Lyons, Dr. Diane Elaine, U. of Calgary, Calgary, Canada - To aid research on 'The Yeha Pottery Project'
DR. DIANE E. LYONS, University of Calgary, Calgary, Canada, was awarded a grant in October 2011 to aid research on 'The Yeha Pottery Project.' Material signatures of marginalized identities of female market potters living near Yeha in central Tigray, northern highland Ethiopia. were investigated. The study builds upon a previous study of market potters in eastern Tigray and provides a regional comparison. In Tigray and other societies across sub-Saharan Africa, different types of artisans are marginalized. The antiquity of these practices is unknown, but such practices are implicated in the construction of social complexity. Ethnoarchaeological field research determined the Yeha area potters' technological style, which is a material identity for each potter community. Comparison of the two studies shows that Tigray's central and eastern potters produce similar pottery types, but they use distinct technological styles. INAA analysis of pottery samples demonstrates distinct chemical signatures for the pottery from the two regions. Technological styles and INAA analyses can be used to track the history and interaction of these potter communities in the ancient past. Both regions express some spatial marginalization of potter communities, and in both contexts potters experience verbal insults, greater poverty than their farmer neighbors, and sometimes violence in clay mining extraction. When potters are compared with more stigmatized blacksmiths, a landscape of socially meaningful places associated with these stigmatizing practices emerges.
Hewamanne, Dr. Sandya, American Institute of Sri Lankan Studies, Colombo, Sri Lanka - To aid research on ''Wither Free Trade Zone Identities?: How Former Factory Workers Negotiate 'New Lives' in Sri Lankan Villages'
DR. SANDYA HEWAMANNE, American Institute of Sri Lankan Studies, Colombo, Sri Lanka, was awarded a grant in May 2005 to aid research on 'Wither Free Trade Zone (FTZ) Identities? How Former Factory Workers Negotiate 'New Lives' in Sri Lankan Villages.' Research was conducted from July 2005 to April 2006 to study how former FTZ workers negotiate their lives once back in their villages with the new sense of self and feminist and political consciousness they acquired within the FTZ. Data was obtained by visiting former workers' village homes and collecting narratives of their lives as prospective brides, new wives and mothers in these villages and interviewing their relatives, in-laws and neighbors. The data provided the basis for further research on the practices of transnational feminist networks to see whether there is space for former workers to engage in feminist political activities on their own terms. Overall, the research demonstrated that while they are forced to linguistically and performatively suppress the new selves created in the FTZ, the same oppositional consciousness and new knowledges helped former workers to network with urban contacts and participate in the social and political spaces of their villages. In short, the research evidenced that FTZ employment is not just a transitional phase for village women but a meaningful interlude that has a long-term impact on the way they negotiate power relations. Results were disseminated through several peer-reviewed journal articles and a chapter in a book.
Waweru, Dr. Veronica Njoki, Stony Brook U., Stony Brook, NY - To aid research on 'Chronology of Holocene Innovations and Inventions in West Turkana, Kenya'
DR. VERONICA N. WAWERU, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, New York, was awarded a grant in October 2009 to aid research on 'Chronology of Holocene Innovations and Inventions in West Turkana, Kenya.' Chronology data from this research provide better resolution for dates of innovations in West Turkana between 8.2ka and 0.87ka. The Holocene marks the introduction of domestic fauna in a region that until ~5ka relied on a hunting/gathering/fishing subsistence base. A combination of Thermoluminescence (TL) and Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) methods were used to refine the timeline for innovations at different paleo-habitats in West Turkana. The study confirms existing dates for the large fishing village of Lothagam and also yields older dates for the Later Holocene lacustrine sites of Lopoy and Napedet than previously known. Aggregate data from the Holocene in the Turkana Basin is uninformative about whether local hunter/fishers adopted pastoralism or if demic movements brought the new socio-economic package of domesticate fauna and pillar-building. Chronology data from this research and that of other scientists in the last 40 years point to the existence of a mixed strategy involving hunting, fishing, and use of small domestic stock up to the very late Holocene. Niche partitioning may explain the existence of multiple economic strategies where different social groups pursued varied subsistence strategies while maintaining exchange relations involving ceramics and domestic stock. Future research will seek to answer this question.
