Hefner, Claire-Marie, Emory U., Atlanta, GA - To aid research on 'Shaping Muslim Subjectivities: Gender, Piety, and Modernity in Indonesian Islamic Boarding Schools,' supervised by Dr. Michael Gates Peletz
CLAIRE-MARIE HEFNER, then a student at Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia, received funding in April 2011 to aid research on 'Shaping Muslim Subjectivities: Gender, Piety, and Modernity in Indonesian Islamic Boarding Schools,' supervised by Dr. Michael G. Peletz. How do young Indonesian Muslim school girls learn and engage with what it means to be a proper, pious, and educated woman? How do differences in understandings of proper Muslim femininity reflect broader variations in Indonesian associations, educational traditions, and social values? These are the broad questions that frame this comparative study of two Islamic boarding schools for girls in Yogyakarta, Indonesia. The focus of the investigation is two prominent Islamic boarding schools (pesantren): Pesantren Krapyak Ali Maksum and Madrasah Mu'allimaat Muhammadiyah. Each school is run, respectively, by one of the two largest Muslim social welfare organizations in the world: the 'traditionalist' Nahdlatul Ulama (NU) and the 'modernist' Muhammadiyah. These two schools were selected because of their national reputations and because of the critical role they play in molding future NU and Muhammadiyah female kaders (cadres). At a time when many scholars suggest that the distinctions between NU and Muhammadiyah are no longer relevant, this study questions that assertion through the optics of developments in Indonesian Islamic education, evaluating what it means for these young women to be members of these organizations. As private institutions with strong academic reputations, Mu'allimaat and Krapyak also cater to the needs and desires of the new Indonesian Muslim middle-class. Through ethnographic observations, a multivariate student survey, over 100 interviews, and media analysis, this study examines girls' engagement with 'gendered' aspects of curricula, extracurricular practices, and informal socialization within and outside of school.
Cho, Mun Young, Stanford U., Stanford, CA - To aid research on 'When Does Poverty Matter? Managing Differential Impoverishments in the People's Republic of China,' supervised by Dr. James Ferguson
MUN YOUNG CHO, then a student at Stanford University was awarded funding in May 2006 to aid research on 'When Does Poverty Matter? Managing Differential Impoverishments in the People's Republic of China,' supervised by Dr. James Ferguson. Dissertation fieldwork, conducted at one-time workers' village in Harbin, northeast China, from August 2006 to July 2007, explored processes of differential impoverishment under China's late socialism and examined how they are managed in the state's projects of governing urban poverty. Research sought, firstly, to examine how both urban laid-off workers and rural migrants of the same area experience and respond to their changing economic fortunes and sociocultural positions by forging new relationships with each other as well as to the state; secondly, to explore how poverty-related state agents have constituted and contested the state's multiple ideological frameworks when they attempt to regulate urban poverty. Ethnographic data suggest that urban laid-off workers and rural migrants formulate common identities through recent processes in which they not only experience spatial segregation and marginalization all together but also reappropriate the state's paternalistic claims for the urban poor to their own needs and understandings. Nevertheless, data also reveal that both groups pursue distinct trajectories rather than forming a unitary bloc owing to state governing techniques that differentiate them as well as to disparate institutional and sociocultural positions that each group has had to the socialist regime. Research demonstrates that 'the poor' in urban China remains not a political class but a governmental and scholarly language for normalizing people who do not consider themselves a collective 'poor.'
Cho, Mun Young Cho. 2012. 'Dividing the Poor': State Governance of Differential Impoverishment in Northeast China. American Ethnologist 39(1):187-200.
