MASAKO FUJITA, then a student at University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, was awarded a grant in April 2006 to aid research on 'An Evolutionary Perspective on Mother-Offspring Vitamin A Transfer,' supervised by Dr. Bettina Shell-Duncan. This project investigated the perplexing decline in breastmilk vitamin A (VA) concentrations across the postpartum months.
ANDREW WILLIAM FROEHLE, then a student at University of California - San Diego, La Jolla, California, received a grant in October 2007 to aid research on 'Physical Activity and Basal Metabolic Rate in postmenopausal Women,' supervised by Dr. Margaret J. Schoeninger. The project investigated the relationship between age, exercise and basal metabolic rate (BMR) in postmenopausal women, comparing two subgroups: 'active' (>5 hours exercise/week) and 'training' (sedentary at baseline, completed four-month exercise program).
Preliminary abstract: Anthropological studies conducted from Samoa to Siberia have demonstrated consequences of cultural change on human biological variation. Findings point to market integration, 'Westernization,' 'acculturation,' and other social transitions as determinants of changes in diet and lifestyle that lead to increased obesity and metabolic dysregulation in affected populations.
MICHELLE J. ESCASA, then a student at University of Nevada, Las Vegas, Nevada, received a grant in April 2011 to aid research on 'Female Sociosexuality, Mate Preferences, and Sex Steroid Hormones of Lactating Women in Manila,' supervised by Dr. Peter B. Gray. This project investigates the influence of lactation on female sociosexuality and mate preferences in urban Manila, a population with long-term breastfeeding, low contraceptive use, and quick return to cycling.
DAN EISENBERG, then a student at Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois, received a grant in May 2010 to research on 'Ecological Predictors of Telomere Lengths: a Longitudinal and Cross-Population Analysis of Human Biological Diversity,' supervised by Dr. Christopher Kuzawa . Telomeres are DNA sequences at chromosome ends that shorten with age and are required for proper cell division. Telomere shortening is associated with diminished cell proliferation capacity, which is believed to be a cause of senescence.
Preliminary abstract: Due to a general, though undocumented, sense that little diagnostic information can be gleaned from them, ribs and overall thoracic morphology have been comparatively understudied relative to other anatomical regions in human paleontology. This study tests the influence of skeletal thoracic shape on respiratory variables (e.g., total lung capacity, functional residual capacity, etc.) using computed tomography (CT), to expand our understanding of modern and Neandertal thoracic patterning.
DR. DARNA L. DUFOUR, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado, was awarded a grant in July 2004 to aid research on 'Work Efficiency in Lactating Women.' Lactation is the most costly phase of reproduction for human females and can increase a women's energy needs by 30 percent. Women can potentially meet this increase in energy needs by increasing their food energy intake, decreasing their physical activity and/or utilizing their body fat stores.
DR. JASON A. DeCARO, University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, Alabama, was awarded funding in October 2007 to aid research on 'Physical Activity and the Architecture of Daily Life among Alabama Mexican Americans: A Biocultural Investigation.' Rising global obesity rates, and the historically limited effectiveness of behavioral interventions in addressing them, motivate the search for new understandings of biocultural and psychosocial determinants of physical activity.