Ammerman, Prof. Albert J., Colgate U., Hamilton, NY - To aid 'The Longitudinal Study of Landscape Dynamics at Acconia in Italy'
DR. ALBERT J. AMMERMAN, Colgate University, Hamilton, New York, received funding in May 2007 to aid research on 'The Longitudinal Study of Landscape Dynamics at Acconia in Italy.' Land use at Acconia has witnessed dramatic changes over the last 80 years. If one goes back to the 1930s, malaria was endemic on the coastal plain and the main activity in the area was the seasonal herding of animals. Today there is prosperity at Acconia due to the production of strawberries and other forms of horticulture in greenhouses. The first strawberries were grown in the mid-1960s, and the number of strawberry fields has steadily increased since then. Under the grant, there was the chance to conduct the fourth mapping of land use in 2007. Previously, the mapping of the whole landscape on a field-by-field basis had been done in 1980, 1989, and 1998. Thus, the four maps now make it possible to trace the evolution of the landscape in detail over a span of 27 years. The fourth mapping revealed, among other things, the further intensification of strawberry production and the recent collapse of the citrus sector. And there are signs today -- rising costs and changing attitudes -- that strawberry production itself is on the verge of a crisis. In addition, the many interviews conducted in 2007 and 2008 have led to a new understanding of the social and economic changes that have gone hand in hand with the transformation of the landscape over the last 27 years. Finally, mention should be made of the implications of the study for the development of recovery theory when it comes to the design and interpretation of archeological surveys.
Tishkov, Dr. Valery A., Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia - To aid research on 'Anthropology of Complaint: Changing Life Perceptions, Identities and Outside World Images in Transforming Russia'
DR. VALERY TISHKOV, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia, was awarded a grant in January 2001, to aid research on 'Anthropology of Complaint:Changing Life Perceptions, Identities and Outside World Images in Transforming Russia.' This research is a basic revision of the crisis paradigm in Russia based on a study of complaints, fears, and concerns demonstrated through surveys and participant observations by different strata, regional and cultural groups of the country. Research disclosed disparities between 'real life' improvements for the majority of Russian people and its negative perceptions dominant in public and academic discourses. The reasons for disparities and miscalculations lie in inadequate expert analysis of a rapidly changing society, in political instrumentalism, in mental inertia of producers alld consumers of elitist prescriptions. Several basic conclusions are meaningful for anthropological analysis of social change. The society overloaded with changes can perceive in negative terms even changes to the good. The growing complexity and uncertainties represent a challenge that is difficult to meet for post-Soviet populace accustomed to one-dimtnsional thinking, state protection, and a strictly controlled social life. At the same time, highly educated populace in Russia demonstrated innovative strategies and reached unprecedented level of consumption, often through extra-legal entrepreneurial activities. Complaint became a part of collective and individual strategjes to get more sympathy and material rewards. But the structureof complaints shows that Russia is a normal country where people are more concerned with basic needs in socia! conditions and individual success then in collective aspirations, such as a country status or ethnic group sovereignty. People in Russia are muddling through transformations as people do in other societies. This research helps to overcome a real crisis of understanding on how societies change and how people perceive and use these changes.
Li, Darryl Chi-Yee, Harvard U., Cambridge, MA - To aid research on 'Another Universalism? Transnational Islamist Movements and Bosnia-Herzegovina,' supervised by Dr. Engseng Ho
DARRYL CHI-YEE LI, then a student at Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts, received a grant in April 2008 to aid research on 'Another Universalism? Transnational Islamist Movements and Bosnia-Herzegovina,' supervised by Dr. Engseng Ho. This project analyzes how Arab Islamists -- especially ex-fighters and aid workers -- in Bosnia-Herzegovina reconciled their pan-Islamist commitments with their experiences of cultural, racial, and doctrinal difference vis-a-vis Bosnian Muslims. This research was conducted between September 2009 and July 2011 based in Sarajevo and Zenica, with trips to Brcko, Bugojno, Travnik, Tuzla, and Visoko. Extensive ethnographic life-history interviews were conducted with Arab immigrants in Bosnia-Herzegovina, with a focus on ex-combatants and NGO workers. These interviews took place in a variety of locales, including family homes, cafes, during roadtrips, offices, and an immigration detention center. A similar number of Bosnians who fought alongside, married, or worked with such individuals were also interviewed at length. Archival research supplemented this data, including Bosnian court records and administrative papers; army and state documents gathered by the UN International Criminal Tribunal for ex-Yugoslavia; wartime and post-war newspaper and magazine collections; and Islamic booklets and pamphlets produced by and about Arab Islamists in Bosnia-Herzegovina.