Srivastava, Dr. Sanjay, Deakin U., Melbourne, Australia - To aid workshop on 'In Relation To. New Cultures of Intimacy and Togetherness in Asia,' 2009, New Delhi, India, in collaboration with Dr. Brinda Bose
'New Cultures of Intimacy and Togetherness in Asia'
February 5-7, 2009, Nehru Memorial Library, Delhi, India
Organizers: Sanjay Srivastava (Deakin University) and Brinda Bose (University of Delhi)
This conference sought to initiate an interdisciplinary dialogue between anthropologists and those working in areas such as gender studies, film/media studies, popular culture, and urban studies in order to explore emerging cultures of intimacies and friendship in contemporary non-Western contexts. It was held on the premises of the Nehru Memorial Library and Museum in Delhi. Countries represented included China, India, Indonesia, the Philippines, Thailand, Vietnam, as well as scholars from the United Kingdom and United States. There was wide ranging discussion over the three days on a diverse range of topics. These included intimacies and new forms of public transport in India, urban queer cultures in Delhi, sexualities and the public sphere in Thailand, non-heterosexual intimacy in contemporary Indonesian cinema, 'informal' marriages in Indonesia, transvestite cultures in Burma, and the marriage-brokering business in Taiwan. The diverse background of the
audience?anthropologists, sociologists, historians, literature specialists, media scholars, and representatives from NGOs?also enhanced the nature of the interaction. January is a 'conference-heavy' month in Delhi; however, notwithstanding several competing engagements, attendance on all days of the event was extremely high (60 to 70 persons). The organizers are negotiating with Routledge for publication of conference proceedings.
Mikhalova, Vera, Ulan-Ude, Russia - To aid preparation of the personal research materials of Taras Mikhaylov on Siberian Shamanism for archival deposit with the Historical Museum of Buryatia, Ulan-Ude, Russia
Ibrahim, Nur Amali, New York U., New York, NY - To aid research on 'Producing Believers, Contesting Islam: Conservative and Liberal Youths in Post-New Order Indonesia,' supervised by Dr. Michael Gilsenan
NUR AMALI IBRAHIM, then a student at New York University, New York, New York, received funding in May 2008 to aid research on 'Producing Believers, Contesting Islam: Conservative and Liberal Youths in Post-New Order Indonesia,' supervised by Dr. Michael Gilsenan. This project examines the religious socialization of young believers in Indonesia in a context of competing religious ideologies. During the course of research, the grantee uncovered the beliefs of both groups, their intellectual influences, the history of their emergence, and the sociopolitical networks to which they belong. The research found that conservative Islam thrives in secular campuses, while liberalism flourishes in Islamic campuses. This counter-intuitive situation reflects a trend where 'born-again' Muslims from secular backgrounds are more easily persuaded to conservatism, whereas Muslims long exposed to Islamic education are more aware of nuances in religion that they become tolerant and plural. Comparing the socialization practices in both groups, the grantee discovered that conservatives have a systematic process to disseminate their ideology as they organized their members in small and tightly controlled cell groups. Liberals in contrast have a loosely organized structure, relying on debates and discussions rather than religious instruction. Conservatives and liberals compete fiercely to stamp their prominence on campus; this rivalry puts them in a dialectical relationship, such that each makes adjustments in response to the other's actions. Encountering dissatisfactions with their religious orientations, young people may eventually alter their stances, suggesting that conservatives and liberals can be transient identities rather than permanent.
Craig, Sienna R., Cornell U., Ithaca, NY - To aid research on 'Himalayan Healers in Transition: Professionalization, Efficacy, and Identity among Tibetan Medicine Practitioners,' supervised by Dr. David H. Holmberg
SIENNA R. CRAIG, then a student at Cornell University, Ithaca, New York, received funding in January 2004 to aid research on 'Himalayan Healers in Transition: Professionalization, Efficacy, and Ideentity among Tibetan Medicine Practitioners,' supervised by Dr. David H. Holmberg. This project has aimed to trace and theorize the processes of professionalization of Tibetan medical practitioners - paths through history, identity, and medical epistemology manifest in the work of amchi, practitioners of Tibetan medicine, in Nepal and in the Tibet Autonomous Region, China. The grantee conducted research among individual practitioners and members of the Himalayan Amchi Association in Nepal, and among private practitioners as well as doctors at the Mentsikhang (Traditional Tibetan Medicine Hospital) and the Tibetan Medical College, Lhasa. Additional research was conducted at private and state-run factories of Tibetan medicine in the TAR, and among private clinics and factories in Nepal, as well as through contacts made with amchi from India, Bhutan, and Mongolia who participated in a Kathmandu-based international conference on Tibetan medicine. Through the process of fieldwork, as well as preliminary analysis of data, three primary themes emerged: 1) knowledge transmission and changes in Tibetan medical education; 2) access to raw and ready-made medicinals by practitioners, and to medicines and practitioners by patients, as well as production of medicines, including state and international policies that legislate and attempt to standardize production, often according to biomedical models; 3) globalization of Tibetan medicine and its impact on health care options for rural Tibetan communities in Nepal and Tibet. Theoretically, these themes involve explorations into efficacy, professionalization, and globalization.
