Ammerman, Prof. Albert J., Colgate U., Hamilton, NY - To aid 'The Longitudinal Study of Landscape Dynamics at Acconia in Italy'
DR. ALBERT J. AMMERMAN, Colgate University, Hamilton, New York, received funding in May 2007 to aid research on 'The Longitudinal Study of Landscape Dynamics at Acconia in Italy.' Land use at Acconia has witnessed dramatic changes over the last 80 years. If one goes back to the 1930s, malaria was endemic on the coastal plain and the main activity in the area was the seasonal herding of animals. Today there is prosperity at Acconia due to the production of strawberries and other forms of horticulture in greenhouses. The first strawberries were grown in the mid-1960s, and the number of strawberry fields has steadily increased since then. Under the grant, there was the chance to conduct the fourth mapping of land use in 2007. Previously, the mapping of the whole landscape on a field-by-field basis had been done in 1980, 1989, and 1998. Thus, the four maps now make it possible to trace the evolution of the landscape in detail over a span of 27 years. The fourth mapping revealed, among other things, the further intensification of strawberry production and the recent collapse of the citrus sector. And there are signs today -- rising costs and changing attitudes -- that strawberry production itself is on the verge of a crisis. In addition, the many interviews conducted in 2007 and 2008 have led to a new understanding of the social and economic changes that have gone hand in hand with the transformation of the landscape over the last 27 years. Finally, mention should be made of the implications of the study for the development of recovery theory when it comes to the design and interpretation of archeological surveys.
Wastell, Dr. Sari, U. of London, London, UK; and Starman, Dr. Hannah, Institute of Ethnic Studies, Ljubljana, Slovenia - To aid collaborative research on 'The Codification of Trauma in Humanitarian Law'
Putz, Gudrun A., U. of Iowa, Iowa City, IA - To aid research on 'Migration, Power, and Community: Former Soviet Migrant Sex Workers in the Netherlands and Latvia,' supervised by Dr. Florence E. Babb
GUDRUN A. PUTZ, while a student at University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa, was awarded a grant in May 2002 to aid research on 'Migration, Power, and Community: Former Soviet Migrant Sex Workers in the Netherlands and Latvia,' supervised by Dr. Florence E. Babb. The research conducted for this project resulted in quite fruitful, if unexpected, material. Legalization of prostitution in the Netherlands in 1999, international calls for the eradication of trafficking, expansion of the European Union into Eastern Europe, a worsening Dutch economy, and intensification of anti-immigration sentiments all resulted in Dutch government crackdowns on 'Eastern-European' sex workers and their subsequent movement underground. This environment and the disappearance of one of the two main populations of the research -- the Russian-speaking sex workers -- then became project's new focus. Interviews were conducted with Amsterdam government officials, police, and business-owners around the Red Light District. Newspaper articles and scholarly writing about Eastern-European sex workers and Eastern Europeans in general were collected. In addition, interviews and participant observation were conducted with non-governmental organizations working with migrants and sex workers. Consequently, the second research population of former-soviet street sellers featured more significantly within the general study of Russian speakers in Amsterdam, who were all concerned in one way or another with views about them as 'foreigners' and their relationship with Dutch society. Interviews and participant observation were conducted with former-Soviets on the streets, in their homes, and also during a month spent in Latvia and Lithuania with four of them. The researcher approached other Russian speakers for interviews in the main Amsterdam Russian Orthodox church, Russian stores, and on Russian-migrant websites. The result is an examination of the continuing importance of Cold-War ideas and stereotypes, European social and economic consolidation, and the effect this has had (both positive and negative) on former-Soviet migrants.
