Holmes, Dr. Douglas Reginald, State U. of New York, Binghamton, NY - To aid research on 'Economy of Words: Knowledge Production Within the Deutsche Bundesbank and the European Central Bank'
DR. DOUGLAS R. HOLMES, State University of New York, Binghamton, New York, received funding in October 2006 to aid research on 'Economy of Words: Knowledge Production within the Deutsche Bundesbank and the European Central Bank.' This project was initially designed to examine how key figures within the European Central Bank (ECB) and the Deutsche Bundesbank were experimenting with ideas about the forms and functions of central banks: experimentation that impels what the monetary economist Alan Blinder has termed the 'quiet revolution' in central banking. Each element of this revolution is contingent on new forms of communication: a process by which the economy attains a distinctive communicative dynamic and design. The fundamental issues at stake in this project were unexpectedly amplified by the financial crisis that coalesced initially in August 2007 and intensified in September 2008 after the collapse of Lehman Brothers. Central bankers recast the technocratic innovations that impelled the quiet revolution as the basis for contextualizing the tumultuous conditions analytically and the formulation of policy to influence the severity, the breadth, and the duration of the destructive storm. The research, thus, demonstrates how central bankers managed public expectations during the crisis by composing communications -- that drew of the full intellectual resources of these institutions, the research acumen, the judgment, and the experience of their personnel -- to underwrite representations of a financial future with faith and credit.
Holmes, Douglas. 2014. Economy of Words: Communicative Imperatives in Central Banks. The University of Chicago Press: Chicago and London.
Silian, Alina Petronela, Central European U., Budapest, Hungary - To aid research on 'Identity Politics, Knowledge Production, and Governmentality: The Romani Politics of Difference in Romania,' supervised by Dr. Ayse S. Caglar
Ketchum, Frederick Benjamin, U. of Chicago, Chicago, IL - To aid research on 'Redesigning Human Nature: An Anthropology of Enhancement Drugs in Germany,' supervised by Dr. Judith Farquhar
FREDERICK B. KETCHUM, then a student at University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois, was awarded a grant in April 2011 to aid research on 'Redesigning Human Nature: An Anthropology of Enhancement Drugs in Germany,' supervised by Dr. Judith Farquhar. This research ethnographically examined the phenomena of 'enhancement' in Germany, or the use of medical treatments by individuals who are not sick to improve performance or mood. Currently, most technologies that can be used for improvement purposes are prescription pharmaceuticals. Most of the literature on this topic comes from bioethics, which deals with important ethical questions about whether using enhancements is unnatural, if this use threatens individuals' identity, if everyone should have access to these medications, and what the consequences for broader society are. This project added to existing ethical analyses by focusing on qualitative, ethnographic data about the discourses around enhancement in Germany, and experiences of individuals using those medications. Research found that much of the public concern about enhancements is due to anxieties about changes in global market regimes and labor markets, and expectations for productivity and achievement. Those individuals using enhancements reported sharing these concerns, but also using enhancements as a way to meet the expectations they perceived. Given that those drugs used for enhancement are generally used for treatment, research also investigated the relationship of enhancement to medical practice, to situate medicine in its wider social context, in which desires for self-improvement are an everyday fact of life.
Ambikaipaker, Mohan, U. of Texas, Austin, TX - To aid research on 'Antiracist Activism and the Decline of Multiculturalism in East London,' supervised by Dr. Joao Costa Vargas
MOHAN AMBIKAIPAKER, then a student at University of Texas, Austin, Texas, received funding in October 2006 to aid research on 'Anti-racist Activism and the Decline of Multiculturalism in East London,' supervised by Dr. João Costa Vargas. Funding enabled extensive ethnographic research to be carried out on how Black and South Asian communities in East London struggle against different but interrelated forms of racism. The British state has consolidated a shift from the earlier anti-racist and anti-discriminatory objectives of multiculturalism by reformulating contemporary multicultural policy and practices as tools to ensure national security instead. The official focus has shifted the spotlight towards British Muslims, who are constructed as the likely and potential source of cultural clashes, religious extremism, and domestic terrorism. Anti-terror and national security policies and practices are generated through an emergent common sense that shifts the meaning of official multiculturalism away the struggle to accord recognition and rights for minorities and steers it towards a repressive notion of multiculturalism aimed at regulating ethnic identities in compliance primarily with counter-terrorism's logic. This change in multiculturalism forces the development of new forms of anti-racist social movements that have to negotiate a range of identities produced by defensive racial and ethnic responses to the new multicultural regime. There is a conceptual space for these movements that mediate between abstract universal goals of social justice and the necessarily defensive postures of identities subject to the processes of racialization and social exclusion engendered by repressive multiculturalism. The research findings argue against any form of settled position concerning the debate on the effectiveness of identity politics, preferring instead an ethnographic presentation that examines how an ideologically ambiguous terrain accomplishes much of the everyday work of antiracism in Britain.
Timura, Christopher T., U. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI - To aid research on 'Negotiating Expertise: The Globalizing Cultures of British and American Peace Negotiators,' supervised by Dr. Conrad P. Kottak
CHRISTOPHER T. TIMURA, while a student at the University of Michigan in Ann Arbor, Michigan, received funding to aid research on the globalizing cultures of British and American peace negotiators, under the supervision of Dr. Conrad P. Kottak. Timura conducted eleven months of fieldwork with a representative sample of university and nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) involved in the globalizing field of conflict resolution. He obtained more than 140 interviews with students, trainers, and practitioners, collected oral histories from key informants, and acted as a participant observer in seminars and training workshops. In addition, he used information about practitioners' professional networks and their referrals to arrange interviews with key individuals involved in the conflict management activities of the U.S. and British governments. The data showed that conflict management theories could be traced back to a small but diverse group of North American and European founding figures who used their institutional affiliations to promulgate their understanding of how violent conflict could be prevented, managed, and resolved. Despite considerable demographic diversity in the field today, a common set of concepts and value orientations enabled this transnational group to coalesce around a conflict resolution epistemology and practice. Conflict resolution specialists have used their roles in government, NGOs, and academe to advocate for changes in the ways governments manage and resolve violent conflict, while arguing for the existence of their own specific form of expertise. 'Local' cultural, socioeconomic, religious, and political factors have played varying roles in the globalization of this expertise beyond North America and Europe, offering opportunities for considering how anthropology might constructively analyze and otherwise engage with this and similar phenomena having significant effects on international governance.
