Shevchenko, Dr. Olga, Williams College, Williamstown, MA; and Sarkisova, Oksana, Moscow State U., Moscow, Russia - To aid collaborative research on ' Snapshot Histories: Family Photography and Generational Memory of Russia's Socialist Century'
DR. OLGA SHEVCHENKO, Williams College, Williamstown, Massachusetts, and DR. OKSANA SARKISOVA, Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia, received an International Collaborative Research Grant in May 2006, to aid collaborative research on 'Snapshot Histories: Family Photography and Generational Memory of Russia's Socialist Century.' This project explores how the notions of socialism are conjured up in the medium, which to many Russians represents the most intimate source of information about the past: family photographic collections. Through a combination of in-depth interviews, ethnographic fieldwork, and visual analysis, the project examines the role family photography plays for the production and transmission of historical memory between generations, investigating some of the least explored mechanisms that shape the popular perceptions of the Soviet era. The grant has enabled the researchers to complete the field stage of their research. They have conducted ethnographic observation and collected interviews with over 50 families (two to three interviews per family with representatives of different generations) in five different cities and towns in Russia, and amassed a sizeable visual data bank of family photographs from the Soviet era. They are currently developing analysis of their field data and working on coding and creating a searchable database of the images from the Soviet domestic photo archives.
Shevchenko, Olga. 2010. Between Elias and Foucault: Discipline, Photography, and the Soviet Childhood. Social Psychology Quarterly 73(1):1-4.
Kartari, Dr. Asker, Kadir Has U., Istanbul, Turkey - To aid InASEA conference on 'Cultures of Crisis: Experiencing and Coping with Upheavals and Disasters in Southeast Europe,' 2014, Istanbul, in collaboration with Dr. Klaus Roth
'Cultures of Crisis: Experiencing and Coping with Upheavals and Disasters in Southeast Europe'
September 18-20, 2014, Kadir Has University, Istanbul, Turkey
Organizers: Asker Kartari (Kadir Has U.) and Klaus Roth (Ludwig-Maximian U.)
The seventh conference of the International Association for Southeast European Anthropology (InASEA) was held on the Cibali Campus of Kadir Has University. The program included two plenary sessions, four keynote speakers, and 35 academic sessions of papers and discussion. Some 120 papers were presented on a wide range of topics. The theme of the conference was chosen by colleagues who felt that the entire region was suffering heavily from various crises, from wars and natural disasters to migration movements and domestic household problems. Papers were directed at the ways people in the region cope with hardships in their everyday lives, and included empirical work from countries such as Slovenia, Turkey, Moldova, Cyprus, and Greece. Conference organizers plan to publish a selection of the papers in two volumes of Ethnologia Balkanica, the association's journal.
Ambikaipaker, Mohan, U. of Texas, Austin, TX - To aid research on 'Antiracist Activism and the Decline of Multiculturalism in East London,' supervised by Dr. Joao Costa Vargas
MOHAN AMBIKAIPAKER, then a student at University of Texas, Austin, Texas, received funding in October 2006 to aid research on 'Anti-racist Activism and the Decline of Multiculturalism in East London,' supervised by Dr. João Costa Vargas. Funding enabled extensive ethnographic research to be carried out on how Black and South Asian communities in East London struggle against different but interrelated forms of racism. The British state has consolidated a shift from the earlier anti-racist and anti-discriminatory objectives of multiculturalism by reformulating contemporary multicultural policy and practices as tools to ensure national security instead. The official focus has shifted the spotlight towards British Muslims, who are constructed as the likely and potential source of cultural clashes, religious extremism, and domestic terrorism. Anti-terror and national security policies and practices are generated through an emergent common sense that shifts the meaning of official multiculturalism away the struggle to accord recognition and rights for minorities and steers it towards a repressive notion of multiculturalism aimed at regulating ethnic identities in compliance primarily with counter-terrorism's logic. This change in multiculturalism forces the development of new forms of anti-racist social movements that have to negotiate a range of identities produced by defensive racial and ethnic responses to the new multicultural regime. There is a conceptual space for these movements that mediate between abstract universal goals of social justice and the necessarily defensive postures of identities subject to the processes of racialization and social exclusion engendered by repressive multiculturalism. The research findings argue against any form of settled position concerning the debate on the effectiveness of identity politics, preferring instead an ethnographic presentation that examines how an ideologically ambiguous terrain accomplishes much of the everyday work of antiracism in Britain.
