Lott, Dylan Thomas, U. Illinois, Chicago, IL - To aid preparation of the Waud Kracke collection for archival deposit with archives at the U. Illinois at Chicago, Indiana U., and the Museu do Indio in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
Rankin, Carolyn, Lawrence, KS - To aid preparation of the personal research materials of Robert Rankin for archival deposit with the National Anthropological Archives, Suitland, MD - Historical Archives Program
Berlin, Dr. Overton Brent, U. of Georgia, Athens, GA - To aid preparation of the personal research collections of Brent and Elois Ann Berlin for archival deposit with the National Anthropological Archives, Suitland, MD - Historical Archives Program
Sussman, Dr. Robert Wald, Washington U., St. Louis, MO - To aid workshop on 'Man The Hunted: The Evolution and Nature of Human Sociality, Cooperation, and Altruism,' 2009, Washington U., in collaboration with Dr. C. Robert Cloninger
'Man the Hunted: Sociality, Altruism, and Well-Being'
March 12-14, 2009, Washington University, St. Louis, Missouri
Organizers: Robert Sussman (Washington University) and C. Robert Cloninger (Washington University, School of Medicine)
All diurnal primates live in social groups. This is widely recognized as a predator protection mechanism. The more eyes and ears to detect predators and animals to mob them, the better the group is protected. Early humans traditionally have been thought of as hunters. However, because of their small size, dentition, lack of hunting tools, and a number of other
factors, it is more likely that the earliest humans, like most other primates, were prey species rather than predators. Social scientists, pyschologists, and biologists are learning that there is more to cooperation in group-living animals than an investment in one’s own nepotistic patch of DNA. Research in a diversity of scientific disciplines is revealing that there are many biological and behavioral mechanisms that humans and nonhuman primates use to reinforce pro-social or cooperative behavior. Sociality, cooperation, inter-individual dependency, and mutual protection are all part of the toolkit of social-living prey. In this symposium, participants explored this hypothesis and many of the mechanisms nonhuman primates and humans may have evolved as protection against predators, including cooperation, sociality, and altruism. Further, they explored how behavioral, hormonal, and neuro-psychiatric mechanisms related to our evolution as a prey species might be affecting modern human behavior.
Engelbrecht, Dr. Beate, Institute for Scientific Research, Goettingen, Germany - To aid conference on origins of visual anthropology: putting the past together, 2000, IWF- Institute for Scientific Film, in collaboration with Dr. Rolf Husmann
Woolard, Dr. Kathryn Ann, U. of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA - To aid 'A Longitudinal Study of Language Ideology, Policy, and Practices in Bilingual Barcelona'
DR. KATHRYN A. WOOLARD, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California, received a grant in October 2006 to aid research on 'A Longitudinal Study of Language Ideology, Policy, and Practices in Bilingual Barcelona.' Language ideology and practice in Barcelona, Spain, were examined in comparison to research in 1979-80 and 1987. Sociolinguistic changes were assessed along three dimensions of the relation between Catalan and Castilian. First, changing linguistic practices across the life span, which were tracked through follow-up interviews of informants from 20 years earlier, revealed striking increases in use of Catalan by native Castilian speakers. Second, changes in adolescent cohorts' responses to Catalan-medium education, which were followed through a re-examination of a secondary school first studied in 1987 show the ability to use Catalan has increase, as has the claiming and ascription of Catalan identity. However, uses and perceptions of Catalan have narrowed. (While Catalan retains its high status, its youth solidarity value has diminished.) And third, changes in the public status of Catalan in relation to Castilian, as reflected in mass media and political campaigns, indicate public discourses about language policy are shifting from a foundation in an ideology of authenticity to one of anonymity that stresses universalism and cosmopolitanism. This shift responds to both increasingly strident anti-Catalan rhetoric and rapid demographic change, and it was evidenced in the campaign that resulted in the election of a non-native president of Catalonia
Hall, Jennifer Lee, U. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI - To aid research on 'Building Bridges: Language Ideology and Passerelle Literacy Education in Morocco,' supervised by Dr. Judith T. Irvine
JENNIFER L. HALL, then a student at University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, received funding in October 2007 to aid research on 'Building Bridges: Language Ideology and Passerelle Literacy Education in Morocco,' supervised by Dr. Judith T. Irvine. This dissertation research looks at mother tongue adult literacy education in Morocco through a case study of a new methodology called 'passerelle.' The grantee tested the hypothesis that passerelle -- by promoting Standard Arabic script as an ideologically neutral instrument for representing mother tongue languages -- presents an ideological conflict for learners and educators who may hold differing ideas as to the appropriateness of portraying traditionally oral languages in written form using Arabic script. Twelve months of comparative research was conducted on the ideologies of learners and educators in passerelle classrooms, in both urban and rural settings. The grantee observed that passerelle literacy educators tended to avoid utilizing mother tongue literacy activities in the classroom and instead relied on normative methods of Standard Arabic literacy teaching. They restricted the use of mother tongues languages in the classroom to oral activities and the use of Standard Arabic to writing activities, thus indicating that passerelle methodology did indeed present an ideological conflict. In contrast, most adult literacy learners did not express a similar ideological conflict and embraced opportunities to write in dialectical Arabic. This is partially due to the fact that many did not hold any preconceived notions about distinctions between oral and written Arabic.
