Zeder, Dr. Melinda A., Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC - To aid research on 'First Steps Toward Animal Domestication in the Taurus/Zagros Arc'
DR. MELINDA ZEDER, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC, was awarded funding in October 2012 to aid research on 'First Steps toward Animal Domestication in the Taurus/Zagros Arc.' Combined archaeological and genetic information have confirmed that at least three of the four major Near Eastern livestock species-sheep, goats, and pigs-had been domesticated in this region by 10,500 years. This research seeks to trace the initial steps toward animal management and domestication in this region through the analysis of a large assemblage of animal remains from Hallan Çemi, one of the first fully sedentary communities established in this region (ca. 11,700 cal. BP). The analysis of over 200,000 bones from this site sheds new light on this process. It indicates that initial domestication begins in resource rich areas growing out of attempts at encouraging greater security and predictability of returns from economically important prey species. The research also examines the impacts of newly created anthropogenic environments on local species that exploit new opportunities created by human settlements and in so doing forge increasingly co-dependent relationships with humans. Finally the research documents the role of animals in the development of social and ritual mechanisms that involve feasting and the manipulation of animal symbolism used by these early communities to promote community cohesion and protect their increasing investment in their local environment and the resources within them.
Gaudio, Dr. Rudolf Pell, Purchase College, Purchase, NY - To aid research on 'New Black City: Pidgin English and Modern Citizenship in Nigeria's Capital'
DR. RUDOLF PELL GAUDIO, Purchase College, Purchase, New York, was awarded a grant in April 2009, to aid research on 'New Black City: Pidgin English and Modern Citizenship in Nigeria's Capital.' In light of ethnographic and sociolinguistic data gathered in the central districts and satellite towns of Abuja, Nigeria, the hypothesis that Nigerian Pidgin (NP) is mediating the construction of a popular, working-class, pan-Nigerian identity needs to be revised. For migrants of virtually all classes from southern and central Nigeria, NP and English coexist in a diglossic relationship, serving complementary communicative functions. Among Hausa-speaking Muslims from northern Nigeria, it is the more educated who are exposed to and proficient in NP as well as English; working-class northerners typically use NP in a more limited set of domains (if at all). Many Hausa-speakers seem to understand NP more than they can speak it, and are unsure of the differences between NP and English. An unexpected finding is that many non-Hausa-speaking migrants in Abuja learn Hausa. Evidence of a sociolinguistic divide between Hausa-speaking northerners and Pidgin-speaking southerners is mitigated by the fact that many Abuja residents have at least some proficiency in both languages. Ethnographic findings point to the value of examining uses of NP, Hausa and other languages in mass-mediated discourses, such as popular music and stand-up comedy, and to what Abuja residents say about life in their city.
Stout, Dr. Dietrich William, Emory U., Atlanta, GA - To aid research on 'Understanding Late Acheulean Knapping Skill and its Cognitive Implications'
DR. DIETRICH W. STOUT, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia, received funding in April 2012 to aid research on 'Understanding Late Acheulean Knapping Skill and Its Cognitive Implications.' Stone tools are a form of 'fossilized behavior' that can be used to make inferences about evolving hominin dexterity, cognition, and cultural transmission processes. Late Acheulean 'handaxe' technology is of particular interest because it is broadly coeval with the emergence of a larger brained hominin species (Homo heidelbergensis) and can inform evolutionary debates about the relation between brain size, cognition, and technological change. Wenner-Gren funded data collection from stone artifacts at the late Acheulean site of Boxgrove, England, as part of an ongoing project. Researchers used 2D digital imaging and 3D laser scanning to record detailed morphological information from the stone-waste flakes produced during handaxe manufacture. Each flake represents a single percussive strike, providing direct evidence of hominin motor skills and toolmaking strategies. This evidence is being interpreted through comparison to the products of controlled toolmaking experiments. Initial results indicate that the Boxgrove knappers employed an idiosyncratic combination of relatively small striking surfaces (platforms) and less acute edge angles (external platform angle) to produce effects (flake and finished tool forms) similar to expert modern toolmakers. Ongoing work is examining how this idiosyncratic pattern was produced and its implications for understanding late Acheulean skill and cognition.
