Strand, Thea Randina, U. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ - To aid 'Varieties in Dialogue: A Historical and Ethnographic Study of Dialect Use and Shift in Rural Norway,' supervised by Dr. Jane H. Hill
THEA R. STRAND, then a student at University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona, received funding in May 2007 to aid research on 'Varieties in Dialogue: A Historical and Ethnographic Study of Dialect Use and Shift in Rural Norway,' supervised by Dr. Jane H. Hill. This research investigates the relationships between dialect use, language ideologies, and rural identities in the rural Norwegian valley of Valdres, as well as the direction of contemporary local dialect shift relative to the competing written norms of Bokmål and Nynorsk. During ethnographic fieldwork in 2007-2008, recordings of dialect use were collected from metalinguistic interviews, casual conversations, theater performances, and national media appearances by dialect speakers. Based on these recordings, as well as participant observation, this study combines an analysis of dominant discourses and ideologies of language with the close linguistic analysis of accent and grammatical forms associated with the Valdres dialect. Additionally, a long-term historical perspective is incorporated in order to explore the ways in which the 150-year history of language planning and struggle in Norway has contributed to the development of the contemporary linguistic situation. While previous research in Valdres has indicated long-term change in the direction of normative, regional urban speech, a central finding of this study is that dialect change today appears to be multi-directional -- both toward standard, urban Norwegian, and, simultaneously, toward new, markedly rural forms. The latter kind of change is clearly supported by local ideologies that have recently revalued rural culture, identity, and language.
Garcia Sanchez, Inmaculada, U. of California, Los Angeles, CA - To aid research on 'Multiple Worlds, Multiple Languages: The Lives of Moroccan Immigrant Children in Spain,' supervised by Dr. Elinor R. Ochs
INMACULADA GARCIA SANCHEZ, then a student at University of California, Los Angeles, California, received funding in May 2006 to aid research on 'Mulitple Worlds, Multiple Languages: The Lives of Moroccan Immigrant Children in Spain,' supervised by Dr. Elinor R. Ochs. The last two decades, with its unprecedented proportions of Muslim immigration into both rural and urban European centers, have witnessed the emergence of strong diasporic communities that are pushing the boundaries of traditional notions of democracy, citizenship and identity. In this context, in which the new 'politics of belonging' are shaking the very foundations of societal structures and institutions, understanding the socio-cultural and linguistic lifeworlds of immigrant children has become one of the most challenging dilemmas for policy-makers and social-scientists alike. This ethnographic and linguistic study investigates the lifeworlds of Moroccan immigrant children in Spain in relation to the extent to which these children are able to juggle languages and social practices to meet different situational expectations and are able to develop a healthy sense of social and personal identity against the backdrop of rising levels of tension against immigrants from North Africa and the Muslim world. During 2005- 2006, fieldwork was conducted in a south-western Spanish town with 37% of immigrant population overwhelmingly of Moroccan origin. The grantee documented the ecology of the lives of six focal Moroccan immigrant children (8 to 11 years-old), three males and three females. The data collection was conducted in two phases: 1) a nine-month period of participant observation and video documentation of daily interactional practices; and 2) a six-month period of collection of children's narratives of personal experience. Through an integrated examination of children's narratives of personal experience and of language socialization practices related to intergenerational use of Arabic and Spanish linked to home, peer group, and educational institutions, this dissertation research attempted to illuminate: 1) the ways in which the complex relationship between Moroccan immigrant children and their multiple languages and cultures is intertwined with the multifaceted identities they have to negotiate in different arenas of social interaction; and 2) to what extent Moroccan immigrant children perceive cultural discontinuities across different settings, and how, in turn, they attempt to manage discrepant expectations and distinct socio-cultural world views in actual social interactions.