Lem, Dr. Winnie, Trent U., Peterborough, Canada - To aid research on 'Transnationalism and Chinese Migrant Livelihoods'
DR. WINNIE LEM, of Trent University in Peterborough, Canada, was awarded a grant in December 2002 to aid research on the significance of transnational networks in the organization of livelihoods among Chinese migrants in France. Lem conducted fieldwork on small, family-run businesses operated by migrants from Asia in Paris, in order to assess the role played by transnational circuits in the initiation, organization, and operation of such firms over the previous 50 years. Through this case study, Lem explored the different propositions and debates that were emerging in the literature on the nature of migration and transnationalism and their relationships to globalization.
Lem, Winnie. 2007. William Roseberry, Class and Inequality in the Anthropology of Migration. Critique of Anthropology 27(4):377-394.
Carroll, Jennifer Jean, U. of Washington, Seattle, WA - To aid research on 'Choosing Methadone: Managing Addiction and the Body Politic in Post-Soviet Ukraine,' supervised by Dr. Laada Bilaniuk
JENNIFER J. CARROLL, then a student at University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, received funding in April 2012 to aid research on 'Choosing Methadone: Managing Addiction and the Body Politic in Post-Soviet Ukraine,' supervised by Dr. Laada Bilaniuk. Recent efforts to control the HIV and intravenous drug use epidemics in Ukraine have been supported by some of the largest international public health grants in the world. This has given leverage to biomedical solutions to addiction in this region, including opiate substitution therapy (OST). This project investigates the social values and processes that inform opiate addicts' treatment-seeking behaviors via ethnographic research and in-depth interviews conducted among active and recovering opiate addicts in Ukraine. Medicalized drug treatment programs may seem like purely technological interventions, but these technologies become soaked in the political, social, and ethical paradigms of each community in which they hit the ground. By tracing how locally relevant social structures and social values shape the experience of addiction and the moral weight of treatment seeking, this project unpacks the locally meaningful reasons why some addicts choose OST, why some do not, and how these new public health infrastructures become incorporated into addicts' strategies for managing their bodies, their identities, and their lives.
Mishtal, Dr. Joanna Zofia, U. of Central Florida, Orlando, FL - To aid research and writing on 'Contradictions of Democratization: Reproductive Rights and the Politics of Morality in Poland' - Hunt Postdoctoral Fellowship
DR. JOANNA Z. MISHTAL, University of Central Florida, was awarded a Hunt Postdoctoral Fellowship in April 2011 to aid research and writing 'Contradictions of Democratization: Reproductive Rights and the Politics of Morality in Poland.' The book is a historical, theoretical, and ethnographic study of the intersections of politics, gender, and religion. Based on 21 months of ethnographic fieldwork during doctoral and postdoctoral research between 2000 and 2007 in Krakow, Warsaw, and Gdansk, the book explores the postsocialist democratization process and the contentiousness of reproductive politics that emerged since the 1989 fall of state socialism. As reproductive rights became significantly curtailed after the fall of the socialist regime due to the new-found political power of the Catholic Church in Poland, the politics of gender and reproduction shifted to the center of transformative negotiations taking place nationally in Poland and internationally within the European Union. Findings argue for an alternative understanding of Polish democratization refocused around reproductive politics, and make a contribution to the theoretical debates on the significance of regime change and transition politics for feminist consciousness-raising and mobilization. This study demonstrates the centrality of the governance of women's bodies in postsocialist politics-a constitutive feature of the Polish democratization process.
Dvorakova, Tereza, Charles U., Prague, Czech Republic - To aid research on 'Between Practice and Purpose: The Money of Unemployed Roma and the Czech Welfare System,' supervised by Dr. Yasar Abu Ghosh
TEREZA DVORAKOVA, then a student at Charles University, Prague, Czech Republic, was awarded funding in April 2011 to aid research on 'Between Practice and Purpose: The Money of Unemployed Roma and the Czech Welfare System,' supervised by Dr. Yasar Abu Ghosh. This project examined the ways welfare providers established relations of inequality among the poor and ways Romani women defended these relations in context of Czech welfare politics. Its focus was an ethnographic research based on participant observation of the morally loaded field of welfare policy. The grantee examined the politics of welfare from different settings and conducted a long-term observation of welfare providers' decision-making on 'deserving poor' in the context of welfare changes toward moral individualism. Research documented the current experience and economic practices of Romani women and the ways by which they challenged the individualist understanding of poverty. The project explored the intricate positions of women and their kinship networks -- as well as welfare providers -- take with the aim of understanding their positions and 'earmarking' (Zelizer) for benefit money. The findings indicate how welfare providers frame a category of 'deserving' poor by using social relations of claimants, visibility of material hardship consumption strategies, homelessness, and nationality in order not to 'spend money on the undeserving' and 'save states' money.' The findings show how Roma women symbolically perform their moral position as 'deserving' and distinguish themselves from white (homeless) people devalued as 'undeserving' but for all that still get benefits.