Timura, Christopher T., U. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI - To aid research on 'Negotiating Expertise: The Globalizing Cultures of British and American Peace Negotiators,' supervised by Dr. Conrad P. Kottak
CHRISTOPHER T. TIMURA, while a student at the University of Michigan in Ann Arbor, Michigan, received funding to aid research on the globalizing cultures of British and American peace negotiators, under the supervision of Dr. Conrad P. Kottak. Timura conducted eleven months of fieldwork with a representative sample of university and nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) involved in the globalizing field of conflict resolution. He obtained more than 140 interviews with students, trainers, and practitioners, collected oral histories from key informants, and acted as a participant observer in seminars and training workshops. In addition, he used information about practitioners' professional networks and their referrals to arrange interviews with key individuals involved in the conflict management activities of the U.S. and British governments. The data showed that conflict management theories could be traced back to a small but diverse group of North American and European founding figures who used their institutional affiliations to promulgate their understanding of how violent conflict could be prevented, managed, and resolved. Despite considerable demographic diversity in the field today, a common set of concepts and value orientations enabled this transnational group to coalesce around a conflict resolution epistemology and practice. Conflict resolution specialists have used their roles in government, NGOs, and academe to advocate for changes in the ways governments manage and resolve violent conflict, while arguing for the existence of their own specific form of expertise. 'Local' cultural, socioeconomic, religious, and political factors have played varying roles in the globalization of this expertise beyond North America and Europe, offering opportunities for considering how anthropology might constructively analyze and otherwise engage with this and similar phenomena having significant effects on international governance.
Lem, Dr. Winnie, Trent U., Peterborough, Canada - To aid research on 'Transnationalism and Chinese Migrant Livelihoods'
DR. WINNIE LEM, of Trent University in Peterborough, Canada, was awarded a grant in December 2002 to aid research on the significance of transnational networks in the organization of livelihoods among Chinese migrants in France. Lem conducted fieldwork on small, family-run businesses operated by migrants from Asia in Paris, in order to assess the role played by transnational circuits in the initiation, organization, and operation of such firms over the previous 50 years. Through this case study, Lem explored the different propositions and debates that were emerging in the literature on the nature of migration and transnationalism and their relationships to globalization.
Lem, Winnie. 2007. William Roseberry, Class and Inequality in the Anthropology of Migration. Critique of Anthropology 27(4):377-394.
Carroll, Jennifer Jean, U. of Washington, Seattle, WA - To aid research on 'Choosing Methadone: Managing Addiction and the Body Politic in Post-Soviet Ukraine,' supervised by Dr. Laada Bilaniuk
JENNIFER J. CARROLL, then a student at University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, received funding in April 2012 to aid research on 'Choosing Methadone: Managing Addiction and the Body Politic in Post-Soviet Ukraine,' supervised by Dr. Laada Bilaniuk. Recent efforts to control the HIV and intravenous drug use epidemics in Ukraine have been supported by some of the largest international public health grants in the world. This has given leverage to biomedical solutions to addiction in this region, including opiate substitution therapy (OST). This project investigates the social values and processes that inform opiate addicts' treatment-seeking behaviors via ethnographic research and in-depth interviews conducted among active and recovering opiate addicts in Ukraine. Medicalized drug treatment programs may seem like purely technological interventions, but these technologies become soaked in the political, social, and ethical paradigms of each community in which they hit the ground. By tracing how locally relevant social structures and social values shape the experience of addiction and the moral weight of treatment seeking, this project unpacks the locally meaningful reasons why some addicts choose OST, why some do not, and how these new public health infrastructures become incorporated into addicts' strategies for managing their bodies, their identities, and their lives.