Emery, Dr. Katherine Frances, Florida Museum of Natural History, Gainesville, FL - To aid research on 'Hunting Ceremonialism in the Guatemalan Highlands: Applying Ethnoarchaeology and Zooarchaeology to Commoner Ritual'
DR. KATHERINE FRANCES EMERY, Florida Museum of Natural History, Gainesville, Florida, was awarded funding in April 2006 to aid research on 'Hunting Ceremonialism in the Guatemalan Highlands: Applying Ethnoarchaeology and Zooarchaeology to Commoner Ritual' Research on the remote and little-known ritual hunting shrines of the Guatemalan highlands combined ethnoarchaeology, spatial archaeology, and zooarchaeology to define the material correlates of hunting ceremonialism. Hunting shrines are sacred sites used for ceremonial activity by Maya hunters before and after a hunt. These sites contain a unique feature indicative of their role in hunting ceremonialism - a ritual faunal (animal remain) cache consisting of the ritually curated remains of hunted animals. The Wenner Gren funded research reported here focused on: 1) identifying the animal remains chosen for inclusion in ritual faunal caches, 2) identifying the spatial distribution of activity areas at the hunting shrines; and 3) correlating ethnographic evidence of ritual activities with the spatial and material correlates of the activity areas and faunal caches. Three hunting shrines were subjected to rigorous mapping, sampling, and zooarchaeological analysis. The findings describe material correlates for hunting ritual activity areas and taxonomic, age, and preservation characteristics for the faunal caches that are the defining characteristic of these shrines.
Emery, Kitty F. 2008. Techniques of Ancient Maya Bone Working: Evidence from a Classic Maya Deposit. Latin American Antiquity 19(2):204-221
Silliman, Stephen Walter, U. of Massachusetts, Boston, MA - To aid research on 'Beyond Change and Continuity: Native American Community Persistence in Colonial New England'
DR. STEPHEN WALTER SILLIMAN, University of Massachusetts, Boston, Massachusetts, received a grant in October 2010, to aid research on 'Beyond Change and Continuity: Native American Community Persistence in Colonial New England.' Funding supported an archaeological project on the impacts of colonialism on Native American communities in southern New England, specifically the Eastern Pequot's reservation (established in 1683) in southeastern Connecticut. The project was oriented toward tackling a larger conceptual issue: the problem of discussing Native American societies in colonial periods as either changing or staying the same, rather than understanding how they did both (or neither) on trajectories of 'persistence.' The project had two goals: 1) to search for elusive 17th-century sites from the founding decades of the reservation; and 2) to excavate a newly identified late 18th-century household to understand variations during that period. Despite intensive searching with shovel test-pits in a never-before-tested section of the reservation, no sites sought in the first objective were located. The second objective was met with great success. A late 18th-century Eastern Pequot house site was located, mapped, and excavated, producing approximately 4,500 artifacts, 3,500 animal bones, and 14 kg of shellfish remains associated with what was once a wooden house with window glass, nailed frames, rock chimney, cellar, and trash pits. Its results have contributed significantly to the interpretation of Native American reservation history and cultural persistence in the face of economic, material, and political pressures.
Hunter, Ryan, Stephen W. Silliman, and David B. Landon. 2014. Shellfish Collection and Community Connections in Eighteenth-Century Native New England. American Antiquity 79(4):712-729.
