Guilfoyle, Meagan M., Indiana U., Bloomington, IN - To aid research on 'The Impact of Ramadan Fasting on Breast Milk Composition and Infant Growth in Rabat, Morocco,' supervised by Dr. Andrea Wiley
Preliminary abstract: Ramadan is a cultural practice that has potentially profound effects on human biology, particularly on nursing mothers and infants. During the month of Ramadan, nursing Muslim women around the world participate in a fast in which no food or water is consumed from sunrise to sunset. Little is known about how this fast influences breast milk composition or infant feeding practices, and, although infants are not subject to fasting, these changes could in turn affect infant growth, development and health. This study will employ a biocultural approach to investigate maternal milk nutrient and endocrine composition and infant growth during maternal fasting from food and water for approximately 13-14 hours daily over the course of the month of Ramadan in Rabat, Morocco. I hypothesize that maternal fasting from food and water for about 14 hours will result in increased milk cortisol concentrations and that increased cortisol will be associated with accelerated infant growth. I further hypothesize that this will take place independently of the nutritional quality of the milk, with maternal nutritional stores largely buffering the macronutrient content of the milk and, to a lesser extent, micronutrient content during maternal fasting. Studying milk composition and infant responses during Ramadan could elucidate adaptive responses of lactation under conditions of water insecurity (Wutich and Brewis 2014) and help answer critical questions within the field of lactational biology about maternal factors that influence inter- and intra-woman variation in milk volume and composition, particularly endocrine and metabolic components, and the mechanisms by which milk components mediate infant growth, development and health (Neville, et al. 2012).
Madimenos, Dr. Felicia, Ithaca College, Ithaca, NY - To aid engaged activities on 'Engaging Shuar Communities Through Collaborative Health Education: Enhancing Participant Agency in Indigenous Health Research,' 2013, Morona-Santiago, Ecuador
DR. FELICIA MADIMENOS, Ithaca College, Ithaca, New York, received an Engaged Anthropology Grant in February 2013 to aid 'Engaging Shuar Communities through Collaborative Health Education: Enhancing Participant Agency in Indigenous Health Research in Morona-Santiago, Ecuador.' Misinformation regarding the causes and prevention of illness/disease and miscommunication between local health care providers and patients present hurdles for the anthropologist/health researcher working in a non-Western context. For this reason, it is of the utmost importance for anthropologists to consciously bridge communication barriers by creating ample time for dialog with the participant and translating health data into an accessible form. The Engaged Anthropology Grant provided an opportunity to reconsider how the grantee conducts health research with indigenous Amazonian Shuar communities in Ecuador and achieved the following goals: 1) to develop family health days for participants permitting more individualized discussions of health (these meetings also created a platform for dissemination of population-specific health materials); 2) to facilitate a community-level workshop led by a Shuar colleague/health promoter that focused on family planning options; and 3) to participate in community-wide presentations that highlighted common health issues among Shuar and introduced potential health resources in the participants' own community. These platforms emphasize that in order for health information to remain relevant over the long-term, anthropologists must develop opportunities that empower communities by making accessible the knowledge and information necessary for participants to participate in, and affect informed decisions about their health.
Piperata, Barbara A., U. of Colorado, Boulder, CO - To aid research on 'The Energetics of Lactation among Tropical Horticulturists Living in the Brazilian Amazon,' supervised by Dr. Darna L. Dufour
BARBARA A. PIPERATA, while a student at the University of Colorado in Boulder, Colorado, received funding in January 2002 to aid research on the energetics of lactation among tropical horticulturists in the Brazilian Amazon, under the supervision of Dr. Darna L. Dufour. Piperata's goal was to understand how tropical horticultural women met the increased energetic demands of lactation when they lived in conditions of food scarcity and practiced subsistence agriculture. She followed twenty-three women over their first six months of lactation and took measurements of their dietary intake, energy expenditure, and body composition at three times (forty days, two to four months, and six months postpartum) in order to identify the strategies used to meet the increased energy demands of lactation. One of the most interesting adaptive strategies these women used was the cultural practice called resguardo. During this forty-day immediate postpartum period, the women were excused from all strenuous work, including subsistence activities, and depended on other household members, especially husbands, to meet subsistence demands. By two to four months postpartum, women had returned to more normal activity patterns, and body fat stores became important for meeting energy needs. By six months postpartum, all women were supplementing their infants' diets, but most women continued to lose weight, indicating that their food intake was insufficient to meet their caloric needs. Thus, the strategies utilized by these women changed over the course of lactation. These findings illustrate the importance of an in-depth, longitudinal, biocultural approach to studying a life-history event such as lactation.
Piperata, Barbara A., and Lindsey M. Gooden Mattern. 2011. Longitudinal Study of Breastfeedng Structure and Women's Work in the Brazilian Amazon. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 144(2):226-237
Piperata, Barbara A. 2007. Nutritional Status of Ribeirinhos in Brazil and the Nutrition Transition. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 133(2):868-787.
