Hale, Dr. Charles, U. of Texas, Austin, TX; and Velasquez Nimatuj, Dr. Irma, Independent scholar, Guatemala - To aid collaborative research on "When Rights Ring Hollow: Racism and Anti-racist Horizons in the Americas"
Preliminary abstract: This proposal supports two research teams (in Guatemala and Brazil) that form part of a six-country study of indigenous and afro-descendant peoples, as they confront challenges rooted in ongoing social inequality, racial discrimination and limits to participation in their respective national political systems. The research emerges from three year's work with organizations in all six countries, which belong to a hemispheric network of "observatories on racism." Periodic meetings of this network yielded a central empirical observation: throughout the region,
Gullette, Gregory S., U. of Georgia, Athens, GA - To aid research on 'Tourists, Immigrants and Family Units: Analyses of Tourism Development and Migration from Huatulco, Mexico,' supervised by Dr. Benjamin G. Blount
GREGORY S. GULLETTE, while a student at the University of Georgia in Athens, Georgia, received funding in May 2002 to aid research on tourism development and migration from Huatulco, Oaxaca, Mexico, under the supervision of Dr. Benjamin B. Blount. Gullette sought to determine whether causal relationships existed between increased tourism development in the Bays of Huatulco and out-migration from the region. He hypothesized that Huatulco residents would perceive tourism as reducing the availability of and access to local resources due to the redirection of capital and resources to the tourist infrastructure. This redirection of resources and the growing U.S. tourist presence in Huatulco would lead residents either to perceive a change in their standard of living or to have new expectations of an appropriate standard of living based on their perception of the tourist destination. As resource redirection continued and residents' expectations of standards of living continued to change, increased out-migration from the development area and increased attempts to immigrate to the United States would occur. To test these hypotheses, Gullette conducted social network research, in-depth interviews, and archival research and collected household histories and comprehensive socioeconomic data. He employed chained referral sampling to compose a study population of Huatulco households that had sent migrants to the United States. From the perspective of political ecology, he analyzed tourism development, resource access, and out-migration patterns by exploring how microconditions, institutions, economies, and human movement were situated within macropolicies of state-sponsored tourism development and resource allocation.
Muller, Dr. Birgit, Ecole des Hautes Etudes en Sciences Sociales, Paris, France - To aid research on 'Food, Property and Power: Agricultural Technologies as Global Policies and Local Practices'
DR. BIRGIT MULLER, Ecole des Hautes Etudes en Sciences Sociales, Paris, France, received a grant in October 2007 to aid research on 'Food, Property and Power: Agricultural Technologies as Global Policies and Local Practices.' Technological choices in today's agriculture are not neutral. They are deeply embedded not only in the physical environment but also in political and economic power structures that have become global. A turning point seems to be when farmers comply with, or refuse, a calculated use of chemicals instead of nurturing the soil and the plants. This project - conducted on a local-level in Carazo, Nicaragua, and Saskatchewan, Canada - looked at farmers' sensorial engagement with the soil, seeds, plants, the weather and, the farm implements, and analyzed how they translate agricultural and environmental policies, and economic constraints, into acts of compliance, refusal, and resistance, from small gestures of everyday life to collective mobilizations. In both locales, most advisors from corporations, government, and NGOs proposed calculating inputs, time, and taking calculated risks, as a rational response to the challenges of the environment and the market. A purely monetary and chronometric calculation, however, falls short of considering the unpredictability and long-term environmental consequences of farming, and devalues the sensorial skills necessary for interacting with plants and soil without abusing them.
Sampeck, Dr. Kathryn E., Illinois State U., Normal, IL - To aid workshop on 'Indigenous Literacy in Mesoamerica and the Colonial World,' 2012, Brown U., Providence, RI
Preliminary abstract: Diverse realms of Mesoamerica were bound together through shared literary systems. This workshop will explore the distribution of literacy in Mesoamerica at contact and the ways writing systems, content, and genres were mutually appropriated by indigenous and Spanish colonial authors. Europeans and creoles saw indigenous literacy as both a challenge to authority and as a touchstone for their own civility. Indigenous writers used European genres and mythic elements as both a means to power as well as to re-cast crucial elements of indigenous ethos and worldview. Writing enabled authors and their social groups to link with the past, negotiate the present, and set the stage for the future. Furthermore, literacy was a key tool for illiterate Mesoamericans; the inability to read did not daunt Mesoamericans from working within literate realms and they were thus indelible in the documentary record. The repercussions of colonial writing by both the subaltern and those in power are still felt today; participation by indigenous scholars will provide crucial commentary on the negotiation of literacy. Exploration of literacy delves into questions of persistence and metamorphosis and shows that indigenous writing had not only local effects, but also formed strands of connection within the Atlantic World.
