Ammerman, Prof. Albert J., Colgate U., Hamilton, NY - To aid 'The Longitudinal Study of Landscape Dynamics at Acconia in Italy'
DR. ALBERT J. AMMERMAN, Colgate University, Hamilton, New York, received funding in May 2007 to aid research on 'The Longitudinal Study of Landscape Dynamics at Acconia in Italy.' Land use at Acconia has witnessed dramatic changes over the last 80 years. If one goes back to the 1930s, malaria was endemic on the coastal plain and the main activity in the area was the seasonal herding of animals. Today there is prosperity at Acconia due to the production of strawberries and other forms of horticulture in greenhouses. The first strawberries were grown in the mid-1960s, and the number of strawberry fields has steadily increased since then. Under the grant, there was the chance to conduct the fourth mapping of land use in 2007. Previously, the mapping of the whole landscape on a field-by-field basis had been done in 1980, 1989, and 1998. Thus, the four maps now make it possible to trace the evolution of the landscape in detail over a span of 27 years. The fourth mapping revealed, among other things, the further intensification of strawberry production and the recent collapse of the citrus sector. And there are signs today -- rising costs and changing attitudes -- that strawberry production itself is on the verge of a crisis. In addition, the many interviews conducted in 2007 and 2008 have led to a new understanding of the social and economic changes that have gone hand in hand with the transformation of the landscape over the last 27 years. Finally, mention should be made of the implications of the study for the development of recovery theory when it comes to the design and interpretation of archeological surveys.
Tishkov, Dr. Valery A., Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia - To aid research on 'Anthropology of Complaint: Changing Life Perceptions, Identities and Outside World Images in Transforming Russia'
DR. VALERY TISHKOV, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia, was awarded a grant in January 2001, to aid research on 'Anthropology of Complaint:Changing Life Perceptions, Identities and Outside World Images in Transforming Russia.' This research is a basic revision of the crisis paradigm in Russia based on a study of complaints, fears, and concerns demonstrated through surveys and participant observations by different strata, regional and cultural groups of the country. Research disclosed disparities between 'real life' improvements for the majority of Russian people and its negative perceptions dominant in public and academic discourses. The reasons for disparities and miscalculations lie in inadequate expert analysis of a rapidly changing society, in political instrumentalism, in mental inertia of producers alld consumers of elitist prescriptions. Several basic conclusions are meaningful for anthropological analysis of social change. The society overloaded with changes can perceive in negative terms even changes to the good. The growing complexity and uncertainties represent a challenge that is difficult to meet for post-Soviet populace accustomed to one-dimtnsional thinking, state protection, and a strictly controlled social life. At the same time, highly educated populace in Russia demonstrated innovative strategies and reached unprecedented level of consumption, often through extra-legal entrepreneurial activities. Complaint became a part of collective and individual strategjes to get more sympathy and material rewards. But the structureof complaints shows that Russia is a normal country where people are more concerned with basic needs in socia! conditions and individual success then in collective aspirations, such as a country status or ethnic group sovereignty. People in Russia are muddling through transformations as people do in other societies. This research helps to overcome a real crisis of understanding on how societies change and how people perceive and use these changes.
Li, Darryl Chi-Yee, Harvard U., Cambridge, MA - To aid research on 'Another Universalism? Transnational Islamist Movements and Bosnia-Herzegovina,' supervised by Dr. Engseng Ho
DARRYL CHI-YEE LI, then a student at Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts, received a grant in April 2008 to aid research on 'Another Universalism? Transnational Islamist Movements and Bosnia-Herzegovina,' supervised by Dr. Engseng Ho. This project analyzes how Arab Islamists -- especially ex-fighters and aid workers -- in Bosnia-Herzegovina reconciled their pan-Islamist commitments with their experiences of cultural, racial, and doctrinal difference vis-a-vis Bosnian Muslims. This research was conducted between September 2009 and July 2011 based in Sarajevo and Zenica, with trips to Brcko, Bugojno, Travnik, Tuzla, and Visoko. Extensive ethnographic life-history interviews were conducted with Arab immigrants in Bosnia-Herzegovina, with a focus on ex-combatants and NGO workers. These interviews took place in a variety of locales, including family homes, cafes, during roadtrips, offices, and an immigration detention center. A similar number of Bosnians who fought alongside, married, or worked with such individuals were also interviewed at length. Archival research supplemented this data, including Bosnian court records and administrative papers; army and state documents gathered by the UN International Criminal Tribunal for ex-Yugoslavia; wartime and post-war newspaper and magazine collections; and Islamic booklets and pamphlets produced by and about Arab Islamists in Bosnia-Herzegovina.