Cobb, Dr. Charles R., U. of South Carolina, Columbia, SC - To aid research on 'Late Prehistoric Regional Abandonment Processes from the Community Perspective'
DR. CHARLES R. COBB, University of South Carolina, Columbia, South Carolina, received a grant in April 2012 to aid research on 'Late Prehistoric Regional Abandonment Processes from the Community Perspective.' Analyses of collections from Averbuch, a Mississippian-period site (occupied ca 1300-1500 CE) in the southeastern US, have provided new insights into the causes and consequences of a regional abandonment of the mid-continent late in the fifteenth century. Although the abandonment has been well documented from a large number of archaeological sites through radiometric methods, there have been no fine-grained, site-level studies to evaluate what conditions were like for communities going through a period of presumed climatic and social upheaval. Accelerator mass spectrometry analysis of a number of botanical samples from Averbuch have provided a chronological framework demonstrating that the community was hurriedly fortified a few decades before it was abandoned in the closing decades of the fifteenth century. An analysis of the Averbuch burial population, consisting of over 800 individuals, confirms that the community was increasingly at risk from inter-group conflict through the course of its occupation. The presence of porotic lesions, linear enamel hypoplasia, and other signatures of illness in the hard tissue suggest that the community may have suffered widespread poor health. The collective evidence from this project suggests that populations departed this region relatively abruptly as a result of a deteriorating social and ecological environment.
Allen, Dr. Susan Elizabeth, U. of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH - To aid research on 'Seeds of Complexity: Archaeobotanical Perspectives on State Formation in Southern Greece'
Preliminary abstract: The emergence of complex societies and the formation of early states are among the most pivotal transitions in the human past. In the past, archaeological attention to these processes of socioeconomic change has focused overwhelmingly on primary centers of power, such as palaces and seats of rulers, rather than smaller, less powerful towns and villages that were both integrated into the hierarchies that developed and likely played an important role in their formation. Moreover, the potential of archaeobotanical evidence -- as a proxy for land use and economic organization -- has been only minimally applied to research on state formation. The research proposed here is significant in that it harnesses the underutilized potential of archaeobotanical aproaches to understanding the processes of conflict and consolidation of power that led to the emergence of powerful states by focusing on its visibility in two non-palatial Mycenaean case studies. These are Iklaina, a secondary administrative center within the Mycenaean polity of Pylos, and Tsoungiza, a tertiary settlement within the territory of Mycenae. By focusing on shifts in resource access, land use practices, and agricultural strategies at the regional, site, and household levels, and their intersection with rapid climatic fluctuations, this research investigates the political ecology of state formation. Although focused on the case of Mycenaean Greece, this research contributes to the development of methodological and interpretive models that have broad application for comparative analysis of state formation in other parts of the world. In that not only environmental adaptations, but also social systems, can be either sustainable or unsustainable, the investigation of both anthropological and environmental aspects of social inequality, state formation, and collapse can help to inform decisions about sustainable practices in the present.
Moore, Dr. Dennis A., Museu Goeldi, Belem, Brazil - To aid research on 'Comparative Tupi'
DR. DENNIS A. MOORE, Museu Paraense Emilio Goeldi, Belem, Brazil, was awarded a grant in August 2001 to aid field research on four Tupian languages, Rondonia, Brazil. Comparative lexical data was systematically collected from languages of nine of the ten branches of the Tupi linguistic family. The branches (and languages) are: Mondé (Salamãy, Gavião, Zoró), Ramarama (Karo), Tupari (Sakurabiat, Makurap, Ayuru), Puruborá (Puruborá), Arikém (Karitiana), Juruna (Xipaya, Juruna), Munduruku (Munduruku, Kuruaya), Aweti (Aweti), and Mawé (Mawé). This new data makes possible a revision of the internal classification of the Tupi family, reconstructions of proto-languages at the branch and subgroup levels, and preliminary indications of the reconstruction of Proto-Tupi, aside from a more definitive reconstruction of Proto-Tupi when the comparative study is complete. A number of phonological and grammatical phenomena typical of the Tupi family were identified and described.
Moore, Denny. 2005. Verbos Sem Flexão. In Línguas Indígenas Brasileiras: Fonología, Gramática e História; Atas do I Encontro Internacional do Grupo de Trabalho sobre Línguas Indígenas da ANPOLL. Tomo I. A.S.A.C. Cabral and A.D. Rodrigues, eds. Editora da Universidade Federal do Pará: Belém, Brasil.
