Intl. Union of Anthropological & Ethnological Sciences, Manchester, UK (through IUAES org. John Gledhill) - To aid '17th Congress of the IUAES: Evolving Humanity, Emerging Worlds,' 2013, Manchester
'Evolving Humanity, Emerging Worlds: The 17th Congress of the International Union of Anthropological & Ethnological Sciences'
August 5-10, 2013, Manchester University, Manchester, United Kingdom
Organizer: Dr. John Gledhill (Manchester U.)
This truly global congress brought together 1260 anthropologists from sixty-five countries to present 1283 papers in 211 parallel session panels, which successfully promoted dialogue between scholars from different countries and across sub-field boundaries. This networking will be consolidated in the future through the system of IUAES commissions that was reinvigorated at the event. The use of thematic tracks for the parallel sessions worked well in producing innovative and focused panels, the Museum Anthropology track involved international conversations that included countries such as China, and the Visual Anthropology program included several imaginative complements to the normal film-screenings and panel presentations. Wenner-Gren's central role in the promotion of world anthropology and the IUAES was entertainingly presented in Leslie Aiello's inaugural keynote address. Lourdes Arizpe and Howard Morphy gave additional keynotes sponsored by ASA and RAI respectively. Three plenaries consisted of debates between four key speakers, with additional audience participation, another well-received innovation that sharpened the presentation of issues and ensured global diversity amongst the plenary speakers. The final plenary was a panel discussion on World Anthropologies. This and two other panels were sponsored by WCAA. Edited videos of the plenary sessions are now available on YouTube, and various print publications are also in preparation.
Komar, Dr. Debra, U. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM - To aid research on 'The Use of Material Culture to Establish Ethnic Identity in International Investigations of Genocide'
DR. DEBRA KOMAR, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, New Mexico, was awarded funding in October 2006 to aid research on 'The Use of Material Culture to Establish Ethnic Identity in International Investigations of Genocide.' Successful prosecution of genocide requires that victims constitute one of four protected groups: national, religious, ethnic, or racial. Establishing victim identity in prior trials has been largely presumptive, based on untested methodology, or relied on positive ID of the victims. This research details a validation study of one untested method: the use of material culture in establishing victim ethnic identity. Classes of clothing and personal effects were scored on 3,430 individuals of known Hispanic or White ancestry from autopsy records in New Mexico. Significant differences were seen in evidence of language, nationality, and religious affiliation between the two groups, as well as clothing types and currency. Predictive models used to estimate ethnic affinity in random, blind subsets produced an overall accuracy of 80.5% and estimates of 61 to 98% in specific subsets. Results suggest material culture, when present, can provide reliable evidence of ethnic affinity in genocide investigations.
McFarlin, Dr. Shannon, George Washington U., Washington, DC; and Ndagijimana, Mr. Felix, Dian Fossey Gorilla Fund Inst. Musanze, Rwanda - To aid research on 'Postnatal Ontogeny Of Wild Gorillas.'
Preliminary abstract: A central challenge of great importance to anthropologists is to understand how evolution has shaped the unique life history strategies of modern humans. Recent data have shown more diversity than previously recognized in the life history characteristics of great apes -- our closest living relatives - in the wild, attributed to differences in diet and social behavior. Yet, our knowledge of their anatomical development remains overwhelmingly derived from captive studies. We will use non-invasive field photogrammetry to investigate the postnatal growth and development of anatomical features in two populations of wild gorillas: mountain gorillas from Karisoke Research Center, Rwanda and western gorillas from Nouabale-Ndoki National Park, Congo. Our specific aims are (1) to test how variation in anatomical development relates to observed differences in life histories and socioecology; and (2) to test whether the timing of dental development serves as a good predictor for the timing of other life history milestones (e.g., weaning). By integrating new anatomical data with existing primatology data, we will determine how observed differences in life history, diet, and social behavior interact with variation in anatomical development within a single African ape genus, thus improving confidence in our reconstructions of life history in the human fossil record.
Berlin, Dr. Overton Brent, U. of Georgia, Athens, GA - To aid preparation of the personal research collections of Brent and Elois Ann Berlin for archival deposit with the National Anthropological Archives, Suitland, MD - Historical Archives Program
Pontzer, Dr. Herman, Washington U., St. Louis, MO - To aid research on 'Metabolic Cost of Living in Bonobos'
DR. HERMAN PONTZER, Washington University, St. Louis, Missouri, was awarded a grant in April 2009, to aid research on 'Metabolic Cost of Living in Bonobos.' The way in which a species uses energy tells us a lot about its ecology, physiology, and evolution. This study provided the first direct measures of daily energy expenditure in chimpanzees and gorillas. The chimpanzee sample (n=17) was drawn from adults and juveniles living at the Tchimpounga Chimpanzee Sanctuary in the Republic of Congo; the gorilla sample (n=6) was drawn from the population housed at the Lincoln Park Zoo in Chicago. Daily energy expenditure, measured as kilocalories per day, was measured over a two-week period using the doubly labeled water method. Results indicate that chimpanzees and gorillas use remarkably little energy for their body size. This low metabolic rate is similar to that recently reported for orangutans, and suggests that chimpanzees and gorillas have evolved a risk-minimizing strategy that reduces their food requirements and thereby lowers their risk of starvation in food-poor times. Further, the low rate of energy expenditure in chimpanzees and gorillas corresponds to their low rate of reproduction. These results also provide an evolutionary perspective on human metabolism. Human metabolic rates are considerably higher than those of apes, suggesting humans have evolved a high-throughput metabolic strategy to fuel our higher rate of reproduction and larger brains.
Salazar, Dr. Noel B., U. of Leuven, Leuven, Belgium - To prepare the complete correspondence and papers of the EASA Executive Committee for archival deposit with the Royal Anthropological Institute - Historical Archives Program
Ives Goddard, Dr. R.H., Washington, DC - To aid preparation of the Papers of William C. Sturtevant for archival deposit with the National Anthropological Archives, Suitland, MD - Historical Archives Program
To support the development of a doctoral program in anthropology at the Tribhuvan University, Kirtipur, Kathmandu, Nepal - Institutional Development Grant
Through a collaboration with Cornell University, the Department of Sociology and Anthropology at Tribhuvan University aims to bring improve the theoretical and methodological training of Ph.D students and upgrade the credentials of current faculty who do not hold a Ph.D. The IDG grant will be used to upgrade the current curriculum, provide modest support for research, intensify international exposure and exchange and build up the library and electronic resources. Currently in Nepal, the research agenda in anthropology is frequently determined by NGOs