different angles in social disciplines, yet the tendency is to carryout local or regional studies that are primary conducted in one single location, different from this, my research proposes to capture the connectivity of transnational conservation projects by following a flow of knowledge that travels across the monarch migration route. By attending the production, circulation and application of knowledge about the monarch, this research address the knowledge politics attached to monarch conservation and the form in which this is shaped and shapes the alliances between humans and non-humans. To carry on this study I propose that the appropriate theoretical framework is a merging between Political Ecology and Science and Technology Studies, while methodologically is a multi-sited research across Canada, Mexico and United States. The combination of this theoretical framework with a multi-sited ethnography will allow me to explore the associations between the citizen-science practices that occur in Canada and United States with the new environmental practices and problems that take place in the protected Mexican habitat.
Skrydstrup, Martin, Columbia U., New York, NY - To aid research on 'Cultural Property Claims and Postcolonial Regimes of Recognition,' supervised by Dr. Brinkley M. Messick
MARTIN SKRYDSTRUP, while a student at Columbia University in New York, New York, received funding in November 2005 to aid research on cultural property claims and postcolonial regimes of recognition, under the supervision of Dr. Brinkley M. Messick. This ethnographic field research was based on the analytical premise that any comprehensive understanding of 'cultural property' is to be construed as a relation between subaltern claimants and postcolonial states. Methodologically, this was achieved through the mapping of the institutional and legal life of a carved wooden anthropomorphic figure from 19th Century Hawaii that constituted the centerpiece of a dispute challenging the property doctrine of NAGPRA. Drawing mainly on archival sources and interviews, the grantee recorded the multiple meanings and values attributed to the material object through time and place. At the former holding institution in Providence, Rhode Island, the grantee focused on a thick description of the case specifics, particularly the notion of 'spear rest/utilitarian object' as signifier; in various bureaucratic settings in Washington DC, research focused on the investigative modalities of NAGPRA as 'remedial property law' and, in Hawaii, explored how local patrimonial claims to and understandings of this type of material objects (ki'i aumakuas) were situated in a complex web of royal genealogies and multiple institutions with coexisting claims of ownership, custodianship, and inheritance. This research is not only likely to demonstrate gaps between de jure policies and de facto practices within NAGPRA, but rather aims at a new comparative understanding of NAGPRA as produced by a particular American post-colonialism of 'righteousness to the conquered'.
Liu, Roseann, U. of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA - To aid research on 'Educating for Justice: Culturally Relevant Pedagogy and a Charter School's Pursuit of Racial Equality,' supervised by Dr. Kathleen D. Hall
ROSEANN LIU, then a graduate student at University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, received a grant in April 2013 to aid research on 'Educating for Justice: Culturally Relevant Pedagogy and a Charter School's Pursuit of Racial Equality,' supervised by Dr. Kathleen D. Hall. Sixty years after Brown v. Board of Education (1954), American schooling clearly remains a central arena in the fight for greater equality. How to achieve equality is less clear. Desegregation was once the ideal for creating a more just educational system, but the charter school movement has changed all that. Because desegregation has largely failed, pursuing a politics of recognition, through the creation of identity-based charter schools, has for some become a more viable approach to achieving the promise of Brown today. Yet despite this shift, surprisingly little is known about these schools. To be sure, identity-based charter schools are engaged in a moral undertaking that places concepts like equality and justice at the heart of its value system. Many of these schools use culturally relevant pedagogy to confer recognition to marginalized groups as a method for achieving these moral values. But in non-homogenous settings, does seeking recognition for some lead to the misrecognition of others? This ethical tension is central to this year-long ethnographic study that examines how a school, serving predominantly Asians but with a significant Black student population, reconciles this tension as it seeks to advance racial equality in education in contemporary urban America.
