National School of Political Studies and Public Administration, Bucharest
April 27, 2007
Tesar, Catalina Constantina, National School of Political Studies and Public Administration, Bucharest, Romania - To aid training in social anthropology at U. College London, United Kingdom, Supervised by Michael Sinclair Stewart
Kuppinger, Dr. Petra Yvonne, Monmouth College, Monmouth, IL - To aid research on 'Space, Culture, and Islam in Stuttgart, Germany'
DR. PETRA YVONNE KUPPINGER, Monmouth College, Monmouth, Illinois, was awarded a grant in April 2006 to aid research on 'Space, Culture, and Islam in Stuttgart, Germany.' This project examined spatial and cultural aspects in Stuttgart, Germany, where Islam has become a constituting and negotiating element. Conducting ethnographic research in three mosques and a multi-cultural neighborhood, this project examined the everyday making and remaking of urban spaces and cultures with the participation of Muslim individuals and communities. Central findings include the recognition of complex articulations of Muslims and mosque communities with the city and society. Depending on localities, ethnic and religious contexts, specific individuals, and aspects of urban politics, Muslims and mosque communities participate and shape, and are shaped, by spatial, social and cultural contexts. Mosque communities integrate into local contexts, in one case as a 'local' mosque which participates, much like a church, in community affairs. Another mosque is a vibrant social and economic center, a third is a platform for dynamic debates about what it means to be a Muslim in Germany, or increasingly a German Muslim. In the multi-cultural neighborhood, contrary to public statements, Islam does not figure as a hindrance to integration. Social, educational but also occupational disadvantages as experienced by many migrant teenagers, Muslim and non-Muslim alike, figure much more prominently in this regard.
Blim, Dr. Michael L., City U. of New York, Graduate Center, New York, NY - To aid research on 'After Industrial Development: Intergenerational Social Mobility in a Central Italian Town'
DR. MICHAEL L. BLIM, City University of New York, Graduate Center, New York, New York, received an award in July 2003 to aid research on 'After Industrial Development: Intergenerational Social Mobility in a Central Italian Town.' The field-based re-study of economic and social mobility in the Marche region of Italy, Monte San Giusto, completed in August 2003, discovered that the adults of twenty-five shoe entrepreneurial and worker households first interviewed in 1981-1982 (also with a Wenner-Gren grant) have solidified their economic successes and achieved substantial social status mobility. The outcomes for their children, now adults ranging in age from 22 to 40, are more mixed. They have had a great deal of difficulty gaining a foothold in labor markets for professions and service employment, despite significantly better educational preparation than their parents, many of whom had no more than fifth-grade educations. Members of the new generation with minimum educational preparation have trouble finding work in the shoe industry, the 'mono-crop' of the area, and many avoid employment in the industry on the belief that it will not last much longer. Finding blocked opportunities in a shoe industry in semi-permanent economic crisis and in professional and service industries governed by rigid and clientalist employment practices, some of the new generation are taking up small-time entrepreneurship in food, drink, and tourism. Of those taking up manual occupations, skilled tradespeople are doing well, perhaps better than the rest. Instead of serving the shoe industry, machine tool and dye workers and prototype producers are forming small firms seeking business outside the area. The prospects for their 'escape' from the declining shoe industry are as of now uncertain.
Witeska, Anna Dominika, U. College London, London, UK - To aid research on 'Making Political Subjects in Post-Socialist Poland: Memory Workings among 'Veterans' and 'Victims of Oppression'', supervised by Dr. Michael Sinclair Stewart
ANNA WITESKA, then a student at University College London, London, United Kingdom, received funding in October 2006 to aid research on 'Making Political Subjects in Post-Socialist Poland: Memory Workings among 'Veterans' and 'Victims of Opression,'' supervised by Dr. Michael Sinclair Stewart. Research focused on the local performances of national memory politics in the aftermath of the communist regime in Poland. Looking at the processes of objectification of the communist past taking place in the authoritative settings (courtrooms, the Institute of National Remembrance, exhibition halls, official commemorative rituals, unveiling of monuments) she searched for discursive and symbolic patterns of inclusion and exclusion of political subjects into/from the commemorative landscape of the Polish historidzed state. The grantee worked mainly with two broadly defined categories of people who got politically engaged during communism: the ex-officers of the Ministry of Interior Affairs and the anti-communist activists. Combining participant observation in various institutional settings with archival work, discourse analysis, and in-depth interviews with individuals, the project tackled the mediating role that the state-institutions, their agents, and representations produced by them, have played in individual processes of remembering, commemorating, and recalling. Research findings deal with ways in which overlapping ideologically loaded notions of state, nation, sacrifice, duty, authority, democracy, Catholicism and justice become differently reconfigured in individual actions concerning the communist past. This research points towards the ambiguities of the Polish allusive model of retroactive justice and their consequences for the homo politicus of the past political era.