Piperata, Barbara. 2004. Rural-to-Urban Migration in Latin America: An Update and Thoughts on the Model. American Journal of Human Biology 16:395-404
Piperata, Barbara. 2007. Diet, Energy Expenditure, and Body Composition of Lactating Ribeirinha Women in the Brazilian Amazon. American Journal of Human Biology 19:722-734
Piperata, Barbara. 2007. Nutritional Status of Ribeirinhos in Brazil and the Nutrition Transition. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 133:868-878
Vercellotti, Guiuseppe, Barbara A. Piperata, Amanda M. Agnew, et al. 2014. Exploring the Multidimensionality of Stature Variation in the Past through Comparisons of Archaeological and Living Populations. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 155(2): 229-242.
Vercellotti, Giuseppe, and Barbara A. Piperata. 2012. The Use of Biocultural Data in Interpreting Sex Differences in Body Proportions among Rural Amazonians. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 147(1):113-127.
Young, Bonnie Nadyne, U. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM - To aid research on 'Effects of Genetic Ancestry and Socio-Cultural Factors on Susceptibility to Tuberculosis in Mexico,' supervised by Dr. Keith L. Hunley
BONNIE N. YOUNG, then a student at the University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, New Mexico, received funding in October 2009, to aid research on 'Effects of Genetic Ancestry and Socio-Cultural Factors on Susceptibility to Tuberculosis in Mexico,' Supervised by Dr. Keith L. Hunley. Active tuberculosis (TB) varies substantially across regions and ethnic groups due to different genetic and environmental factors. Less TB among those with high European ancestry suggest better socioeconomic conditions and possibly innate resistance, although the impact of ancestry remains unresolved. This study assesses the effect of genetic ancestry on active TB, and the interactions between ancestry and contextual factors. Fieldwork occurred over six months at the UANL Hospital in Monterrey, Mexico. A case-control study was conducted among 189 individuals with active pulmonary TB (97 cases), and latent TB infection (92 controls). Data were collected from interviews, mouthwash samples, and medical chart reviews. Cases and controls were similar in distributions of sex, indigenous ethnicity, marital status, and prevalence of chronic conditions. Cases had a significantly lower socioeconomic status, despite recruitment from similar populations. Smoking was higher among cases than controls (13.8 vs. 3.9 average pack years; p=0.01), as was diabetes (29.9% vs. 8.7%) and alcoholism (13.4% vs. 1.1%). Proportions of genetic ancestry (measured by ancestry informative markers) are pending, but will be added to final regression models, along with significant contextual factors. This project will elucidate the interactions of genetic and socio·cultuml correlates of active TB in an urban Mexican population.
Astorino, Claudia Marie, City U. of New York, Lehman College, New York, NY - To aid research on 'Does Human Sex Indicator Morphology in the Skull Co-vary With Age and Ancestry?,' supervised by Dr. Eric Delson
CLAUDIA MARIE ASTORINO, then a student at City University of New York, Lehman College, New York, New York, was awarded a grant in April 2013 to aid research on 'Does Human Sex Indicator Morphology in the Skull Co-vary with Age and Ancestry,' supervised by Dr. Eric Delson. The human skeleton exhibits sexual dimorphism, or differences in physical form between males and females of the same species. This dissertation project investigates how sex, age, and ancestry inform the shape and size of sexually dimorphic features of the skull in recent modern humans. The research phase supported by this grant enabled 3D laser scans to be collected from a large, documented collection of skulls from both domestic and international skeletal collections. Over 300 adults and 50 subadults were scanned at the Smithsonian National Museum of National History (Washington, D.C.), Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle (Paris, France), University of Coimbra (Portugal), University of Bologna (Italy), and the University of Dundee (Scotland). Differences among human groups defined by sex, age, and/or ancestry were investigated by placing curves of 3D points on the surface of the laser scans and comparing their positions among groups of specimens. This study will help to gain a more comprehensive understanding of the range of sexual dimorphism in the recent modern human skull.
Escasa, Michelle Jickain, U. of Nevada, Las Vegas, NV - To aid research on 'Female Sociosexuality, Mate Preferences, and Sex Steroid Hormones of Lactating Women in Manila,' supervised by Dr. Peter B. Gray
MICHELLE J. ESCASA, then a student at University of Nevada, Las Vegas, Nevada, received a grant in April 2011 to aid research on 'Female Sociosexuality, Mate Preferences, and Sex Steroid Hormones of Lactating Women in Manila,' supervised by Dr. Peter B. Gray. This project investigates the influence of lactation on female sociosexuality and mate preferences in urban Manila, a population with long-term breastfeeding, low contraceptive use, and quick return to cycling. From an evolutionary perspective, female ancestors were likely spending more time pregnant and lactating rather than ovulating. Moreover, a majority of conceptions in natural fertility societies occurred in lactating, ovulating women. These considerations suggest that lactating women face important life history allocation trade-offs between mating and parenting effort that may be manifested in their sociosexual behavior and mate preferences. Breastfeeding (n=155) and control (n=105) women were recruited to provide a saliva sample (for testosterone and estradiol analyses) and complete a face and voice preference task to determine preferences for masculinity. All participants also completed a questionnaire that assessed sexual functioning, sociosexuality, and relationship satisfaction, along with demographic variables. Breastfeeding women report differences in commitment to their relationship, jealousy levels, sexual functioning, and preferences for high-pitched voices. Further analyses incorporate the age of the infant and the cycling status of participants. Cultural and life history factors will be discussed and will serve as a framework for the findings.