Luibheid, Dr. Eithne, Bowling Green State U., Bowling Green, OH - To aid research on 'Babies of Convenience? African Asylum Seekers and Childbearing in Ireland'
DR. EITHNE LUIBHEID, of Bowling Green State University in Bowling Green, Ohio, was awarded a grant in May 2002 to aid research on African asylum seekers and childbearing in Ireland. In the 1990s, Ireland was transformed from an emigrant nation into a destination eagerly sought by migrants from around the world, both immigrant workers and asylum seekers. Luibheid analyzed the Irish government's and public's responses to the most controversial of all newcomers-childbearing African asylum seekers-in order to theorize the relationship between national and supranational (e.g., European Union) identities, imaginaries, and governance structures as these were negotiated, contested, and transformed. The questions that guided the research included, How can feminist anthropological scholarship be extended in order to understand struggles for control over asylum seekers' childbearing as a mechanism for rearticulating the link between the national and the supranational? In what ways do these struggles draw migrant women's reproductive capacities into new circuits of commodification within a global system while also providing new opportunities for agency? How do these struggles reveal the refashioning of gender and racial relations in national and EU contexts? Luibheid's preliminary findings included the observation that controversies over asylum seekers' childbearing had given the state a means to reconstitute a notion of the sovereign Irish nation, despite globalization. Moreover, the controversies used women's bodies as a terrain for installing new racial distinctions and rearticulating older ones-distinctions that now structure everyday life in Ireland. The controversies have materially affected asylum-seeking women's possibilities for being recognized as full members of the Irish polity, in terms of both accessing rights and engaging in practices of democratic citizenship.
Luibhéid, Eithne. 2004. Childbearing Against the State? Asylum Seeker Women in the Irish Republic. Women?s Studies International Forum 27:335-349.
Luibheid, Eithne. 2006. Sexual Regimes and Migration Controls: Reproducing the Irish Nation-State in Transnational Contexts. Feminist Review 83:60-78.
Cherkaev, Xenia Andrej, Columbia U., New York, NY - To aid research on 'I Don't Know Why, but that One Wants Me: The Saturation of Use and the Agency of Things in Russia,' supervised by Dr. Elizabeth A. Povinelli
XENIA A. CHERKAEV, then a student at Columbia University, New York, New York, received a grant in May 2010 to aid research on 'I Don't Know Why, but that One Wants Me: The Saturation of Use and the Agency of Things in Russia,' supervised by Dr. Elizabeth A. Povinelli. In 2011, Putin warned that the American-funded political opposition would falsify the election results' falsification, and might kill someone off, to blame the government. Attempting to write a history of this present, where universal corruption accusations blend easily into conspiracy theory, this project examines changing regimes of circulation, and the correlating changes in regimes of truth. It begins in late-Soviet Leningrad, asking how people made and obtained everyday things by using their positions in the centralized distribution system, their access to surplus material hoarded by enterprises, and the reified norms of State institutions - and how State Secrecy, permeating everyday life as another monolithic norm, guaranteed a truth, just out of reach: 'It irritated! There were certain things some idiot didn't want me to know!' It then asks how regimes of both truth and circulation changed with the post-Soviet transition, in which the sudden disclosure of previously unavailable materials correlated with widespread political discussion, extrasensory and religious activity, sharp commodity deficit, and new economic policies, which allowed people to make cash on State surplus and informal deals that 'took the country apart by the screws ? swiped everything from precious metals to Arab horses... fantastic times!'
Erikson, Dr. Susan L., U. of Denver, Denver, CO - To aid research and writing on 'Engendering the Global: Women, Medicine, and Technology in Re-Unified Germany' - Richard Carley Hunt Fellowship
DR. SUSAN L. ERIKSON, University of Denver, Denver, Colorado, was awarded a Hunt Postdoctoral Fellowship to aid research and writing on 'Engendering the Global: Women, Medicine, and Technology in Re-Unified Germany.' Funding supported a research trip to Siemens Medical Solutions world headquarters in Mountain View, California and write-up of a book manuscript. Using an ethnography of reproduction to explicate the global, national, and local opportunities and constraints that shape lived-experience, the book addresses theoretical and methodological gaps in the social science literature on globalization and presents a new model for understanding global praxis. The book suggests a reconfiguration of globalization theory and method, one that conjoins macro and micro processes. Drawing from an ethnographic research project that includes data from Siemens' corporate headquarters in Germany and the United States (the ultrasound divisions of Siemens Medical Solutions) as well as patients lived-experiences of prenatal diagnostic technology use, the book argues that the unpacking of 'assemblages' (following Ong and Collier 2005) of power help us to better understand the politics and policy of maternity care. In this case study from Germany, corporate profit-making strategies converge (not coincidentally) with German healthcare policies and biomedical protocols in ways that set the stage for German prenatal ultrasound use, the highest in the world.