Kattan, Shlomy, U. of California, Berkeley, CA - To aid 'Language Socialization and Language Ideologies among Israeli Emissaries: A Global Ethnography of Transnationalism,' supervised by Dr. Sahara Patricia Baquedano-Lopez
SHLOMY KATTAN, then a student at University of California, Berkeley, California, received funding in April 2006 to aid research on 'Language Socialization and Language ideologies among Israeli Emissaries: A Global Ethnography of Transnationalism,' supervised by Dr. Sahara Patricia Baquedano-Lopez. This multi-sited ethnography examines language socialization, linguistic ideologies, and identity practices amongst families of Israeli emissaries and their young children, following their transition from Israel, through their residence in New York, and until their return to Israel after two years. During the first funded year of research, observations, interviews, and audio and video recording have been carried out in both countries at home and in school. In-home observations capture the methods used to socialize children to being bilingual, record family conversations about Israel and New York, and document changes in participants' language use. In-school observations document changes ininteractional practices between the focal children, their teachers, and peers. Observations document how focal children enter into and form social groups, how they negotiate their position as language learners and as non-locals, and how they utilize their changing linguistic skills. The data provide empirical support that the transition and socialization of the children are negotiated across sites, and illustrate how such negotiations take place across the sites. Socialization practices are not positivistic or objective, but rather derive rom participants' changing ideologies vis-à-vis children's abilities in English and Hebrew, as well as their perceptions of the children's fluctuating needs in those languages.
Maranda, Dr. Pierre, Universite Laval, Quebec, Canada - To aid preparation of the unpublished research materials of Dr. Elli Kongas Maranda for archival deposit with the Musee de la Civilisation, Quebec, Canada
Reuter, Dr. Thomas A., Monash U., Clayton, Victoria, Australia - To aid WCAA conference on 'Opportunities and Challenges: Toward an Agenda for World Anthropology,' 2009, Kunming, China, in collaboration with Dr. Gustavo Ribeiro
'Opportunities and Challenges for International Cooperation and Participation in Anthropology: Toward an Agenda for World Anthropology'
July 27-31, 2009, Kunming, China
Organizers: Thomas A. Reuter (Monash University) and Gustavo Ribeiro (Universidade de Brasilia)
This symposium was an open forum at which cooperative efforts to facilitate international communication and collaboration among anthropologists and anthropological associations were discussed. Representatives of all WCAA member associations present at the 2009 IUAES World Congress (July 27-31, Kunming, China) were invited to contribute to the
meeting, together with key representatives of the IUAES. The discussion focused on the different roles of the WCAA, IUAES, regional and national associations, asking what each can accomplish and how they can support one another’s endeavors. Individual presentations focused on specific tasks within the overall goal of advancing cooperation and participation within the discipline globally. The discussion explored how such important tasks may be accomplished through existing institutional resources and collaborations. Each representative at the meeting was asked to report back to their governing board and membership on the forum’s ideas and proposals for collaboration. A joint publication of the
presentations is in progress.