Witeska-Mlynarczyk, Anna. 2007. Proces W Transkrypcji. (Op.Cit.,) 3(36):41-46
Marsh, Katharine Ruth, Brown U., Providence, RI - To aid research on 'Spiritual Care on the Move: Ethics of Care, Migrant Integration, and African Pentecostalism in the United Kingdom,' supervised by Dr. Daniel Jordan Smith
Preliminary abstract: This project will examine how Pentecostal Christianity shapes practices of care-seeking, care-giving and care-receiving among African migrants in the United Kingdom (UK). African Pentecostal churches provide extensive material, emotional and spiritual assistance to their members, particularly during difficulties with physical health, financial security, immigration matters and family conflicts. Pentecostal religious commitment also has a profound impact on how people understand their relationships and obligations to others, resulting in moral and ethical frameworks that further shape how people care for themselves and for others. Focusing on a large multi-ethnic African church in a medium-sized city in the south of England, this project will investigate how these various forms of material and spiritual care impact the broader institutional and social fabric of everyday life in the city. Through 12 months of ethnographic fieldwork, I will investigate how church members navigate state-based care services and the consequences of this for how the state envisions and delivers care to its citizens. This project will also explore the extent to which Pentecostal care practices help cultivate meaningful cross-cultural relationships with those who share the same institutional, work-based and other urban social spaces as church members. My project will contribute to a broader exploration of African Pentecostalism as a force of social change in the global North, while also engaging with ongoing anthropological debates on religion, on migration and on care.
Mateescu, Oana M., U. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI - To aid research on 'Memory, Proof, and Persuasion: Re-Creating Communal Ownership in Postsocialist Romania,' supervised by Dr. Katherine Verdery
OANA M. MATEESCU, then a student at University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, was awarded a grant in May 2005 to aid research on 'Memory, Proof, and Persuasion: Re-Creating Communal Ownership in Postsocialist Romania,' supervised by Dr. Katherine Verdery. Through archival research, interviews, and participant observation, this project studied four key historical events for the repertoire of knowledge practices they provide to current villagers of Vrancea region (Romania) involved in the reconstitution of communal ownership over forests. These are the successful reclaiming of forests in an 1816 lawsuit, the 1910 organization of forests according to the Forestry Code, the emergence of anthropology as a discipline in Romania through the study of Vrancea's communal ownership in the late 1920's and the failed uprising of hundreds of villagers upon the nationalization of forests in 1950. These events shape disputes over the present meaning of communal ownership and they inform the particular forms of claim making (lawsuits, complaints, humble appeals, the accumulation of evidence, and insurgency) villagers have at their disposal. Last, but not least, they serve as unique confirmations of the possibility for critique and effective intervention. Since 1816, proof-oriented actions such as the quest for documents, their secret keeping, forgery, loss, sale or destruction become inseparable from what it means to own the forests in Vrancea. The complex histories of such evidentiary objects as they shape ownership conflicts throughout the 20th century and come to haunt the current desires and strategies of villagers are central to this inquiry into the problematic of ownership, time, evidence and credibility.
Diaz de Rada, Dr. Angel, U. Nacional de Educacion a Distancia, Madrid, Spain - To aid research on 'The Construction of Belonging Expressive Practice and Identity Appropriations Among 'Saami' and 'Norwegians' in Kautokeino'
DR. ANGEL DIAZ DE RADA, of the Universidad Nacional de Educación a Distancia in Madrid, Spain, received funding in November 2003 to aid research on expressive practices and identity appropriations among Saami and Norwegians in Kautokeino, Norway. Ethnopolitical rhetoric-whether state rhetoric or not-is based on the idea of a collective subject and on the notion of belonging. The empirical evidence produced in this investigation shows that the fabrication of such images of belonging does not correspond to the concrete construction of local belonging. This means that a state's territory is not a territory in which real linking takes place; neither is the ethnos that is created using peripheral, minority, or indigenous assumptions. The local continuity of linking is much more intense than that which supralocal institutions reflect, at the level of the Norwegian state as well as the level of the Saami Parliament's ethnopolitics. In both cases, the formulation of categories of social belonging incorporates rhetoric that is too vague in the eyes of the concrete local subjects. Nevertheless, this research revealed the nuances that characterize a state ethnopolitical rhetoric of belonging, as opposed to one produced by institutions that do not aspire to form a state. The basic analytical strategy consisted of pursuing the relationships and successive translations of continuity and belonging as they were formulated and put into practice in local life and in the corresponding political and administrative locations that rose above this local life to represent it.
