Gokariksel, Saygun, City U. of New York, Graduate Center, New York, NY - To aid research on 'Of Truths, Secrets, and Loyalties: Politics of Purification of the State in Postsocialist Poland,' supervised by Dr. Katherine Verdery
SAYGUN GOKARIKSEL, then a student at City University of New York - Graduate Center, New York, New York, was awarded a grant in April 2009, to aid research on 'Of Truths, Secrets, and Loyalties: Politics of Purification of the State in Postsocialist Poland,' supervised by Dr. Katherine Verdery. The recent opening of Communist security service archives in Eastern Europe has ignited contentious questions concerning the secrets of the Second World War and the Cold War, of resistance and collaboration, as well as a radical interrogation of the loyalties, values, and practices acquired under state socialism. This research explores the judicial uses of the security files compiled by the Communist security service in Poland. Through archival and ethnographic research it examines lustration -- a screening process implemented throughout Eastern Europe, which uses these files to ban security service officers and civilian collaborators from holding public office. It investigates how this judicial process reorganizes the state apparatus, redefines the relationship between the new state and the citizen-subject by reinterpreting and disqualifying loyalties and practices acquired under state socialism, and produces a new normative framework through which the socialist past is reevaluated and individual life trajectories retrospectively given form. The research focuses on the contentious questions that lustration raises, which interrogate the limits of liberal notions of public and private (sector) accountability, state secrecy and transparency, national sovereignty and international human rights, collective and individual responsibility, and freedom of speech and individual privacy.
Romer, Johanna Ilene, New York U., New York, NY - To aid research on 'Constructing Violence: Risk, Security, and Criminal Justice Professions in Catalonia,' supervised by Dr. Bambi B. Schieffelin
Preliminary abstract: Spain has the highest rates of incarceration in Europe, and Catalonia one of the highest rates of incarceration of foreigners--almost half of the region's inmates are not Spanish citizens. This situation has brought to the forefront of public debate the uncertainties about civility and security in urban Spain. This project examines the situated production of security and self-governing persons in Catalonia. It examines how new technologies of security have been introduced in this context, shaping criminal justice professionals conceptions of risk and violence. I ask how concepts of 'risk' and 'violence' are typified and sorted into categories that can be measured and predicted. Examining the linguistic and social practices through which professionals are socialized into dieas about risk and violence can reveal how European Union, Spanish, and Catalan discourses of security construct self-governing persons.
Hodges, Dr. Andrew J., U. of Manchester, Manchester, UK - To aid conference on 'Anthropology Otherwise: Rethinking Approaches to Fieldwork in Different Anthropological Traditions,' 2011,Valjevo, Serbia, in collaboration with Dr. Marina Simic
Preliminary abstract: The conference aims to: (1) provide a forum in which to try out a consensus-based decision making process in order to find common ground between different research methodologies and foci; (2) generate a dialogue between anthropologists working on projects based in the Balkan region, yet in different ethnographic traditions. This includes those who use 'immersion' (long-term fieldwork) and 'back and forth' (repeated short visits, characteristic for Eastern and South Eastern European ethnologies) models of ethnographic research. The aim is to discuss epistemological possibilities opened and closed by each of these models; (3) provoke anthropologists to take seriously the premise that the material and organisational culture(s) of an event or institution shape (if not determine) in an important way, the kinds of and qualities of knowledge produced. The conference will address: different ways of framing research questions, various possibilities for translating theory into ethnographic practice and back, the re-evaluation of 'older' ethnographies from the Balkan region, problems ethnographers face when working in the region, and the place of visuality in different research methodologies.
Ketchum, Frederick Benjamin, U. of Chicago, Chicago, IL - To aid research on 'Redesigning Human Nature: An Anthropology of Enhancement Drugs in Germany,' supervised by Dr. Judith Farquar
Preliminary abstract: This research ethnographically examines the phenomena of 'enhancement' in Germany, or the use of medications to improve performance by individuals who are not sick. These medications give individuals the power to redesign themselves and their capacities, raising important ethical questions about whether using enhancements is unnatural, if this use threatens individuals' identity, if everyone should have access to these medications, and what the consequences for broader society are. I argue that enhancements need to be understood as technologies of everyday life that enable multiple ideals and desires to be realized, and are linked to hopes about human perfectibility and anxieties about the proper relationship between nature, humans, and technology. Drawing on anthropological scholarship on medicine, pharmaceuticals, biopolitics, and ethics, I will ethnographically explore the practices and motivations for using these drugs, and describe the ideals of perfection and achievement that power them. Enhancements are intimately linked to medicine and medical advances, as well as discourses of health and illness that are used to distinguish legitimate from illegitimate uses of drugs. Because much of what has been written about enhancements is oriented towards a future in which enhancement use is widespread, this work will also place enhancement technologies in the larger context of utopic (or dystopic) visions of a re-engineered humanity, in an attempt to discern what enhancements might mean for broader social and political life.