Cartelli, Philip Aaron, Harvard U., Cambridge, MA - To aid research on 'Marseille-J4: The (Re)production of Space in a French Mediterranean Port City,' supervised by Dr. Mary Steedly
PHILIP CARTELLI, then a student at Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts, received funding in October 2013 to aid research on 'Marseille-J4: The (Re)production of Space in a French Mediterranean Port City,' supervised by Dr. Mary Steedly. Confronting their increasingly peripheral role in trade networks, former industrial port towns around the world have sought to redefine themselves in order to attract outside investment and visitors. Such processes tend to involve superficial facelifts as well as more lasting changes in infrastructure and accessibility. The Euroméditerranée urban redevelopment project in Marseille, currently the largest of its type under way in Europe, is one such example of a multi-faceted development scheme, with a variety of positive and negative repercussions for Marseillais of different backgrounds and occupations. The dissertation explores the specific transformation of the J4, a waterfront esplanade in downtown Marseille, from a non-purposed common space to one housing two cultural institutions directed towards a largely middle-class public. Beginning before the J4's transformation in 2010 and culminating in 2014, one year after Marseille had assumed the title of European Capital of Culture, fieldwork unraveled competing exigencies of the J4's changing users and its newly imposed and institutionalized appropriate uses. The grantee accomplished this research through participating in the J4's daily life, conducting interviews with those in the echelons of institutional power, archival research, and considering the perspectives of daily and occasional users of the space.
Dzenovska, Dace, U. of California, Berkeley, CA - To aid research on 'From Multi-Ethnic Socialism to Multicultural Europe: Difference and European Integration in Latvia,' supervised by Dr. Alexei Yurchak
DACE DZENOVSKA, then a student at University of California, Berkeley, Califonia, was awarded funding in November 2005 to aid research on 'From Multi-Ethnic Socialism to Multicultural Europe: Difference and European Integration in Latvia,' supervised by Dr. Alexei Yurchak. The research set out to examine how the European present and the Soviet past constitute contemporary forms of liberalism and multiculturalism in Latvia. It suggested that rather than arriving in Latvia fully formed, it is in Latvia that Europe, liberalism, and multiculturalism are made. Ethnographic research focused on discourses and practices of tolerance and immigration control, while the former aim to incite individuals to reflect on the boundaries they draw between themselves and others and to cultivate a particular ethical disposition towards difference, the latter police the borders of the territory and the national body. Research findings suggest that Europe, multiculturalism, and liberalism are highly contested and heterogeneous sets of practices. While exhibiting liberal inclinations, dicourses and practices of tolerance and multiculturalism are also shaped by the influential articulation of state legitimacy with the integrity and sovereignty of the cultural nation and understandings of good life grounded in a particular way of life. Further analysis will consider how liberal practices, both state and non-state, are enabled by and themselves enable particular ways of life. How does one engage with nationalism as a particular way of life without either rendering it as fundamentally problematic or becoming complicit in its troubling renditions of difference?
Dzenovska, Dace, 2010. Making 'The People' Political Imaginaries and the Materiality of Barricades in Mexico and Latvia. Laboratorium (3):5-16.
Dzenovska, Dace. 2010. Public Reason and the Limits of Liberal Anti-Racism in Latvia. Ethnos 75(4):425-454.
Dzenovska, Dace, and Ivan Arenas. 2012. Don't Fence Me In: Barricade Sociality and Political Struggles in Mexico and Latvia. Comparative Studies in Society and History 54(3):644-678.
Petruccio, Claudia L., U. of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA - To aid research on 'Amniocentesis, Cultural Mediation, and the Construction of Difference in Italy,' supervised by Dr. Joseph S. Alter
CLAUDIA L. PETRUCCIO, then a student at University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, was awarded a grant in January 2005 to aid research on 'Amniocentesis, Cultural Mediation, and the Construction of Difference in Italy,' supervised by Dr. Joseph S. Alter. This project examined a program in which native speakers of thirty languages facilitate the delivery of culturally competent healthcare to recent immigrants in Florence, Italy. Research was designed to reveal the ways in which culture is defined, represented, and enacted throughout the various administrative and clinical registers of the program, and was focused primarily on a prenatal clinic for Chinese immigrants housed in a center for the practice of Traditional Chinese Medicine. The researcher attended trainings for cultural mediators, participated in the daily life of prenatal clinics where Arab, Romanian, and Chinese mediators assisted patients, and shadowed a Chinese mediator as she conducted rounds in the prenatal and maternity wards of a large suburban hospital. Interviews were conducted with administrators, doctors, midwives, mediators, and patients to elicit opinions about the meanings of culture and how it relates to the needs of expectant and new immigrant mothers. Particular attention was paid to points of disjuncture in clinical practice, where ideal theories or romanticized versions of culture came into conflict with the legal, material and structural reality of immigrant patients. The women who frequented the clinics described their needs primarily in legal, structural, and economic terms: long working hours and poor conditions, greater need for translation services, and difficulty navigating the bureaucracy of medical and government offices. All of these needs were addressed in daily interactions in the clinic, yet the clinic staff expressed a frustrating incongruity between an idealized Chinese culture, associated with healthful living and a balanced lifestyle, and the often unhealthy circumstances of their immigrant patients.