Madimenos, Felicia Chrisafo, U. of Oregon, Eugene, OR - To aid research on 'Lifestyle and Reproductive Effects on Bone Mineral Density in an Ecuadorian Forager-Horticulturalist Population,' supervised by Dr. James Josh Snodgrass
FELICIA C. MADIMENOS, then a student at University of Oregon, Eugene, Oregon, received funding in April 2009 to aid research on 'Lifestyle and Reproductive Effects on Bone Mineral Density in an Ecuadorian Forager-Horticulturalist Population,' supervised by Dr. James Josh Snodgrass. Bone mineral density (BMD) is the primary diagnostic parameter of bone health and a predictor of future fracture risk. The mechanisms and life history trade-offs affecting bone integrity evolved under conditions quite different from those experienced by industrialized populations, yet minimal data on bone health are available from non-Western, subsistence populations. Such data are particularly important because people in subsistence-based populations have dietary, reproductive, and activity patterns more like those of our evolutionary past. Using calcaneal ultrasound, this study presents the first available data on bone health among the Shuar, an indigenous Ecuadorian Amazonian population, and non-Shuar colonists (colonos) from the same area. Results show that among colonos, BMD is positively correlated with the consumption of fish and greens but not other food categories. Among Shuar, no such relationship is found but BMD is negatively associated with greater ownership of market goods. Further analyses considering the effects of reproductive history show that in both populations multiparity provides a protective effect on BMD but this protection is lost with increased duration of lactation per child (> 24 months). The most protective effect on bone health is realized when mothers breastfeed multiple children for shorter durations.
Quinn, Dr. Elizabeth Anne, Washington U., St. Louis, MO - To aid research on 'Milk with Altitude: Investigations Into Milk Composition and Physiology Among Tibetans'
DR. ELIZABETH A. QUINN, Washington University, St. Louis, Missouri, received funding in April 2013 to aid research on 'Milk with Altitude: Investigations into Milk Composition and Physiology among Tibetans.' This project was designed to specifically investigate the hypotheses that altitude would have an effect on milk composition among high altitude adapted ethnic Tibetans living in Nepal. Milk samples were collected from 130 mothers, with detailed anthropometrics collected on both mothers and infants. As predicted, there was no association between altitude and milk macronutrients or energy, although milk fat was much higher than reported by previous studies. Milk adiponectin did show a dose dependent association with altitude but not maternal body composition, while maternal body fat predicted milk leptin content. Older infants and toddlers in Nubri had significantly lower weight for age z-scores compared to toddlers in Kathmandu (-1.85 vs. -0.36). There were no associations between milk leptin or adiponectin and infant weight for age z-score in Nubri, but both leptin and adiponectin were inversely associated with weight for age z-score in Kathmandu. It appears that the ecological pressures of altitude (hypoxia, marginal nutrition, thermal stress, radiation stress) may have significantly stronger influences on infant weight among high altitude living populations than hormonal signals in milk. In Kathmandu, with many of these external stressors removed, the associations between these hormones and weight for age are present.
Barta, Dr. Jodi Lynn, U. of Toronto, Mississauga, Canada - To aid research on 'The Relationship Between Skin Pigmentation and Vitamin D Insufficiency in Northern Latitudes'
DR. JODI LYNN BARTA, University of Toronto, Mississauga, Canada, received funding in October 2007 to aid research on 'The Relationship between Skin Pigmentation and Vitamin D Insufficiency in Northern Latitudes.' This project examined the effects that changes in season have on vitamin D concentrations in individuals with varying levels of melanin in their skin in order to clarify the relationship between constitutive pigmentation and vitamin D status in otherwise healthy young adults of diverse ancestry living in northern latitudes. Preliminary data collected show that those with higher levels of melanin in their skin are at consistently higher risk of vitamin D insufficiency and deficiency, thus supporting the UVR hypothesis and highlighting the evolutionary significance of skin pigmentation as it relates to geographic origins and the importance of maintaining adequate vitamin D levels. Given the profound effects that vitamin D insufficiency and deficiency have on the human body, it was surprising that mean vitamin D concentrations in all ancestry groups were below adequate (75 nmol/L) regardless of season, despite the fact that mean vitamin D intakes in both late summer (296.72 IU) and winter (281.54 IU) were above current recommended adequate intake for adults (200 IU/day). Further research is necessary to precisely determine the vitamin D requirements of individuals of diverse ancestry living in northern latitudes and address the need for higher vitamin D intakes through supplementation and/or improved food fortification strategies to meet requirements and improve overall public health.