Strand, Thea Randina, U. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ - To aid 'Varieties in Dialogue: A Historical and Ethnographic Study of Dialect Use and Shift in Rural Norway,' supervised by Dr. Jane H. Hill
THEA R. STRAND, then a student at University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona, received funding in May 2007 to aid research on 'Varieties in Dialogue: A Historical and Ethnographic Study of Dialect Use and Shift in Rural Norway,' supervised by Dr. Jane H. Hill. This research investigates the relationships between dialect use, language ideologies, and rural identities in the rural Norwegian valley of Valdres, as well as the direction of contemporary local dialect shift relative to the competing written norms of Bokmål and Nynorsk. During ethnographic fieldwork in 2007-2008, recordings of dialect use were collected from metalinguistic interviews, casual conversations, theater performances, and national media appearances by dialect speakers. Based on these recordings, as well as participant observation, this study combines an analysis of dominant discourses and ideologies of language with the close linguistic analysis of accent and grammatical forms associated with the Valdres dialect. Additionally, a long-term historical perspective is incorporated in order to explore the ways in which the 150-year history of language planning and struggle in Norway has contributed to the development of the contemporary linguistic situation. While previous research in Valdres has indicated long-term change in the direction of normative, regional urban speech, a central finding of this study is that dialect change today appears to be multi-directional -- both toward standard, urban Norwegian, and, simultaneously, toward new, markedly rural forms. The latter kind of change is clearly supported by local ideologies that have recently revalued rural culture, identity, and language.
Garrison Arensberg, Dr. Vivian, New York, NY - To aid preparation of the personal research materials of Conrad Arensberg for archival deposit with the National Anthropological Archives, Suitland, Maryland - Historical Archives Program
White, Dr. Frances J., U. of Oregon, Eugene, OR - To aid workshop on 'Human Warfare: An Integrative Anthropological Prospective,' 2008, U. of Oregon, in collaboration with Dr. Douglas Kennett
'Human Warfare: An Integrative Anthropological Perspective'
October 16-18, 2008, University of Oregon, Eugene, Oregon
Organizers: Frances J. White and Douglas Kennett, University of Oregon
This meeting addressed the need for an integrated model of the ancestral conditions that led to the emergence of warfare and/or to adaptations that evolved in response to those pressures. To this end, the conference brought together scholars from diverse anthropological sub-disciplines (e.g. primatology, paleo-anthropology, archaeology, behavioral ecology, ethnography) and related disciplines (e.g. political science, psychology, economics, evolutionary biology) whose work has significantly advanced knowledge on this topic but who would not otherwise have occasion to meet. The conference resulted in a book proposal, which has been enthusiastically received by Oxford University Press and will soon be sent out for review. This volume will constitute the first comprehensive evolutionary treatment of the ecological, social, and psychological processes involved in warfare.
Hsiao, Chi-hua, U. of California, Los Angeles, CA - To aid research on 'Subtitle Groups as Cultural Translators in China,' supervised by Dr. Elinor Ochs
CHI-HUA HSIAO, then a student at University of California, Los Angeles, California, received funding in October 2011 to aid research on 'Subtitle Groups as Cultural Translators in China,' supervised by Dr. Elinor Ochs. This dissertation project examines the phenomenon of cultural translation in the context of an underground network of Internet-based amateur translators in China. Informal volunteer subtitle groups emerged in the mid-1990s and began catering to the younger generation's thirst for U.S. media popular culture. These translators add Chinese-language subtitles to programs, post the shows online for free downloads, and provide a network for online interactions. The subtitling activity reflects the younger Chinese generation's articulation of new morality discourses and their challenges to the state-party monopoly of information. The younger generation attempts to establish its own moral justifications as a form of resistance to the regime surveillance and in adherence to individual life-enriching practices. This study explores how Chinese volunteer subtitlers construct representations of U.S. television programs and films and how these representations relate to the globalization of sociocultural ideologies. It offers insights into how the collaborative volunteer efforts of subtitle groups acting as cultural brokers represent a new paradigm of morality among Chinese youth and young adults of the virtual community and how such initiatives influence the younger generation's perceptions of foreign popular culture as part of the larger globalized flow of information.
Kulick, Dr. Don, New York U., New York, NY - To aid research on 'The Dying Language that Didn't Die: 20 Years Later in Gapun, PNG'
DR. DON KULICK, New York University, New York, New York, received funding in October 2007 to aid research on 'The Dying Language that Didn't Die: 20 Years Later in Gapun, PNG'. Research followed up original research conducted in the late 1980s studying a small Papua New Guinean village called Gapun and of the isolate vernacular language, Taiap, that is spoken only there. Eight months of fieldwork in 2009 revealed that Taiap is still spoken in Gapun, but it is dying. The total population of fluent and semi-fluent speakers is about 60. Villagers in their early 20s and younger continue to understand the language, and can even produce it when asked to by a visiting anthropologist. But they do not use Taiap in any context. Fieldwork has resulted in enough material to analyze the dynamics of the language death in the village, and to write a dictionary and grammar of Taiap. Research also focused on how the young people who can speak some Taiap produce versions of the vernacular that are regularized, simplified, and etiolated. This material will allow analysis that charts the grammatical disintegration of a Papuan language. A further study of how women who were children in the 1980s socialize their children to use language will be able to address the question of whether or not language socialization patterns endure across generations.
