Paris, Dr. Elizabeth, St. Lawrence U., Canton, NY; & Lopez Bravo, Dr. Roberto, U. de Ciencias y Artes de Chiapas, Mexico - To aid collaborative research on "Households And Communities In Small Polity Networks: Inter-Polity Interaction In Highland Chiapas"
Preliminary abstract: This project will investigate changing patterns of socioeconomic interaction and integration between two neighboring polity centers in the Jovel Valley of highland Chiapas from the Late Classic period (AD 700-900) to Early Postclassic period (AD 900-1250). Our research will explore the degree to which the residents of these sites exchanged goods and information across polity boundaries and the ways the polities may have been interdependent and integrated through socioeconomic networks.
Hale, Dr. Charles, U. of Texas, Austin, TX; and Velasquez Nimatuj, Dr. Irma, Independent scholar, Guatemala - To aid collaborative research on "When Rights Ring Hollow: Racism and Anti-racist Horizons in the Americas"
Preliminary abstract: This proposal supports two research teams (in Guatemala and Brazil) that form part of a six-country study of indigenous and afro-descendant peoples, as they confront challenges rooted in ongoing social inequality, racial discrimination and limits to participation in their respective national political systems. The research emerges from three year's work with organizations in all six countries, which belong to a hemispheric network of "observatories on racism." Periodic meetings of this network yielded a central empirical observation: throughout the region,
National Research Center on Human Evolution (CENIEH)
November 4, 2014
Bruner, Dr. Emiliano, National Research Center for Human Evolution, Burgos, Spain; and Veleminsky, Dr. Petr, National Museum, Prague, Czech Republic - To aid collaborative research on "Cranial Anatomy, Anthropology, and Vascular System"
Preliminary abstract: The skull has four main vascular systems, largely involved in brain and endocranial blood management. Two of them run directly within or above the bone layers, and their imprints are visible on cranial remains: the middle meningeal vessels and the diploic system. These traits can be used to study vascular biology in situations in which vessels are no more available: archaeology, paleontology, and forensic anthropology. Many of these traits may have also medical importance, being associated with brain oxygenation and thermoregulation.
Kulcasr, Dr. Gabriella, Hungarian Acad. of Sciences, Budapest, Hungary; and Earle, Dr. Timothy, Northwestern U., Evanston, IL - To aid research on
'Landscapes Of Complexity: The Politics Of Social, Economic & Ritual Transformations In Bronze Age Hungary'
Preliminary Abstract: The proposed project is a pilot study for the investigation of Bronze Age settlements in the Benta Valley, central Hungary, by a joint Hungarian-American-Polish team. This project is part of a Phase 3 investigation of the social, economic and political organization of a Bronze Age polity centered on the multi-period fortified settlement at Százhalombatta-Földvár. Furthermore, the proposed project is also imbedded in an even larger, multi-year comparative research program to study trajectories of socio-political development and identity formation in three Hungarian micro-regions. One of these three micro-regions is the Benta Valley, for which archaeological investigations are most advanced. In this larger, multi year project based on various strands of anthropological theories, we investigate the complex relationships between large, multi-period fortified tell settlements and smaller settlements surrounding them. We seek funding for the pilot study to establish our methods to identify and excavate Bronze Age houses on non-tell settlements. The pilot contains three connected tasks: geophysical survey, field and classroom training and excavation based on the results of the remote sensing survey. The training component of the pilot is key to establish and further develop the method of geophysical prospecting within Hungarian settlement archaeology and open new grounds for broader anthropological thinking.
