DR. LAWRENCE P.GREKSA, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio, received funding in November 2002 to aid research on 'Demography of a Natural Fertility Population Undergoing Social Change.' The purpose of this study was to construct a data set which would facilitate examination of the demographic structure and fertility patterns, and particularly the impact of a transition away from farming to wage labor, in the fourth largest Old Order Amish settlement centered in Geauga County, Ohio.
DR. PETER B. GRAY, University of Nevada, Las Vegas, Nevada, was awarded funding in April 2012 to aid research on 'Fathers in Jamaica: Longitudinal Changes, Biological and Stepparenting, and Testosterone.' What are the impacts of fatherhood on Jamaican men? The project addresses this wider question in several ways. Fathers of children aged approximately 18-24 months were asked about their paternal attitudes, relationship dynamics, sexual function, and health, enabling testing for effects of fatherhood on such outcomes as relationship quality and depression.
Preliminary abstract: This research uses a biocultural approach and anthropological methods to test predicted life history tradeoffs between reproductive effort (measured using testosterone levels and phenotypic masculine traits) and immune function among the Shuar of Ecuador, a forager-horticulturalist group characterized by high parasite load. Human Life History Theory aims to understand how natural selection produces age and context-dependent tradeoffs in resource allocation to different biological functions, and the physiological bases of these allocations and their outcomes.
LEE T. GETTLER, then a student at Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois, was awarded funding in May 2010 to aid research on 'Longitudinal Perspectives on Paternal Socioendocriniology in the Philippines,' supervised by Dr. Christopher Kuzawa. Much prior research has been conducted on the neuroendocrine underpinnings of maternal care, but much less is known about paternal socioendocrinology, particularly among human males. This research is the first to demonstrate that fatherhood causally decreases testosterone in human males.
Preliminary abstract: In Cebu (Philippines), fathers have recently increased their involvement in childcare, i.e. contemporary fathers perform more caregiving than did their fathers. This shift might relate to political economic forces that affected labor and migration. Framed in this context, my analyses here focus on human genetic variation, testosterone (T), and multiple generations of familial caregiving and demographic data from Cebu.
IAN D. GEORGE, then a graduate student at University of Missouri, Columbia, Missouri, was awarded a grant in October 2013 to aid research on 'Mapping the Cerebrocerebellar Language Network and its Role in Human Neuroevolution,' supervised by Dr. Kristina Aldridge. Language is arguably the key factor that has influenced the evolution of the human brain. Previous research on endocasts, our only direct evidence of the brains of human ancestors, has revealed a disproportionate increase in size of the cerebellum relative to the cerebrum.
DR. RALPH M. GARRUTO, State University of New York, Binghamton, New York, received funding in April 2011 to aid research on 'Longitudinal Studies of Health Transition and Culture Change in Vanuatu.' Health burdens are changing in developing countries worldwide. Whereas chronic diseases such as hypertension and obesity were once primarily diseases of industrial countries, these now represent major health concerns in the developing world.
Preliminary abstract: The Republic of Vanuatu, an island nation in the South Pacific, is undergoing a rapid health transition as the result of modernization and accompanying changes in diet, activity, and lifestyle. Our previous research has demonstrated that obesity is rapidly incresing in prevalence in urban areas, and that rural areas with tourism are at risk due to rapid culture change, including increased access to processed and packaged foods.
EVAN M. GAROFALO, then a student at Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland, received funding in May 2010, to aid research on 'Genetic and Environmental Effects on Skeletal Growth Variation,' supervised by Dr. Christopher Britton Ruff. Adult morphology and variation are the result of complex interactions between genetic and environmental effects during the growth process. Health, disease, and socio-economic status are important for the regulation of the growth trajectory, particularly during infancy and early childhood.
Preliminary abstract: The Trivers-Willard hypothesis (TWH) predicts unequal parental investment between daughters and sons in polygynous populations where somatic or economic conditions of males determine their marriageability. Specifically, it predicts that mothers in good condition will invest more in sons while mothers in poor condition will invest more in daughters because these strategies may enhance their reproductive success. A small but growing number of studies investigate sex bias in human milk quality, particularly milk nutrient levels with mixed results.