Thompson, Dr. Eric C., National U. of Singapore, Singapore; and Chulanee, Dr. Thianthai, Chulalongkorn U., Bangkok, Thailand - To aid collaborative research on 'Thai and Indonesian Migrant Cultures in Bangkok, Jakarta and Singapore'
Ornellas, Melody Li, U. of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA - To aid research on 'Negotiating Citizenship: Cross-border Marriages and Collective Actions in Hong Kong,' supervised by Dr. Nicole Constable
MELODY LI ORNELLAS, then a student at University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, received a grant in October 2010 to aid research on 'Negotiating Citizenship: Cross-Border Marriages and Collective Actions in Hong Kong,' supervised by Dr. Nicole Constable. This research investigated contemporary Hong Kong/China cross-border marriages and the complexity of politics, power, and agency involved in mainland Chinese migrant wives' experiences in negotiating their immigration, citizenship, and adaptation to life in Hong Kong. Specifically, it focused on the rise of collective struggles among a group of 'visiting wives' who are only allowed to live temporarily in Hong Kong by utilizing a family visit permit, which must be periodically renewed in the mainland. Based on fieldwork conducted in Hong Kong and Guangdong Province in China, this research explored the wives' cross-border living conditions, difficulties they face during permit renewal, impacts of a non-local/visitor immigration status on their experience of living in Hong Kong, and how this situation prompts them and their Hong Kong husbands and families to engage in political activism to claim rights. This project demonstrates that citizenship is best understood as a negotiated process. In contrast to the state's formalistic definitions of local vs. visitor, 'visiting wives' and their families strive to redefine such meanings in their own terms by emphasizing the wives' familial relationships and significant participation in a range of social activities through which their 'local' status and ties to Hong Kong are substantively expressed.
Karchmer, Dr. Eric Ivan, Independent Scholar, Weston, MA - To aid research and writing on 'Orientalizing the Body: Postcolonial Transformations in Chinese Medicine' - Hunt Postdoctoral Fellowship
DR. ERIC I. KARCHMER, an independent scholar located in Weston, Massachusetts, was awarded a Hunt Postdoctoral Fellowship in October 2007 to aid research and writing on 'Orientalizing the Body: Postcolonial Transformations in Chinese Medicine.' Orientalizing the Body is an ethnography of the hybrid practices that doctors of Chinese medicine have adopted to suit the institutional demands of modern health care delivery in China. Medicine in contemporary China is shaped by postcolonial power asymmetries: doctors of Chinese medicine practice two types of medicine, Chinese medicine and Western medicine, while their Western medicine counterparts learn only one. Despite the social imperative for doctors of Chinese medicine to use both medical systems, they have not developed an overarching theory of integration. Instead they rely on a small set of 'Orientalist' comparisons that posit the two medical systems as mirror images of each other, especially with regards to efficacy, anatomy, and diagnosis. These seemingly innocuous comparisons operate as purifying claims that both marginalize the clinical scope of Chinese medicine to the chronic, the functional, and the hard-to-diagnose, while also enabling clinical innovation by facilitating its integration with Western medicine. The manuscript traces the historical emergence of these Orientalist formulations and their implications for contemporary practice, demonstrating that the dual processes of purification and hybridization, simultaneously constraining and expanding the horizons of clinical practice, have become the central organizing dynamic in the modern development of Chinese medicine.
Karchmer, Eric. 2010. Chinese Medicine in Action: On the Postcoloniality of Medical Practice in China. Medical Anthropology 29(3): 226-252.