Verinis, James Peter, Binghamton U., Binghamton, NY - To aid research on 'New Immigrant Farmers and the Globalization of the Greek Countryside,' supervised by Dr. Thomas M. Wilson
JAMES PETER VERINIS, then a student at Binghamton University, Binghamton, New York, was granted funding in October 2009, to aid research on 'New Immigrant Farmers and the Globalization of the Greek Countryside,' supervised by Dr. Thomas M. Wilson. Though Greek agriculture has served as the picture of rural underdevelopment in Europe, rural Greece is undergoing significant transformations. Immigrants play a diversity of socio-economic roles in farming communities experiencing a new global migratory context. They help define what agricultural [dis]incentives, environmental stewardship, social fabric, and territorial occupation mean in the countryside. With locals they co-manage tensions stemming from European rural development programs and global commodity markets. Scholarship largely reifies the conclusion that immigrants are merely transient, exploited laborers. In conjunction with macroeconomic analyses of rural 'stagnation,' such characterizations misrepresent current realities and undermine alternative potential forms of rural development in Greece. Fieldwork in rural villages in Laconia Prefecture of the Peloponnese, primarily in communities of olive growers, has served to undermine such misrepresentations. Participatory farming amongst Greek and non-Greek agriculturalists, in conjunction with related forms of ethnographic data gathered from various stakeholders, sheds light on a context allowing for immigrant integration and rural development as well as for xenophobia and 'resistance' to global capitalism. Contemporary globalized countrysides along the borders of Europe beg such fieldwork in order to evaluate current and potential paths based on new conceptual frameworks set by their new range of residents.
Li, Darryl Chi-Yee, Harvard U., Cambridge, MA - To aid research on 'Another Universalism? Transnational Islamist Movements and Bosnia-Herzegovina,' supervised by Dr. Engseng Ho
DARRYL CHI-YEE LI, then a student at Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts, received a grant in April 2008 to aid research on 'Another Universalism? Transnational Islamist Movements and Bosnia-Herzegovina,' supervised by Dr. Engseng Ho. This project analyzes how Arab Islamists -- especially ex-fighters and aid workers -- in Bosnia-Herzegovina reconciled their pan-Islamist commitments with their experiences of cultural, racial, and doctrinal difference vis-a-vis Bosnian Muslims. This research was conducted between September 2009 and July 2011 based in Sarajevo and Zenica, with trips to Brcko, Bugojno, Travnik, Tuzla, and Visoko. Extensive ethnographic life-history interviews were conducted with Arab immigrants in Bosnia-Herzegovina, with a focus on ex-combatants and NGO workers. These interviews took place in a variety of locales, including family homes, cafes, during roadtrips, offices, and an immigration detention center. A similar number of Bosnians who fought alongside, married, or worked with such individuals were also interviewed at length. Archival research supplemented this data, including Bosnian court records and administrative papers; army and state documents gathered by the UN International Criminal Tribunal for ex-Yugoslavia; wartime and post-war newspaper and magazine collections; and Islamic booklets and pamphlets produced by and about Arab Islamists in Bosnia-Herzegovina.
Canedo Rodriguez, Dr. Montserrat, National U. of Distance Education, Madrid, Spain - To aid research on 'Nourishing Madrid: Food Market and Urban Networks'
DR. MONTSERRAT CANEDO RODRIGUEZ, National University of Distance Education, Madrid, Spain, was awarded a grant in April 2011 to aid research on 'Nourishing Madrid: Food Markets and Urban Networks.' The project investigated how the fresh food wholesale market in Madrid works as a node of redistribution for food flows, creating effects of space-time structuring ('local,' 'global,' 'urban,' etc.). By following 'Poma de Girona' (an apple produced in Catalonia that has a Protected Geographic Indication) from its production to its urban consumption, the grantee analyzes the way these process-oriented and multi-localized food flows unfold through a 'chain of value.' Research questions included: What different space-time structuring effects do food flows produce when tracked from different ethnographic loci? How can we think about the enactment of urban social space through food flows? How does the circulation of food blend 'nature,' 'market,' and 'science-technology,' and what can be said about these kinds of embeddedness in a cultural and political reading? The study will advance theory on time-space frames understood as the products (and figures) of a dynamic simultaneous multiplicity, or articulations of heterogeneous practices that are always in progress. From this perspective, the research proposes an ethnographic approach to the question of 'globalization.' As an 'ethnography of apples,' it also contributes to thinking about the problem of the nature-culture co-implication and the politics of contemporary food chains.