Campbell, Dr. Benjamin C., Boston U., Boston, MA - To aid research on 'Aging, Quality of Life, Testosterone among Ariaal Men of Kenya'
DR. BENJAMIN C. CAMPBELL, Boston University, Boston, Massachusetts, was awarded a grant in May 2004 to aid research on 'Aging, Quality of Life, Testosterone among Ariaal Men of Kenya.' Questionnaire data, anthropometric measures and biological specimens relating to aging and quality of life was collected among Ariaal men of northern Kenya during August of 2004. 105 men from the nomadic encampment of Lewogosa and 103 settled men from the village of Songa, all 20 years or older, took part. Results to date indicate that quality of life declines with age and is positively related to social support. Furthermore, age related patterns of erectile function and body composition similar to those in western men, despite the lack of decline in salivary testosterone (T) with age. In addition, marriage is associated with low salivary T. Genetic analyses are still in progress. These results suggest that while declines in reported quality of life with age may be constant across populations, the role of T in male aging may vary according to social and ecological factors. A separate trip during July of 2006 intended to pilot additional data collection methods revealed the difficulty of collecting both fingerprick blood samples and readings of bone density. However, the collection of saliva samples for genetic analyses was successful. So far, this grant has generated 3 articles (one published, one in press and one currently under revision) as well as 2 oral presentations, and 4 abstracts. Final results on quality of life has not yet been published and additional results worthy of publication are anticipated from the genetic analyses currently underway. Together these results expand our understanding of the role of testosterone in the male life course
Politis, Dr. Gustavo Gabriel, U. National de la Plata, La Plata, Argentina - To aid research on 'Mounds, Maize, and 'Caciques' in the Upper Delta of the Paranñá River, Argentina'
DR. GUSTAVO POLITIS, Universdad Nacional de La Plata, La Plata, Argentina, was awarded funding in May 2010 to aid research on 'Mounds, Maize and 'Caciques' in the Upper Delta of the Paraná River (Argentina).' The project focused on four main topics: 1) the southernmost presence of Lowland pre-Hispanic horticulture based on the starch content of ceramic and lithic tools, which helped determine the dispersal of continentally widespread cultigens such as corn (Zea mays) and beans (Phaseolus spp.) in addition to the identification of the use of wild resources, such as algarrobo (Proposis nigra), which had not been previously recorded in the area; 2) analysis of the human-made earthen mounds ( 'cerritos'), which allowed the identification of a 'pre-mound' occupation as well as evidence of cultural activities, such as mound construction, between ca. 1000-500 BP; 3) the development of low-level social hierarchies among foragers and small-scale horticulturists; and 4) the southern expansion of the Guaraní people and their relationship with local indigenous groups. The results obtained contribute to the archaeology and anthropology of the Delta of the Paraná River, an area which will likely play a crucial role in understanding a variety cultural processes and population dynamics in the South American Lowlands.
Bonomo, Mariano, Gustavo Politis, and Camila Gianotti. 2011. Montículos, Jerarquía Social y Horticultura en las Sociedade Indígenas del Delta del Río Paraná (Argentina). Latin American Antiquity 22(3):297-333.
Martinez, Dr. Carmen, FLASCO, Quito, Ecuador - To aid research on 'The Contribution of its Non-Indigenous Allies to Ecuador's Indigenous Movement, 1970s to Present'
DR. CARMEN MARTINEZ, FLASCO, Quito, Ecuador, received funding in May 2008 to aid research on 'The Contribution of its Non-Indigenous Allies to Ecuador's Indigenous Movement, 1970s to Present.' Funding aided fieldwork, archival, and library work on the relationship between the indigenous movement of Ecuador and its non-indigenous allies. Fieldwork was conducted in three areas -- the northern highlands, the central highlands, and the southern Amazon - where the grantee researched interactions between the indigenous movement and Salesian missionaries, the classical Left, the 'New Left' (represented by the government of Rafael Correa), and the Ecuadorian state. Research results have appears in two publications thus far: an edited volume entitled RepensandoLos MovimientosIindígenas (2009, Quito: FLACSO), and an article with Carlos de la Torre 'Racial Discrimination and Citizenship in Ecuador's Educational System,' appearing in Latin American and Caribbean Ethnic Studies 5(1), 2010. Findings include: 1) indigenous people do not use the intercultural bilingual system of education for cultural reproduction; 2) while Salesian missionaries have attempted to recover indigenous culture and language since the 1960s, indigenous peasants do not share the missionary view of what indigenous culture is; and 3) the New Left (represented by Rafael Correa) is in conflict with the indigenous movement regarding the control of the indigenous system of education and natural resources.