Grama, Emanuela, U. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI - To aid research on 'Europeanizing Labor, Rethinking Belonging: Romanian-German Relations in Romania,' supervised by Dr. Katherine Verdery
EMANUELA GRAMA, then a student at University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, was awarded a grant in April 2005 to aid research on 'Europeanizing Labor, Rethinking Belonging: Romanian-German Relations in Romania,' supervised by Dr. Katherine Verdery. In the multiethnic city of Sibiu, located in the center of Transylvania region of Romania, research focused on practices of community work. More specifically, it investigated current phenomena of volunteering and social work performed mostly by different groups of young foreigners, mostly coming from German-speaking lands to help the Saxon community. Members of the community explain the volunteering by setting it within a historical context in which community work was intimately linked to the Saxon ethnic group. Results suggest that such arguments, which stress the moral and social value of community work, help the currently small group of Saxons (1.5 percent of the city's population) present itself as unique and thus maintain its historically grounded social and political prestige within the symbolical geography of the city and the whole region. Such practices of work are employed as key markers of ethnic boundaries and thus help, to a certain extent, to reinforce interethnic symbolic hierarchies even when done outside the boundaries of the group (for instance, in the reconstruction project of the historical center of the city, built by the Saxons in 12th century, but where now few Saxons still live).
Rogers, Juliette R., Brown U., Providence, RI - To aid research on 'The Politics and Power of Food: Norman Cheese, French Identity, and the Creation of 'Europeans',' supervised by Dr. David I. Kertzer
JULIETTE R. ROGERS, then a student at Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island, received funding in May 2004 to aid research on 'The Politics and Power of Food: Norman Cheese, French Identity, and the Creation of 'Europeans',' supervised by Dr. David I. Kertzer. Research was conducted between September 2004 and August 2005, based in Normandy, France. The objectives were to understand the functioning of political influence of a nationally recognized regional industry in the evolving European context, and to assess the extent to which European Union policy bore on the regional, national, or European self-identification of actors in that industry. Fieldwork consisted of participant observation and interviews with people active in the cheese industry of the region (which produces name-controlled AOC Livarot, Camembert de Normandie, and Pont-l'Eveque cheeses) including dairy farmers, cheesemakers, agricultural consultants, government inspectors and functionaries, elected officials, agricultural and cheese unions, and personally invested private citizens. Extending the enquiry to ascertain French and European levels of influence, officials and dairy industry employees in Paris and Brussels contributed new perspectives on motives for policy and regulatory change and how they are translated from one level to the next. Unsurprisingly, the concerns, stakes, goals, and restraints changed at each step of policy (and cheese) production, revealing the complexity of agricultural, health, and cultural policy as it passes from the local to regional, national, European, and international scales. Important issues to emerge from fieldwork include the politics and economics of name-controlled foods at all levels, internal French conflicts between widely cited cultural habits and 'mentalities' and their decline in actual practice, access to political and regulatory information and how that relates to the exercise of power, and the tension between cultural ideals and commercial realities.
Horne, Brian Arthur, U. of Chicago, Chicago, IL - To aid research on ''Save Our Souls': Russian Bards and the Sound of State Transformation,' supervised by Dr. Susan Gal
BRIAN A. HORNE, then a student at University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois, received funding in April 2008 to aid research on ''Save Our Souls:' Russian Bards and the Sound of State Transformation,' supervised by Dr. Susan Gal. This research project examines how Russian bardic song (bardovskaia pesnia), a formerly censored and unofficial cultural phenomenon of the late Soviet period, figures in the expression and contestation of different political histories and anxieties about changing sociopolitical conditions in Moscow. By examining the private commoditization, public memorialization and official valorization of bardic music today in public and private institutional sites of bardic music performance and commemoration, this research illuminates the often subtle ways in which personal and institutional positions about generational, social and political change are negotiated, experienced and reinscribed at the level of music, aesthetics, and affect. As formerly contraband music that circulated through underground exchange networks during the Soviet era, this genre now serves as a touchstone for interpersonal and national political understandings and arguments about the nature of the relationship between the Russian present, past and future, and broader discourses about the state and fate of Russia.