Lem, Dr. Winnie, Trent U., Peterborough, Canada - To aid research on 'Transnationalism and Chinese Migrant Livelihoods'
DR. WINNIE LEM, of Trent University in Peterborough, Canada, was awarded a grant in December 2002 to aid research on the significance of transnational networks in the organization of livelihoods among Chinese migrants in France. Lem conducted fieldwork on small, family-run businesses operated by migrants from Asia in Paris, in order to assess the role played by transnational circuits in the initiation, organization, and operation of such firms over the previous 50 years. Through this case study, Lem explored the different propositions and debates that were emerging in the literature on the nature of migration and transnationalism and their relationships to globalization.
Lem, Winnie. 2007. William Roseberry, Class and Inequality in the Anthropology of Migration. Critique of Anthropology 27(4):377-394.
Colleran, Heidi, U. College London, London, United Kingdom - To aid research on 'Kin and Social Influences on Reproductive Norms and Decision-Making in Rural Poland,' supervised by Dr. Ruth Mace
HEIDI COLLERAN, then a student at University College London, London, United Kingdom, was awarded a grant in May 2010, to aid research on 'Kin and Social Influences on Reproductive Norms and Decision-Making in Rural Poland,' supervised by Dr. Ruth Mace. Women reproduce within complex socio-economic and cultural contexts; as a result reproductive outcomes are influenced both by the people we rely on for social support and wider societal norms. Explaining the 'demographic transition' from high to low fertility -- a common population-level feature across the developed world -- is problematic for evolutionists, who must explain how 'evolved psychologies' can lead to such apparently maladaptive behavior. Using qualitative and quantitative methods, this project tested two evolutionary theories proposed to explain the transition to low fertility in an area of rural Poland where fertility and contraceptive use are strikingly varied, and where the traditions of small-scale subsistence farming are being eroded by 'modernization.' By examining both group- and individual-level variation in a wide variety of dimensions, this project explores how mechanisms for fertility control are learned and diffused among individuals, and ultimately whether reproduction is strategic or influenced. The grantee evaluates whether kin or non-kin disproportionately influence reproductive outcomes, and whether changes in social networks or socioeconomic factors provide the impetus for fertility change. The project builds on theoretical and empirical research on reproductive decision-making by both evolutionary and sociocultural anthropologists, incorporating the work of other social scientists in demography, sociology, social psychology and economics.
Colleran, Heidi, Grazyna Jasienska, Ilona Nenko, Andrzej Galbarczyk, and Ruth Mace. 2014. Community-Level Education Accelerates the Cultural Evolution of Fertility Decline. Proceedings of the The Royal Society B. 281 (Published online, DOI: 10.1089/rspb.2013.2732).
Willson, Dr. Margaret Elizabeth, U. of Washington, Seattle, WA - To aid research on 'Turning the Tide: Gender, Seafaring, and Notions of Risk in Iceland'
DR. MARGARET E. WILLSON, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, was awarded funding in May 2010, to aid research on 'Turning the Tide: Gender, Seafaring, and Notions of Risk in Iceland.' This project explored male and female notions of risk in Iceland, particularly as related to fishing practice. One aim was to learn how these notions of risk might have contributed to Iceland's economic collapse. The investigator found that although Icelandic notions of risk vary between men and women as regards concepts of investment, they do not vary dramatically as regards their relationship to hazards of the land, sea and weather. An emergent focus of the research was on sea women. The traditional way Iceland gendered work is described as that women worked on land while the men worked at sea. However, this research found that a small but significant number of women have worked at sea from the earliest times to the present. These women also hold, and have held, positions at all levels of the fishing industry and, it appears, in all areas of the country. Thus, these women represent a thin slice of experience and knowledge that runs through the entire industry. This research will change the literature regarding women and fishing in Iceland. It also gained insight into how notions of risk are gendered and explored new ways of considering gendered models of development and access to power.
Mishtal, Dr. Joanna Zofia, U. of Central Florida, Orlando, FL - To aid research and writing on 'Contradictions of Democratization: Reproductive Rights and the Politics of Morality in Poland' - Hunt Postdoctoral Fellowship
DR. JOANNA Z. MISHTAL, University of Central Florida, was awarded a Hunt Postdoctoral Fellowship in April 2011 to aid research and writing 'Contradictions of Democratization: Reproductive Rights and the Politics of Morality in Poland.' The book is a historical, theoretical, and ethnographic study of the intersections of politics, gender, and religion. Based on 21 months of ethnographic fieldwork during doctoral and postdoctoral research between 2000 and 2007 in Krakow, Warsaw, and Gdansk, the book explores the postsocialist democratization process and the contentiousness of reproductive politics that emerged since the 1989 fall of state socialism. As reproductive rights became significantly curtailed after the fall of the socialist regime due to the new-found political power of the Catholic Church in Poland, the politics of gender and reproduction shifted to the center of transformative negotiations taking place nationally in Poland and internationally within the European Union. Findings argue for an alternative understanding of Polish democratization refocused around reproductive politics, and make a contribution to the theoretical debates on the significance of regime change and transition politics for feminist consciousness-raising and mobilization. This study demonstrates the centrality of the governance of women's bodies in postsocialist politics-a constitutive feature of the Polish democratization process.