White, Dr. Frances J., U. of Oregon, Eugene, OR - To aid workshop on 'Human Warfare: An Integrative Anthropological Prospective,' 2008, U. of Oregon, in collaboration with Dr. Douglas Kennett
'Human Warfare: An Integrative Anthropological Perspective'
October 16-18, 2008, University of Oregon, Eugene, Oregon
Organizers: Frances J. White and Douglas Kennett, University of Oregon
This meeting addressed the need for an integrated model of the ancestral conditions that led to the emergence of warfare and/or to adaptations that evolved in response to those pressures. To this end, the conference brought together scholars from diverse anthropological sub-disciplines (e.g. primatology, paleo-anthropology, archaeology, behavioral ecology, ethnography) and related disciplines (e.g. political science, psychology, economics, evolutionary biology) whose work has significantly advanced knowledge on this topic but who would not otherwise have occasion to meet. The conference resulted in a book proposal, which has been enthusiastically received by Oxford University Press and will soon be sent out for review. This volume will constitute the first comprehensive evolutionary treatment of the ecological, social, and psychological processes involved in warfare.
Mencher, Dr. Joan, New York, NY - To aid preparation of personal research materials for archival deposit with the National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC - Historical Archives Program
Adair, Dr. Mary, U. of Kansas, Lawrence, KS - To aid preparation of the research materials of Dr. Robert Squier for archival deposit with the Biodiversity Institute at the U. of Kansas, Lawrence, KS - Historical Archives Program
Rodriguez, Juan Luis, Southern Illinois U., Carbondale, IL - To aid research on 'Rhetorical Strategies and Gift Circulation in the Politics of The Orinoco Delta, Venezuela,' supervised by Dr. Jonathan David Hill
JUAN LUIS RODRIGUEZ, then a student at Southern Illinois University, Carbondale, Illinois, received funding in May 2007 to aid research on 'Rhetorical Strategies and Gift Circulation in the Politics of the Orinoco Delta, Venezuela,' supervised by Dr. Jonathan D. Hill. This study analyses political discursive strategies and gift circulation in the Orinoco Delta, Venezuela. This is a semiotic and discourse-centered study on how the Warao indigenous population interacts with political representatives from the Venezuelan government. This study is based on a yearlong fieldwork focusing on political speeches and observing how political gifts are circulated. Research focused on public political events in which politicians, governmental representatives, and communal council's members perform public political discourses. During this year, the grantee followed the constitutional referendum of December 2007 and the organization of the 2008 regional election in the Orinoco Delta, as well as the development of the Morichito communal council in the Lower Delta. This helped in evaluating how gift circulation and political discourse intersect as semiotic strategies. The purpose of this research is to further advance the discourse-centered approaches to cultures developed in South America by addressing the ways in which discursive sign vehicles interact with other semiotic forms, especially political gifts. This type of analysis is central to understand recent political processes occurring among the Warao, as well as the general political climate of Venezuela since 1998 (the rising of President Hugo Chavez Frias).
Conant, Veronika A., New York, NY - To aid preparation of the personal research materials of Dr. Francis P. Conant for archival deposit with the National Anthropological Archives and the Human Studies Film Archives - Historical Archives Program
Sussman, Dr. Robert Wald, Washington U., St. Louis, MO - To aid workshop on 'Man The Hunted: The Evolution and Nature of Human Sociality, Cooperation, and Altruism,' 2009, Washington U., in collaboration with Dr. C. Robert Cloninger
'Man the Hunted: Sociality, Altruism, and Well-Being'
March 12-14, 2009, Washington University, St. Louis, Missouri
Organizers: Robert Sussman (Washington University) and C. Robert Cloninger (Washington University, School of Medicine)
All diurnal primates live in social groups. This is widely recognized as a predator protection mechanism. The more eyes and ears to detect predators and animals to mob them, the better the group is protected. Early humans traditionally have been thought of as hunters. However, because of their small size, dentition, lack of hunting tools, and a number of other
factors, it is more likely that the earliest humans, like most other primates, were prey species rather than predators. Social scientists, pyschologists, and biologists are learning that there is more to cooperation in group-living animals than an investment in one’s own nepotistic patch of DNA. Research in a diversity of scientific disciplines is revealing that there are many biological and behavioral mechanisms that humans and nonhuman primates use to reinforce pro-social or cooperative behavior. Sociality, cooperation, inter-individual dependency, and mutual protection are all part of the toolkit of social-living prey. In this symposium, participants explored this hypothesis and many of the mechanisms nonhuman primates and humans may have evolved as protection against predators, including cooperation, sociality, and altruism. Further, they explored how behavioral, hormonal, and neuro-psychiatric mechanisms related to our evolution as a prey species might be affecting modern human behavior.