Martinez, Carmen. 2009. Repensando Los Movimientos Indigenas. Flacso: Ecuador.
Martinez Novo, Carmen. 2010. Racial Discrimination and Citizenship in Ecuador's Educational System. Latin American and Caribbean Ethnic Studies 5(1): 1-26.
Martinez Novo, Carmen. 2013. The Backlash against Indigenous Rights in Ecuador's Citizen's Revolution. In Latin America's Multicultural Movements: The Struggle between Communitarianism, Autonomy, and Human Rights. Todd A. Eisenstadt, Michael Danielson, Moisés Jaime Bailón Corres, and Carlos Sorroza Polo, eds. Oxford University Press: Oxford and New York.
Jensen-Seaman, Dr. Michael Ignatius, Duquesne U., Pittsburgh, PA - To aid research on 'Comparative Proteomics of Hominoid Seminal Plasma'
DR. MICHAEL I. JENSEN-SEAMAN, Duquesne University, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, received a grant in October 2009 to aid research on 'Comparative Proteomics of Hominoid Seminal Plasma.' Humans and their closest relatives differ tremendously in their social grouping and mating systems, which are reflected in their physiology including the composition of semen, presumably due to adaptations related to levels of sperm competition. Using several complementary approaches, the complete protein constituents in human, chimpanzee, and gorilla semen were quantitatively characterized. Chimpanzees possess the most complex mixture of proteins, many of which are hypothesized to play a role in sperm competition, predicted to be greatest in chimps among hominoids. Several proteins were identified in chimpanzees that may have rapidly evolved by regulatory changes driven by sexual selection. These proteins include proteases, protease inhibitors, structural proteins, and those involved in energy production. In contrast, gorilla semen is a simpler mix, consistent with a loss of function of many male reproductive genes in this species with very low levels of sperm competition. Human semen appears somewhat intermediate in levels of complexity, while at the same time possessing several uniquely regulated proteins. The adaptations of each species to their mating systems appears to be facilitated more by regulatory changes than changes to protein-coding portions of genes. This general conclusion may hold true for other adaptive phenotypes in human and hominoid evolution.
Willow, Dr. Anna Jane, Ohio State U., Marion, OH - To aid research on 'Contested Developments and Cumulative Effects: Understanding Diverse Responses to Energy Resource Development in British Columbia's Peace River Region'
Preliminary abstract: Informed by an understanding of human cultural and political actions as components of complex and conjoined socionatural systems, this project will generate primary data on diverse responses to oil and gas, coal mining, and hydroelectric energy developments in the Peace River region of northeastern British Columbia, Canada with the objective of developing an analytical framework capable of explaining environmental decision-making in areas of active anthropogenic environmental change. Data derived from semi-structured interviews and focused participant-observation will be analyzed to produce narrative case studies, comparative correlational matrices, and subjective risk/opportunity/tenables maps that demonstrate the role of factors such as proximity to detrimental impacts, workforce participation and economic opportunities, political leadership and interpersonal dynamics, and customary environmental uses, values, and relationships in explaining when individuals and communities oppose or accept energy resource development and the forms their opposition or acceptance takes. Approaching such responses as one key way that socially-meaningful constructs inform materially-meaningful actions, this project contributes to the larger theoretical challenge of comprehending the recursive processes through which culturally and politically conceived landscapes and formative physical actions combine to co-produce socionatural realities in dynamic contexts of contested developments and cumulative effects.