Ganapathy, Sandhya, Temple U., Philadelphia, PA - To aid research on 'The Intersections Between Indigenous Rights and Environmental Movements,' supervised by Dr. Judith Goode
SANDHYA GANAPATHY, then a student at Temple University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, received funding in December 2004 to aid research on 'The Intersections Between Indigenous Rights and Environmental Movements,' supervised by Dr. Judith Goode. This research examines the environmental mobilizations to prevent oil development in the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge, and the ways in which the Native Alaskan community of Vahsraii' Koo is positioned within these mobilizations. Fieldwork was conducted in Vashraii' Koo, Alaska and with environmental NGOs operating in Fairbanks, AK and Washington, DC, and consisted of ethnographic interviews and participant observation, archival research on federal and state Native policies and environmental policies and media analysis on the representations of this environmental controversy and Native opposition to development. The research describes the ways in which people in Vashraii' Koo articulate and frame environmental concerns and their experiences of this broader environmental mobilization. The research also describes the work of environmental NGOs active in these mobilizations and shows how political contexts and constituencies influence the ways they operate and how they attempt to incorporate Native perspectives within their work. This research suggests that there is a disconnect between the interests of the NGOs and the Native communities represented as their allies; specifically, the singular emphasis on narrowly defined environmental goals marginalizes Native voices and diverts attention from other pressing political, economic and cultural concerns in Vashraii' Koo.
Ganapathy Sandhya. 2013. Imagining Alaska: Local and Translocal Engagements with Place. American Anthropologist 115(1):96-111
Tretjak, Kaja, City U. of New York, Graduate Center, New York, NY - To aid research on 'U.S. Conservatism in Decline?: Power, Governance, and Knowledge Production in the Contemporary University,' supervised by Dr. Leith Mullings
KAJA TRETJAK, then a student at City University of New York Graduate Center, New York, New York, received funding in October 2009 to aid research on 'U.S. Conservatism in Decline? Power, Governance, and Knowledge Production in the Contemporary University,' supervised by Dr. Leith Mullings. This project explores the resurgence of libertarianism in the US, particularly among youth, examining a rapidly expanding transnational network of thousands of activists connected through student groups, community organizations, and established classical liberal institutions, as well as through social media and a vast array of online forums. Funding supported twelve months of in-depth ethnographic fieldwork in Princeton, New Jersey, and Austin, Texas. Research included attendance of over 150 libertarian and conservative events; over 50 unstructured and semi-structured interviews as well as six life-history interviews, and countless hours of informal day-to-day interactions. Preliminary analysis highlights the importance of the libertarian movement's internal heterogeneity and the emergence of liminal spaces between 'right' and 'left' political formations through which participants challenge existing political economic arrangements and construct utopian visions of possible futures. Ongoing analysis will provide additional frameworks to understand how such spaces emerge from a shifting economic, political, and cultural context through investigating how the everyday practices of participants reproduce and contest established institutions and trends. By rethinking the translation of political knowledge, the intersection of social movements and political rationalities, and the role of expertise in these processes, the project will contribute to U.S. ethnography, political anthropology, and social movement studies.
Menair, Marion S., U. of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA - To aid research on 'Sexuality at Work: The Racy Discourse of Chicago's Financial Trading Floors,' supervised by Dr. Eve Danziger
MARION S. MENAIR, then a student at University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia, was awarded a grant in June 2005 to aid research on 'Sexuality at Work: The Racy Discourse of Chicago's Financial Trading Floors,' supervised by Dr. Eve Danziger. Research was conducted on Chicago's financial exchanges to explore the links between local practices of trading and a genre of casual, sexual talk that is endemic to trading pits. It focused on how conceptions of masculine sexuality structure capitalist practice and the impact of women's arrival as traders on the occupational culture of the trading floor. Fieldwork consisted of participant-observation on trading floors and within corporations as well as structured and semi-structured interviews with current and former traders, exchange officials and employees, brokers, clerks, and trading assistants. Outcomes of the research reveal that sexual joking is part and parcel of the local socioeconomic system of trading floors and how female traders respond to and participate in this form of talk. The dissertation will illuminate how linguistic ideologies mediate social relationships between men, as well as between men and women, and shape perceptions of trading as an antagonistic free-for-all despite the highly coordinated and cooperative character of much of the work.