Yates-Doerr, Dr. Emily, U. of Amsterdam, The Netherlands - To aid engaged activities on 'Translation in Practice: Obesity, Fatness, and Dietary Health in Guatemala,' 2013, Guatemala City and Quetzaltenango, Guatemala
DR. EMILY YATES-DOERR, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, was awarded an Engaged Anthropology Grant in August 2012 to aid 'Translation in Practice: Obesity, Fatness, and Dietary Health in Guatemala.' This engagement project comprised three collaborative workshops where relevant Guatemalan actors discussed how obesity science and related policies become translated into daily life. Past research demonstrated that the collision of various logics of obesity resulted in situations where health interventions had outcomes not anticipated by educators. Building upon examples of 'translation transformations' from the research, these workshops provided an opportunity for participants to explore the social lives of dietary health policies. They highlighted that translational research does not move linearly from bench to bedside. An anthropologically oriented focus on the social life of obesity science illustrated ways in which dietary health policies can be improved by attending to negotiations in the practice of translation.
Dudgeon, Matthew R., Emory U., Atlanta, GA - To aid research on 'Birth after Death: K'iche '-Mayan Men's Influences on Maternal-Infant Health after Guatemalan Civil War,' supervised by Dr. Carol M. Worthman
MATTHEW R. DUDGEON, then a student at Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia, received funding in December 2001 to aid research on 'Birth after Death: K'iche '-Mayan Men's Influences on Maternal-Infant Health after Guatemalan Civil War,' supervised by Dr. Carol M. Worthman. This dissertation research conducted 12 months of fieldwork in a K'iche' Mayan- speaking Community of Populations in Resistance in the Ixil region of Guatemala on reproduction and reproductive health problems. The research investigated men's roles in maternal and child health, as well as men's reproductive health problems. Moreover, the research examined the impact of the Guatemalan civil war on patterns of reproduction in the community, which was heavily impacted by counterinsurgent violence. Research consisted of a combination of reproductive and family health surveys, nutrition surveys, anthropometric data, and life history and illness narratives with both men and women, focusing on narratives of reproductive experience and loss. Participant observation was conducted both within the community with a land collective and with groups of midwives and religious specialists, as well as outside the community in the regional ministry of health and with regional non-governmental organizations working in health care.
Hale-Gallardo, Jennifer, U. of Florida, Gainesville, FL - To aid research on 'From Curanderos to Traditional Therapists: Institutionalizing Traditional Healing in Mexico,' supervised by Dr. Stacey A. Langwick
JENNIFER HALE-GALLARDO, then a student at University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida was awarded a grant in November 2005 to aid research on 'From Curanderos to Traditional Therapists: Institutionalizing Traditional Healing in Mexico,' supervised by Dr. Stacey A. Langwick. This research project comprised a nuanced examination of the cultural politics involved in integrating Nahua healers into state programs in the northern mountains of Puebla in order to understand what's at stake for healers as they live out their inclusion in 'traditional medicine' government initiatives. To this end, she conducted in-depth interviewing and participant observation with healers, as well as interviewed and observed their interactions with biomedical physicians, hospital administrators, and state agents. Mapping the shifting ethical and political terrain that Nahua healers must navigate in contemporary initiatives for fomenting local healing practices, Hale-Gallardo documented the different kinds of moral regulation healers are subjected to which require them to critically negotiate their participation in such projects. She finds that despite the projects' many contradictions, Nahua healers find much recompense: alongside the satisfaction they receive from helping patients is an unprecedented recognition offered them and a new status as subjects in a global discourse on traditional medicine that promises to put these rural healers in out-of-the-way places on the map.