Cartelli, Philip Aaron, Harvard U., Cambridge, MA - To aid research on 'Marseille-J4: The (Re)production of Space in a French Mediterranean Port City,' supervised by Dr. Mary Steedly
PHILIP CARTELLI, then a student at Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts, received funding in October 2013 to aid research on 'Marseille-J4: The (Re)production of Space in a French Mediterranean Port City,' supervised by Dr. Mary Steedly. Confronting their increasingly peripheral role in trade networks, former industrial port towns around the world have sought to redefine themselves in order to attract outside investment and visitors. Such processes tend to involve superficial facelifts as well as more lasting changes in infrastructure and accessibility. The Euroméditerranée urban redevelopment project in Marseille, currently the largest of its type under way in Europe, is one such example of a multi-faceted development scheme, with a variety of positive and negative repercussions for Marseillais of different backgrounds and occupations. The dissertation explores the specific transformation of the J4, a waterfront esplanade in downtown Marseille, from a non-purposed common space to one housing two cultural institutions directed towards a largely middle-class public. Beginning before the J4's transformation in 2010 and culminating in 2014, one year after Marseille had assumed the title of European Capital of Culture, fieldwork unraveled competing exigencies of the J4's changing users and its newly imposed and institutionalized appropriate uses. The grantee accomplished this research through participating in the J4's daily life, conducting interviews with those in the echelons of institutional power, archival research, and considering the perspectives of daily and occasional users of the space.
Casas-Cortes, Maria Isabel, U. of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC - To aid research on 'Expertise from Below: The Cultural Politics of Knowledge, Globalization and the Activist Research Movement in Spain, supervised by Dr. Arturo Escobar
MARIA ISABEL CASAS-CORTES, then a student at University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, received funding in April 2006 to aid research on 'Expertise from Below: The Cultural Politics of Knowledge, Globalization and the Activist Research Movement in Spain,' supervised by Dr. Arturo Escobar. This dissertation deals with the production of systematic knowledge and expertise from below, by exploring the growing phenomenon of 'activist research,' a form of 'in-house' investigation conducted by social movements as a venue for political activism. As fieldwork has indicated, activist research is usually conducted by non-accredited experts, and aims to produce a kind of knowledge that is both rigorous and oriented towards social justice. The focus is on a prolific 'activist research' community based in Madrid, Spain. The group, Precarias a la Deriva, was identified as a promising dissertation topic due to their innovative work and broader influence. This women's collective is conducting an extensive research project on global processes of economic flexibilization, and their effects on women's everyday lives. Through feminist research expeditions in the metropolis of Madrid, this women's activist research community attempts to develop innovative political actions appropriate to current transformations. Through the exploration of such 'dissenting expertise', this ethnographic study brings different scholarly literatures together, such as the growing field of Anthropology of Social Movements, Anthropology of Knowledge, Globalization Studies as well as the long standing tradition of Action Research.
Muehlebach, Dr. Andrea Karin, U. of Toronto, Toronto, Canada - To aid research on 'Water, Politics, and the Democratic Imagination in Europe'
Preliminary abstract: This project traces the rise of water as a vehicle through which novel experiments in citizenship, democratic participation, and resource management are coming to life. It does so through an ethnographic investigation of how three European cities have recently begun to re-municipalize their water supply systems after years, sometimes decades, of privatization. As nodes in a wider struggle against the commodification of water, I propose to explore the cities of Naples, Paris, and Berlin in order to track new forms of political imagination that are taking root as municipalities and citizens (re)claim ownership over water. I ask how water, conceptualized as a right and 'commons,' has come to exist in tension with dominant ideologies of the propertied individual. How has water become a vehicle for Europeans to propose designs for a better life? How do the meanings and materialities of water impact not only its management and distribution, but the very horizons of political and environmental possibility? This project weds the study of new forms of political imagination and mobilization to the cultural politics of natural resources, and, more specifically, to the ways in which humans are grappling with the precarity and finitude of water. By asking how some of Europe's citizens are engaging in the building of new horizons of political and environmental possibility, this project aims to contribute as much to an anthropology of resource management and sustainability as it offers insight into the political and economic 'otherwise.' It does so at a moment where the interlocking crises of capitalism, democracy, and the environment have become more apparent than ever before.
