Vokes, Dr. Richard Philip, U. of Canterbury, Christchurch, New Zealand - To aid research on 'The 'Globalization' of Religion: Pentecostal-Charismatic Christianity in South-Western Uganda and Beyond'
DR. RICHARD VOKES, University of Canterbury, Christchurch, New Zealand, was awarded a grant in April 2006 to aid research on 'The 'Globalization' of Religion: Pentecostal/Charismatic Christianity in Southwestern Uganda and Beyond.' This research project examined the 'globalization' of religion, by looking at the ways in which the structures, practices and ideas of Pentecostal/Charismatic Christianity are transmitted across transnational contexts. It was especially interested in looking at how churches, activities, and concepts -- which originated in Africa, or have become particularly associated with African milieus -- spread outwards from the continent amongst African Diasporas in Europe and elsewhere. The aim was to trace and analyze the social and material networks through which this dissemination occurred, as well as to deploy and interrogate a theoretical concept of 'mediation' as a key means for understanding these processes. This was primarily an ethnographic study that concentrated on the detailed examination of one particular set of social context, namely those of the Banyankole ethnic group of Southwestern Uganda. In this regard, the research involved fieldwork amongst the Banyankole Diaspora in the U.K. (which is primarily concentrated in London and its surrounds) and in Uganda itself.
Chesson, Dr. Meredith S., U. of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN - To aid research on 'Heterarchy and Corporate Villages of the Early Bronze Age Southern Levant: The Numeira Project'
DR. MEREDITH S. CHESSON, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, Indiana, was awarded funding in December 2002 to aid research on 'Heterarchy and Corporate Villages of the Early Bronze Age Southern Levant: The Numeira Project.' The 2004 Numeira Project centered on completing final field checks and mapping to establish the groundwork for evaluating data from excavations during the 1970s and 1980s at the site for final publication. A large portion of the walled town of Numeira has been excavated, and the final analysis centers on analyzing the architectural and artifactual data gathered from the site to address two main issues: 1) relationships between extensive non-residential and residential spaces and their associated activities to investigate the nature of institutional relationships and urbanism in EB III Numeira; and 2) the nature of EB III settlement at Numeira and its eventual demise as a springboard for reassessing models of EB III social complexity and collapse on a broader regional scale. The 2004 team accomplished several crucial tasks, including updating the final topographic and architectural plans of the site; finalizing architectural phasing; documenting 1993 salvage excavations by the Hashemite Kingdom's Department of Antiquity to include them in the final publication; employed an archaeological illustrator to reconstruct scenes of daily life at Numeira and the neighboring EBA settlement and cemeteries; and processed six radiocarbon dates from Numeira.
Scher, Dr. Philip Wyman, U. of Oregon, Eugene, OR - To aid research on 'The Politics of Historic Preservation and the Development of Heritage Tourism in Barbados'
DR. PHILLIP WYMAN SCHER, University of Oregon, Eugene, Oregon, received funding in April 2011 to aid research on 'The Politics of Historic Preservation and the Development of Heritage Tourism in Barbados.' The focus of this project was the ethnographic investigation of the political and economic processes that lie behind the protection and preservation of cultural heritage in Barbados, specifically the World Heritage site designated for Bridgetown (the capital city) and its historic military garrison. Over the last fifteen years, a dramatic transformation has occurred in the economic profile of this nation and of the region that has profoundly affected official and unofficial conceptions of culture and heritage. In the wake of decreasing economic options in the Caribbean due to free market initiatives, renewed pressure on creating or expanding a market for culture and tourism has developed. At the forefront of this development are applications for World Heritage status from UNESCO and attempts to copyright cultural forms in order to protect them. Barbados has pursued and recently obtained World Heritage Status for 'Historic Bridgetown and its Garrison.' This research pursued two different lines of inquiry. The first was to understand the nomination process and the various state and local parties involved in the successful nomination. The second was to gain insight into the neighborhoods surrounding the World Heritage site, including local businesses, schools and residents and how they view the historical legacy of British colonialism and their role in the memorialization of Colonial history.
Lem, Dr. Winnie, Trent U., Peterborough, Canada - To aid research on 'Transnationalism and Chinese Migrant Livelihoods'
DR. WINNIE LEM, of Trent University in Peterborough, Canada, was awarded a grant in December 2002 to aid research on the significance of transnational networks in the organization of livelihoods among Chinese migrants in France. Lem conducted fieldwork on small, family-run businesses operated by migrants from Asia in Paris, in order to assess the role played by transnational circuits in the initiation, organization, and operation of such firms over the previous 50 years. Through this case study, Lem explored the different propositions and debates that were emerging in the literature on the nature of migration and transnationalism and their relationships to globalization.