Mishtal, Dr. Joanna Zofia, U. of Central Florida, Orlando, FL - To aid research and writing on 'Contradictions of Democratization: Reproductive Rights and the Politics of Morality in Poland' - Hunt Postdoctoral Fellowship
DR. JOANNA Z. MISHTAL, University of Central Florida, was awarded a Hunt Postdoctoral Fellowship in April 2011 to aid research and writing 'Contradictions of Democratization: Reproductive Rights and the Politics of Morality in Poland.' The book is a historical, theoretical, and ethnographic study of the intersections of politics, gender, and religion. Based on 21 months of ethnographic fieldwork during doctoral and postdoctoral research between 2000 and 2007 in Krakow, Warsaw, and Gdansk, the book explores the postsocialist democratization process and the contentiousness of reproductive politics that emerged since the 1989 fall of state socialism. As reproductive rights became significantly curtailed after the fall of the socialist regime due to the new-found political power of the Catholic Church in Poland, the politics of gender and reproduction shifted to the center of transformative negotiations taking place nationally in Poland and internationally within the European Union. Findings argue for an alternative understanding of Polish democratization refocused around reproductive politics, and make a contribution to the theoretical debates on the significance of regime change and transition politics for feminist consciousness-raising and mobilization. This study demonstrates the centrality of the governance of women's bodies in postsocialist politics-a constitutive feature of the Polish democratization process.
Dvorakova, Tereza, Charles U., Prague, Czech Republic - To aid research on 'Between Practice and Purpose: The Money of Unemployed Roma and the Czech Welfare System,' supervised by Dr. Yasar Abu Ghosh
TEREZA DVORAKOVA, then a student at Charles University, Prague, Czech Republic, was awarded funding in April 2011 to aid research on 'Between Practice and Purpose: The Money of Unemployed Roma and the Czech Welfare System,' supervised by Dr. Yasar Abu Ghosh. This project examined the ways welfare providers established relations of inequality among the poor and ways Romani women defended these relations in context of Czech welfare politics. Its focus was an ethnographic research based on participant observation of the morally loaded field of welfare policy. The grantee examined the politics of welfare from different settings and conducted a long-term observation of welfare providers' decision-making on 'deserving poor' in the context of welfare changes toward moral individualism. Research documented the current experience and economic practices of Romani women and the ways by which they challenged the individualist understanding of poverty. The project explored the intricate positions of women and their kinship networks -- as well as welfare providers -- take with the aim of understanding their positions and 'earmarking' (Zelizer) for benefit money. The findings indicate how welfare providers frame a category of 'deserving' poor by using social relations of claimants, visibility of material hardship consumption strategies, homelessness, and nationality in order not to 'spend money on the undeserving' and 'save states' money.' The findings show how Roma women symbolically perform their moral position as 'deserving' and distinguish themselves from white (homeless) people devalued as 'undeserving' but for all that still get benefits.
Gouez, Aziliz, U. of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK - To aid research on 'Dwelling in Debt: Mortgage Debt and the Making of the Future in Contemporary Ireland,' supervised by Dr. Nikolai Ssorin-Chaikov
Preliminary abstract: This research proposes to study the hold of financial debt on domestic time frames in contemporary Ireland by focusing attention on the role of debt in configuring the future, a domain of human life which remains underexplored in anthropology. The objective is to investigate the characteristics of the particular temporal regime fostered by a financial instrument which the Irish version of late capitalism made available to the many -- that of the mortgage loan. Taking my cue from Jane Guyer's notion of 'punctuated time', I shall examine how the domestic future is assembled and rendered intelligible (or perhaps, on the contrary, obscured) through the projection of dates that encapsulate distinct horizons and categories of obligations. This will entail looking at various temporal devices related to household budgeting strategies, such as wall calendars, family account books and mortgage repayment schedules, as a site from which to grasp the nesting of conflicting obligations as well as temporal disjunctures, when the round of monthly mortgage payments disrupts the unfolding of anticipated personal and intergenerational trajectories, or when it intersects with provisions made for a child's communion or one's own funeral. I shall also delve into the moral discussions arising from the weighing up of mortgage debt against other types of debt, including those binding citizens to the state, and those obligating the Irish government towards its international creditors.