Petryna, Dr. Adriana, The New School U., New York, NY - To aid research and writing on 'Pharmaceutical Testing and Evidence Making: An Ethnography of the Globalized Clinical Trial' - Richard Carley Hunt Fellowship
DR. ADRIANA PETRYNA, The New School University, New York, New York, recieved a Hunt Postdoctoral Fellowship in April 2006 to aid research and writing on 'Pharmaceutical Testing and Evidence Making: An Ethnography of the Globalized Clinical Trial.' Accelerated therapeutic innovation and massive pharmaceutical sales are driving an unprecedented worldwide search for human test subjects. When Experiments Travel:Clinical Trials and the Global Search for Human Subjects (Princeton University Press, in press) takes the reader deep into the clinical research enterprise. It enters the perspectives of multiple actors with divergent standpoints and stakes, illuminating the benefits and risks that accompany global clinical trials. Based on interviews with corporate scientists and executives, the book charts the evolution of the clinical research industry in the United States and probes the regulatory and logistical challenges faced by this outsourced venture. Concerned with scientific integrity and human safety, the book traces the offshoring of clinical trials and their aftermath in middle and low-income countries where it also engages the work of trial coordinators, academic scientists, and regulators. When Experiments Travel shows how private-sector research thrives on public institutions and is integrated as health care for the poor, how ethics is variable, and how the success of trials can be engineered and harms underestimated. As the world becomes a series of interlocking laboratories, data-producing sites, and drug markets, better systems of protection, accountability, and benefit-sharing are in order. The book holds vital lessons for social scientists, citizens, and policy makers concerned with the future of global medicine and the changing infrastructures of our lives.
Grant, Dr. Bruce M., New York U., New York, NY - To aid research on 'Cosmos and Cosmopolitanism in the Azeri Caucasus'
DR. BRUCE M. GRANT, New York University, New York, New York, received funding in April 2008 to aid research on 'Cosmos and Cosmopolitanism in the Azeri Caucasus.' Despite centuries of participation in Silk Road trade and evidence of intense linguistic, religious, and cultural pluralisms, the mountainous Caucasus region has long been thought of as a 'closed society,' unwelcoming to outsiders. Through a project on the life of a small but regionally famous village in rural northwest Azerbaijan over the course of the twentieth century, the grantee combined extended field and archival research to consider the manifold but rarely documented ways that the Caucasus region has deeply embedded in economic, political, religious, and social networks across Turkey, the Middle East, Central Asia and beyond. The research found fresh accounts of Sufi-style networks across Azerbaijan, and worked with a number of local religious leaders who considered that the hard-won religious traditions preserved in the late Soviet period compare in some respects more favorably, paradoxically, to those practiced today in a time of expanded religious tolerance. With this ethnographic approach to cultural history, the goal of this research was to better understand the Soviet project itself, as well as the logics of sovereignty in a world area too long known only for its violence.
Romer, Johanna Ilene, New York U., New York, NY - To aid research on 'Constructing Violence: Risk, Security, and Criminal Justice Professions in Catalonia,' supervised by Dr. Bambi B. Schieffelin
JOHANNA RÖMER, then a graduate student at New York University, New York, New York, was awarded funding in April 2012 to aid research on 'Constructing Violence: Risk, Security, and Criminal Justice Professions in Catalonia,' supervised by Dr. Bambi B. Schieffelin. Spain has one of the highest rates of incarceration in Europe, and 45% of Catalan inmates are foreign. Nonetheless, Spain has maintained a rehabilitative prison system that originated in the post-Franco era. This ethnographic research (2012-2013) investigated the production of concepts of civil society in a prison bureaucracy in Barcelona. Focusing on the activities of prison treatment teams, composed of psychologists and other professionals, it shows how teams demonstrated civic values and moral stances towards prisoners and the state. The project highlighted teams' efforts to care for a diverse population of violent offenders also at risk for self-harm. It found that prevention practices focused on self-harm were an important component in violence treatment programs. It also found that teams sought to develop ideologies of sincerity in treatment relationships, which in practice situate sincerity as the embodiment of a particular political-economic relationship to the state. Teams lacked shared communicative resources with inmates, as well as stances toward government and authority. Showing how teams typified and communicated Spanish and Catalan ideas about the appropriate expression of emotion and violence to inmates, this project contributes a perspective that incorporates ideas of personhood to ongoing scholarship on the construction of civility and security in Europe.