Díaz de Rada, Ángel. 2004. El Sujeto en la Corriente. Reflexiones Sobre el Sujeto Social en Condiciones de Globalización. In El Nuevo Orden de Caos: Consecuencias Socioculturales de la 75 Globalización. Luis Díaz G. Viana, ed. Consejo Superior de investigaciones Científicas: Madrid.
Diaz de Rada, Angel. 2007. School Bureaucracy, Ethnography and Culture: Conceptual Obstacles to Doing Ethnography in Schools. Social Anthropology 15(2): 205-222
Diaz de Rada, Angel. 2007. Valer y Valor. Una Exhumacion de la Teoría del Valor para Reflexionar sobre la Desigualdad y Diferencia en Relación con la Escuela. Revista de Anthropología Social (16): 117-158
Diaz de Rada, Angel. 2010. Bagatelas de la Moralidad Ordinaria: Los Anclajes Morales de Una Experiencia Etnográfica. In Dilemas Eticos en Anthropología: Las Entretelas del Trabajo de Campo Etnográfico. Margarita del Olmo, ed. Editorial Trotta: Madrid, Spain.
Ozgul, Ceren, City U. of New York, Graduate Center, New York, NY - To aid research on 'From Muslim Citizen to Christian Minority: Legal and Political Implications of 'Double-Conversion' in Turkey,' supervised by Dr. Talal Asad
CEREN OZGUL, then a student at the City University of New York, Graduate Center, New York, New York, was awarded a grant in April 2009, to aid research on 'From Muslim Citizen to Christian Minority: Legal and Political Implications of 'Double-Conversion' in Turkey,' supervised by Dr. Talal Asad. In the last fifteen years, hundreds of Muslim citizens, claiming Armenian descent, have sought the arbitration of secular legal authorities and the Armenian Patriarchate in Turkey to convert back to Christianity. Six months of research was conducted to study discourses of tolerance and religious freedom in Turkey in the context of their 'double conversion,' that marks both conversion from Islam to Christianity and conversion from a majority status to that of a religious minority. The research followed the process of these return conversions around the secular courts, the Armenian Patriarchate, several Armenian churches in Istanbul and the bureaucratic institutions of the state. The researcher detailed the courts' activities, combining observations with minute analysis of selected cases and analyzed the records around the questions of how arbitrations are argued and rationalized in the court, and which legal concepts are referred to and how. Semi-structured interviews were conducted to obtain a more comprehensive, contextual, and personal account of decisions to convert back to the religion of their grandparents. The researcher also interviewed the Armenian clergy, whose perspective is vital for the project, since the converts first apply to the Armenian Patriarchate in Istanbul to start the conversion process.
Özgül, Ceren. 2014. Legally Armenian: Tolerance, Conversion, and Name Change in Turkish Courts. Comparative Studeis in Society and History 56(3):622-649.
Franquesa, Dr. Jaume, U. of Buffalo, Buffalo, NY - To aid research and writing on 'Dignity and Power: Energy, Nature and the State in Rural Spain' - Hunt Postdoctoral Fellowship
Preliminary abstract: My book 'Dignity and Power: Energy, Nature, and the State in Rural Spain' aims to contribute to the anthropological comprehension of energy transitions through a historically informed, socially situated study of the development of renewable energy in Spain. Based on ethnographic fieldwork in Southern Catalonia, the book analyzes the institutional arrangements, cultural mediations and social relations of production through which the energy from wind is harnessed. My research shows that energy transitions are complex, multilayered processes that open possibilities for new social arrangements, while also highlighting the ways that such new social arrangements rework inherited relationships of power. I analyze the contradictory tensions pervading this process, patent in the fact that wind energy development has created new ecological imbalances between producing and consuming regions, despite marking a clear step forward in environmental terms. The book explores local resistance to wind farm installation, and analyzes the cultural categories that frame these movements, placing special emphasis on the notion of dignity. Deeply rooted in historical peasant struggles, a range of local actors mobilizes the notion of dignity to express criticism against the increasing centralization of the country's energy model, thus providing crucial insights into the relationship between renewables and democratic decision-making.