Erikson, Dr. Susan L., U. of Denver, Denver, CO - To aid research and writing on 'Engendering the Global: Women, Medicine, and Technology in Re-Unified Germany' - Richard Carley Hunt Fellowship
DR. SUSAN L. ERIKSON, University of Denver, Denver, Colorado, was awarded a Hunt Postdoctoral Fellowship to aid research and writing on 'Engendering the Global: Women, Medicine, and Technology in Re-Unified Germany.' Funding supported a research trip to Siemens Medical Solutions world headquarters in Mountain View, California and write-up of a book manuscript. Using an ethnography of reproduction to explicate the global, national, and local opportunities and constraints that shape lived-experience, the book addresses theoretical and methodological gaps in the social science literature on globalization and presents a new model for understanding global praxis. The book suggests a reconfiguration of globalization theory and method, one that conjoins macro and micro processes. Drawing from an ethnographic research project that includes data from Siemens' corporate headquarters in Germany and the United States (the ultrasound divisions of Siemens Medical Solutions) as well as patients lived-experiences of prenatal diagnostic technology use, the book argues that the unpacking of 'assemblages' (following Ong and Collier 2005) of power help us to better understand the politics and policy of maternity care. In this case study from Germany, corporate profit-making strategies converge (not coincidentally) with German healthcare policies and biomedical protocols in ways that set the stage for German prenatal ultrasound use, the highest in the world.
Pellegrino, Manuela, U. College London, London, United Kingdom - To aid research on 'Language Policy and Ideology: The Case of Griko,' supervised by Dr. Charles W. Stewart
MANUELA PELLEGRINO, then a student at University College London, London, United Kingdom, was awarded a grant in 2008 to aid research on 'Language Policies and Ideologies: The Case of Griko,' supervised by Charles Stewart. This research investigated the politics of language revival in the case of Griko, a language of Greek origins spoken in the southern Italian Province of Lecce (Grecìa Salentina). It explored mediating processes between national and international bodies that provide funding, and local groups that support Griko, with the aim of studying the impact of national and supranational policies on local linguistic ideologies and policies. The study was based on one year of fieldwork conducted in the villages of Grecìa Salentina. Ethnography included participant observation in local cultural manifestations dedicated to Griko (music festival, seminars, poetry competition etc); semi-structured interviews with leaders of local cultural organizations and local cultural brokers engaged in Griko's revival; semi-structured interviews with village mayors and school principals; and weekly observation in Griko classes given in primary schools. In order to capture the language-scape of Griko in the period preceding the current revival, a daichronic approach was adopted covering the last 20 years.
Gruszko, Mariel Edith, U. of California, Irvine, CA - To aid research on 'Architecting Participation: Making Lived Models for and of Democratic Participation in Barcelona,' supervised by Dr. Keith Murphy
Preliminary abstract: This project is an investigation of the ways in which residents of Barcelona, Spain work to reshape political life and the city through participatory building projects. I will conduct 12 months of ethnographic research on the collaborative design and construction of social centers and other shared public or community buildings. My research will be centered in the work of LaCol, an award-winning architecture firm that works with expert and lay stakeholders on participatory design projects, and in activities at Can Batllo, a neighborhood social center that LaCol helped build. I will investigate how everyday understandings of participation, belonging, and democratic self-governance are made, negotiated, and learned through collaborative building. This research will illuminate the ways in which city residents merge deliberative processes with small-scale building projects to create a form of politics that is not only concerned with ideological argumentation, but also with reshaping the spatial and material structures that regiment everyday life. Such an approach will help explain how residents of large cities come to feel included in civic decision-making processes and how they come to understand themselves as wielding substantial power over their daily lives. My research hypothesizes that participatory building changes both the form of the city and the shape of everyday life.
Resnick, Elana, U. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI - To aid aid engaged activities on 'She Writes the Book of How Much We Suffer: Engaging Waste Management Research Participants in Sofia, Bulgaria,' 2016, Bulgaria
Preliminary abstract: With the Engaged Anthropology Grant I plan to revisit my field-site of Sofia, Bulgaria and, using collaborative ethnographic film documentation techniques, public presentations, and visual representations, make clear what I have created since returning back from the field. I plan to share my Wenner-Gren research findings with three segments of the populations with which I conducted dissertation research: 1) Romani waste workers in Sofia Bulgaria, 2) environmental NGOs and policy makers in Bulgaria, 3) Bulgarian anthropologists and academics. By sharing both my initial Wenner-Gren research findings and documentation of local reactions to these findings, I will, for the first time, be able to engage at once the various host communities with which I conducted dissertation research.
Hothi, Randeep S., U. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI - To aid research on 'Sikhism Will Be Televised: Recognition and Religion-Making amongst British Sikhs,' supervised by Dr. Arvind-Pal Mandair
Preliminary abstract: The Sikh diaspora is currently undergoing rapid cultural transformation, which some scholars have likened to a 'renaissance'. Over the last fifteen years, various unexpected and creative forms of Sikh art and politics have proliferated, particularly in the UK. British Sikh television networks have been at the forefront of this movement. These community-sponsored, non-profit television networks are sites in which Sikh cultural producers come together and produce diverse programming that makes sense of the world while creatively engaging with Sikhism. I examine how British Sikh cultural producers make complicated decisions about how Sikhism should be publicly presented, which representations of Sikhism should be disseminated, and how they will address their audiences--Sikh and non-Sikh. This project uncovers the living debates, interests, and aspirations that shape British Sikh cultural production and the complicated ways that the notion of religion frames discourses about Sikhism. This research provides an opportunity to examine the wider ramifications of minority cultural production in secular societies, and the ways that minority groups articulate their own identities and socially situate themselves by addressing others.