Moore, Dr. Dennis A., 2006. Narrativas Tradicionais Sakurabiat Mayap Ebo. Museu Paraense Emilio Goeldi, Belem, Para, Brazil
Konvalinka, Dr. Nancy Anne, U. Nacional de Educacion a Distancia, Madrid, Spain - To aid research on 'Late-Forming Families. The Organization of Care-Giving and the Concept of Generation'
DR. NANCY A. KONVALINKA, National University of Distance Education, Madrid, Spain, received a grant in April 2011 to aid research on 'Late-Forming Families: The Organization of Care-Giving and the Concept of Generation.' Research on the organization of care-giving and the concept of generation in the growing group of late-forming families in Madrid, Spain, has found that late family formation (at the age of 35 or later) changes the dynamics of intergenerational care-giving present in families formed earlier. Whereas people who form families earlier often count on their parents for help with childcare, people who do so later, and whose parents are, therefore, older, find themselves simultaneously responsible for elder-care and childcare. While people feel that elder-care is an inescapable responsibility, having children is considered a personal choice, only to be undertaken if or when people have the capacity for providing childcare. The combination of a rigid order of culturally patterned life-course stages during difficult circumstances -- in the context of a welfare state that places the main responsibility for childcare and for care for the elderly and other dependents on the family -- helps explain people's tardiness in family formation. If kinship is considered to be both structure and process, late family formation, seemingly inevitable due to current life courses, places these families under a great intergenerational care-giving strain and will require them to negotiate some kind of solution.
Konvalinka, Nancy. 2014. Timing and Order Conflicts in the Life Course: Schooling, Job Precariousness, and Care-Giving in Late-Forming Families in Spain. In Die mentale Seite der Ökonomie. Gefühl und Empathie im Arbeitsleben. (M. Seifert, ed.,parte de la serie Bausteine aus dem Institut für sächsische Geschichte und Volkskunde, vol. 31). Dresden: Thelem. 221-234.
Konvalinka, Nancy. 2013. Caring for Young and Old: The Care-giving Bind in Late-forming Families. In Pathways to Empathy: New Studies on Commodification, Emotional Labor, and Time Binds. G. Koch and S. Everke, eds. Campus Verlag: Frankfurt, New York
Konvalinka, Nancy. 2012. Methods and Concepts at Work: Generation and Caregiving in 'Late-Forming Families'. Anthropology News 53(5):10.
Graves, Dr. Michael W., U. of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, HI - To aid 'An Archaeological Investigation of Dry Land Agriculture in Hawaii'
DR. MICHAEL W. GRAVES, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, Hawaii, was awarded funding in September 2001 to aid research on 'An Archaeological Investigation of Dry Land Agriculture in Hawaii.' A recent study of dryland agriculture on the western slopes of Kohala in Hawai'i Island has revealed the introduction of sweet potato cultivation between the 13th and 14th centuries AD. This crop was rapidly expanded over the next three centuries throughout an area of more than 60 km-square as farmers came to understand its adaptability. It grew well on the volcanic soils, constrained largely by rainfall at lower and higher elevations that in turn affected the abundance of critical soil nutrients. A system of fixed fields was built in this area, some of which were intensified by subdivision and presumably more effort devoted to cultivation practices. At the end of the 18th century this system had reached its maximum spatial development. As dryland agriculture expanded and intensified, in this region populations grew, and new communities formed. Surplus production from the Kohala Field System supported chiefly ambitions, especially for those living along the western and drier portions of the Hawaiian Islands. Kamehameha the Great, who later unified the archipelago, rose to power in the late 18th century, in part, the result of the sweet potato production provided by the dryland agricultural system in Kohala.
Tejedor, Dr. Marcelo Fabian, U. Nacional de la Patagonia, Esquel, Argentina - To aid 'Fossil Primates From Patagonia: A Study of Cebine-Hominin Parallel Evolution'
DR. MARCELO F. TEJEDOR, Universidad Nacional de la Patagonia, Esquel, Argentina, received funding in April 2006 to aid research on 'Fossil Primates from Patagonia: A Study of Cebine-Hominin Parallel Evolution.' This project involved study of fossil primates from Patagonia, Argentina, with special attention to the new Killikaike blakei skull and a collection of isolated early Miocene specimens. The research, carried out in collaboration with Alfred L. Rosenberger, resulted in several publications in press and others soon to be submitted. We initiated 3-D, laser-based and ultrastructual studies of fossil teeth and micro-CT studies of Killikaike and pertinent modern cranial specimens. Craniodental and histological work confirms the phylogenetic position of Killikaike as a cebine monkey, but with a primitive enamel pattern. One of the two new genera we are describing is a primitive cebine probably most closely related to the Cebus lineage, thus its earliest known member and relevant to the early stages of parallel evolution mirroring hominins - which involved dental adaptations to processing abrasive foods and enlarged brains possibly related to predaceous omnivory, hard-object feeding and embedded food resources. Our studies suggest that Cebus may have acquired this basic adaptive pattern in response to selection outside the neotropical rain forest, perhaps in the role of a pioneering species able to exploit marginal habitats, not unlike some of the models applied to the question of hominin origins and differentiation.