Lem, Winnie. 2007. William Roseberry, Class and Inequality in the Anthropology of Migration. Critique of Anthropology 27(4):377-394.
Gregor, Dr. Thomas A., Vanderbilt U., Nashville, TN - To aid research on 'A Native American Peace System'
DR. THOMAS A. GREGOR, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee, received funding in July 2004 to aid research on 'A Native American Peace System.' In the upper Xingu region of Central Brazil nine ethnic communities participate in a system of peaceful relations despite speaking different languages. The Xinguanos have never engaged in aggressive warfare and their culture is 'anti-violent.' Among the Mehinaku, one of the Xingu groups, the peace is in large part sustained by empathy and attention to one another's emotions and needs. Food sharing, a key symbol of nurturance and concern, requires reciprocal behavior. Failure to share puts the individual who is in need at supernatural risk, thereby making his discomfort everyone's responsibility. The villagers' pattern of romantic and companionate love, and mutual aid and respect for others, creates a merged community of interdependent interests. Coexisting with empathy and love are fear of witchcraft and occasional acts of violence. These are generally restrained by the ethic of non-violence and by the capacity to disengage from tense relationships. Interpersonal relationships and the emotional connection of individuals thereby play a fundamental role in maintaining the Xingu peace.
Copes, Lynn Erin, George Washington U., Washington, DC - To aid research on 'A Physiological Perspective on Bone Strength: Deciphering the Effects of Hormones on Skeletal Robusticity in Baboons'
DR. LYNN E. COPES, George Washington University, Washington, DC, was awarded funding in October 2011 to aid research on 'A Physiological Perspective on Bone Strength: Deciphering the Effects of Hormones on Skeletal Robusticity in Baboons.' Slender bones (narrow relative to length) are generally assumed to be weaker than robust bones. However, slender bones compensate for the natural variation in bone shape by adjusting bone quality traits such as tissue mineral density (TMD) to support the loads incurred during daily activities. Using microCT scans of bones from adult captive baboons (Papio anubis), researchers tested the hypothesis that the correlation between bone shape and quality would be higher in weight-bearing than non-weight bearing bones. Patterns of hormones involved in bone formation and resorption as potential mediators of these relationships were also investigated. Osteocalcin, adiponectin, and osteoprotogerin concentrations were assayed in serial blood samples collected from a group of juvenile baboons and were expected to reveal sex-specific differences around the time of sexual maturation. The expected inverse relationship between TMD and slenderness existed in the humerus and tibia but not in the femur, ulna, radius, or clavicle. Females invariably exhibited the lower values of shape variables and higher quality measures in these elements. Analyses revealed significant sex differences in absolute hormone concentration and patterns with age, with notable associations with puberty. These results indicate that the relationship between bone shape and tissue quality are site- and sex-specific and that hormones play a vital role in the development of this subtle interplay.
Shreeniwas, Dr. Sudha, U. of North Carolina, Greensboro, NC - To aid research on 'Traditions in Transformation, New Reproductive Technologies, and Gender Bias'
DR. SUDHA SHREENIWAS, of the University of North Carolina in Greensboro, North Carolina, was awarded a grant in June 2003 to aid research on new reproductive technologies and gender bias among members of two castes in India. Shreeniwas examined two hypotheses: (1) Social changes that enhance the productive roles of men more than those of women, together with the rise of patrilineality and dowry systems among formerly matrilineal-matrilocal communities, will increase families' preference for sons. (2) The motivations and means adopted to achieve newly emergent gender-biased reproductive goals will be similar to those operating in places where such goals have been long-standing. Shreeniwas studied members of the Nair caste or community in Kerala state and compared them with members of the Jat caste or community in peri-urban Delhi. The results supported the first hypothesis and partially supported the second. Patrilineal descent, residence, and inheritance, along with dowry practices, had become widespread in Kerala. These trends appeared to be associated with a verbalized preference for sons, although there was little evidence of prenatal sex selection among Nairs. The Jat community had long been patrilineal, with dowry, seclusion and educational limitations for females, strong son preference, and widespread prenatal sex selection. The main similarities between Nairs' and Jats' reasons for son preference were concerns about dowries and women's upbringing. The main differences were encouragement of education and paid work among Nair women and a 'memory of matriliny' that protected them from the worst forms of gender bias. Thus, despite high contraceptive use and low fertility, use of sex selection technology was almost nonexistent among Nairs.