Price, Dr. Sally, College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA - To aid research on 'Art and the Civilizing Mission: Cultural Politics in Paris and Overseas France'
DR. SALLY PRICE, College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, Virginia, was awarded a grant in January 2005 to aid research on 'Art and the Civilizing Mission: Cultural Politics in Paris and Overseas France.' The research conducted under this grant involved an in-depth exploration of the role of the French state in defining, acquiring, exhibiting, interpreting, and promoting art created by people from 'traditional' cultures in Africa, Oceania, and the Americas. One part traced recent developments in the status of artists in French Guiana, France's department (and former colony) in South America. A second part followed the decade-and-a-half-long efforts of French President Jacques Chirac to 'valorize' non-Western arts in Paris museums, culminating in their presence in the Louvre (as of 2000) and in a special new museum next to the Eiffel Tower (inaugurated in June 2006). In French Guiana, extensive interviews were conducted with artists, agents, members of cooperatives, and others in order to follow the transformation of an art originally destined for internal consumption into a marketable commodity produced by full-time professional artists. In Paris, anthropologists, art historians, museum curators, journalists, collectors, art dealers, artists, and politicians complemented findings from books, articles, and websites, to produce a history of the complex interactions that culminated in the realization of Chirac's dream. As the research developed, the second part of the project became dominant, due to the complexity of the politics and competing ideologies that fed controversies, rival propositions, and practical considerations in this 300 million dollar undertaking. The findings from French Guiana have been published in two articles. The Paris research is in press at the University of Chicago Press for publication in 2007 as The House that Jacques Built: Art and Difference in France.
Price, Sally. 2005 Art and the Civilizing Mission. Anthropology and Humanism 30(2):133-140.
Price, Sally. 2007. Paris Primitive: Jacques Chirac?s Museum on the Quai Branly. University of Chicago Press: Chicago and London.
Price, Sally. 2007. Into the Mainstream: Shifting Authenticities in Art. American Ethnologist 34(4): 603-620.
Gursel, Zeynep D., U. of California, Berkeley, CA - To aid research on 'The Image Industry: The Work of International News Photographs in the Age of Digital Reproduction,' supervised by Dr. Nelson H.H. Graburn
ZEYNEP D. GURSEL, while a student at University of California in Berkeley, California, received funding in June 2003 to aid research on international news photographs in the age of digital reproduction, under the supervision of Dr. Nelson H. H. Graburn. Gursel conducted seven months of research on the international photojournalism industry, which was in the midst of a major transformation, due partly to a transition from film to digital images and partly to new institutions that had been able to enter the market as distribution mechanisms changed. Digitalization of production and particularly of distribution had radically increased the number of images available. Gursel carried out extensive fieldwork in the news and editorial division of Corbis, a major visual content provider seen by many as a major force in shaping the future of the industry. Research was also conducted at news publications, in order to determine the processes by which key decision makers negotiated which images were used and how those images were sourced. Interviews were conducted with photographers, editors, owners of major photo agencies, and archivists, in order to understand how images were marketed and what determined whose visions got put into circulation. At a time when historical narratives are becoming increasingly communicated through visuals, which types of images get produced, distributed, published, and archived in the present correlate with which versions of history will be narrated in the future.
Gürsel,Zeynep Devrim. 2012. The Politics of Wire Service Photography: Infrastructures of Representation in a Digital Newsroom. American Ethnologist 39(1):71-89.
Samli, Sherife Ayla, Rice U., Houston, TX - To aid research on 'Containing the Future: The Hope Chest in Contemporary Urban Turkey,' supervised by Dr. James D. Faubion
AYLA SAMLI, then a student at Rice University, Houston, Texas, received funding in November 2007 to aid research on 'Containing the Future: The Hope Chest in Contemporary Urban Turkey,' supervised by Dr. James D. Faubion. This research investigated the hope chest, or çeyiz, as an indicator of changes in women's status in Istanbul, Turkey. A time-honored tradition central to wedding preparations, the hope chest has undergone extreme changes recently, reflecting larger changes in family structure, women's education, and love relationships. This research explored the changing çeyiz as a commodity, a family keepsake, a national symbol, and as a transitional object accompanying the bride into her new home. To understand the çeyiz and its manifold implications, research was undertaken at merchant centers, handiwork courses, wedding-related stores, and in family homes. Intergenerational interviews among families and interviews with brides and grooms explored the hope chest as a negotiated object -- something created and accumulated through bargaining. Implicit to the hope chest was a discussion how young women and their mothers had different expectations regarding women's roles. The data suggests that education, above all other factors, critically shapes women's attitudes toward their hope chests, their expected gender roles in marriage, and their negotiating power in both household purchases and wedding arrangements.