Merlan, Dr. Francesca C., Australian National U., Canberra, Australia - To aid preparation of the personal research materials of Marie Reay for archival deposit with the Archives of the Australian National University - Historical Archives Program
Ammerman, Dr. Albert J., Colgate U., Hamilton, NY - To aid workshop on 'Island Archaeology and the Origins of Seafaring in the Eastern Mediterranean,' 2013, Reggio Calabria, Italy
'Island Archaeology and the Origins of Seafaring in the Eastern Mediterranean'
October 19-21, 2012, Reggio Calabria, Italy
Organizer: Dr. Albert J. Ammerman (Colgate U.)
The meeting constituted a new and rapidly emerging field of study in anthropology and archaeology, and brought together leading specialists to share recent findings, discuss new ideas, and move towards a new synthesis. Papers were presented on such topics as, 'Klimonas and its Contribution to the Study of Early Seafaring,' 'The Aegean Mesolithic: Material Culture Chronology, and Networks of Contact,' and 'Early Neolithic Settlements in Croatia and the Situation in the Adriatic Sea.' The workshop was truly international in character, including participants from the United States, France, Greece, Israel, Poland, Portugal, Turkey, and the United Kingdom, and accomplished its goal of gathering scholars from diverse perspectives and academic backgrounds. A highlight for participants was an afternoon of sailing on the Strait of Messina. A video of the experience can be found on the conference website, 'The First Argonauts,' http://seafaring.colgate.edu, along with images and information about research in this new field. Plans are in place to publish the proceedings in a double volume of the journal Eurasian Prehistory.
Ammerman, Albert J., and Thomas Davis (eds.) 2015. Island Archaeology and the Origins of Seafaring in the Eastern Mediterranean. Proceedings of the Wenner-Gren Workshop held at Reggio Calabria on October 19-21, 2012. Eurasian Prehistory 10(1-2).
de Wet, Dr. Chris, Rhodes U., Grahamstown, South Africa - To aid annual conference of anthropology southern Africa (ASA), 2002, Grahamstown
'Annual Conference of Anthropology Southern Africa (ASA),' Organizer: Dr. Chris de Wet, Rhodes University. The Wenner-Gren Foundation supported the 2002 Annual Conference of Anthropology Southern Africa (the annual disciplinary meeting of the anthropological community of Southern Africa), which was held at Rhodes University, Grahamstown, South Africa, from 9 through 11 September 2002. Some 70 delegates attended, with 48 papers being presented. A highlight of the conference was the high degree of student participation. The WGF grant of $1727 was designed to enable postgraduates from universities other than the host university to attend. Eighteen such students (the majority from historically disadvantaged backgrounds) attended, of whom 12 gave presentations, together with 5 papers by students from the host university. A post-graduate forum, Anthropology Southern Africa Students, was established, to promote networking and interaction amongst anthropology research students in the region.
Sussman, Dr. Robert Wald, Washington U., St. Louis, MO - To aid workshop on 'Man The Hunted: The Evolution and Nature of Human Sociality, Cooperation, and Altruism,' 2009, Washington U., in collaboration with Dr. C. Robert Cloninger
'Man the Hunted: Sociality, Altruism, and Well-Being'
March 12-14, 2009, Washington University, St. Louis, Missouri
Organizers: Robert Sussman (Washington University) and C. Robert Cloninger (Washington University, School of Medicine)
All diurnal primates live in social groups. This is widely recognized as a predator protection mechanism. The more eyes and ears to detect predators and animals to mob them, the better the group is protected. Early humans traditionally have been thought of as hunters. However, because of their small size, dentition, lack of hunting tools, and a number of other
factors, it is more likely that the earliest humans, like most other primates, were prey species rather than predators. Social scientists, pyschologists, and biologists are learning that there is more to cooperation in group-living animals than an investment in one’s own nepotistic patch of DNA. Research in a diversity of scientific disciplines is revealing that there are many biological and behavioral mechanisms that humans and nonhuman primates use to reinforce pro-social or cooperative behavior. Sociality, cooperation, inter-individual dependency, and mutual protection are all part of the toolkit of social-living prey. In this symposium, participants explored this hypothesis and many of the mechanisms nonhuman primates and humans may have evolved as protection against predators, including cooperation, sociality, and altruism. Further, they explored how behavioral, hormonal, and neuro-psychiatric mechanisms related to our evolution as a prey species might be affecting modern human behavior.