U. of New Mexico, Emery Thompson, Dr. Melissa, UNM, Albuquerque, NM, and Otali, Dr. Emily, Makerere U., Makerere U. Bio. Field Station, Uganda - To aid collaborative research on 'The Development of Aggressive Behavior In Wild Chimpanzees'
Preliminary abstract: Chimpanzee males are well known for their aggressive behaviors and in all study communities, males are consistently more aggressive than females. Differences also exist between individuals within each sex in this species but there is little known about what shapes these differences. This project will examine the extent to which sex and individual differences in aggressive behaviors in wild chimpanzees are the result of early life experiences or innate predispositions. We will be conducting a 12 month study on subadult individuals living in the Kanyawara community of chimpanzees in Kibale National Park, Uganda. We will test the hypotheses that (1) males are exposed to more aggression as subadults than females, (2) males even at a young age exhibit more aggression than females and (3) individual variation in aggression is affected by the amount of aggression an individual is exposed to. This will be the first study to examine the development of aggression in a wild population of chimpanzees. This is particularly important for understanding the evolution of human aggression because humans and chimpanzees share similar pattens of between group aggression but humans exhibit reduced levels of within group aggression. There already exists a rich literature about the development of aggression in humans, but we are currently lacking a comparative dataset for chimpanzees to better understand these evolutionary changes. This project also includes a proposal to train Ugandan students to use primate behavioral ecology as a lens with which to view human behavior. We are proposing to sponsor a Ugandan graduate student to help with this developmental project and also to conduct a workshop examining the role that primate behavioral ecology can play in studies of human behavior. The study of anthropology is virtually non-existent in Uganda which is unfortunate given the valuable anthropological resource in the form of not one, but two species of great ape within its border.
Blumenschine, Dr. Robert J., Rutgers U., New Brunswick, NJ; and Maso, Dr. Fidelis T., Open U., Dar es Salaam, Tanzania - To aid collaborative research on 'Oldowan Hominin Land Use in the Post-Volcanic Lowermost Bed II Eastern Olduvai Basin, Tanzania'
Blumenschine, Robert J., Ian G. Stanistreet, Jackson K. Njau, et al. 2012. Environments and Hominin Activities across the FLK Peninsula during Zinjanthropus Times (1.84 Ma), Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania. Journal of Human Evolution 63(2)364-383.
Blumenschine, Robert J., Fidelis T. Masao, Harald Stollhofen, Ian G. Stanistreet, et al. 2012. Landscape Distribution of Oldowan Stone Artifact Assemblages across the Fault Compartments of the Eastern Olduvai Lake Basin during Early Lowermost Bed II Times. Journal of Human Evolution 63(2):384-394.
Di Rienzo, Dr. Anna, U. of Chicago, Chicago, IL; and Dr. Rem Sukernik, Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk, Russia - To aid collaborative research on adaptive evolution of mitochondrial and nuclear DNA loci in circumpolar populations of Siberia
Hayden, Dr. Robert M., U. of Pittsburgh, PA; and Erdemir, Dr. Aykan, Middle East Technical U., Ankara, Turkey - To aid collaborative research on 'Antagonistic Tolerance: Long-Term Sharing Of And Competition Over Religious Sites In Turkey'
DR. ROBERT HAYDEN, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, and DR. AYKEN ERDEMIR, Middle East Technical University, Ankara, Turkey, were awarded an International Collaborative Research Grant in May 2007, to aid collaborative research on 'Antagonistic Tolerance: Long-Term Sharing of and Competition over Religious Sites in Turkey.' This study investigated competition over religious sites shared over long periods by members of different religious communities by determining detailed cultural stratigraphies in a number of sites in Turkey, drawing on ethnographic, archaeological, and historical data. Major sites investigated included the Haci Bayram complex in Ankara, which encompasses remains of a Phrygian temple, a Roman temple, and a Byzantine church intersected by a 14th-century mosque and shrine. Long-term sharing by Muslims and non-Muslims of a pilgrimage site was examined at the 13th-century shrine of Rumi in Konya. Continuing competition between Muslim groups since the Ottoman period was examined at the Rumi shrine in Konya and at the 13th-century shrine at Haci Bektas in Nevsehir, both now officially museums, but among the most popular pilgrimage sites in modern Turkey. Other sites included mosques formed by converting a Byzantine church in Tirilye and a 19th-century one in Derinkuyu. The research tested the applicability of a broader comparative framework on long-term interactions between social groups and was tied to a larger international and multidisciplinary project on Antagonistic Tolerance, which has been funded by NSF, focusing on sites in Bulgaria, India, and Portugal. The data support the model of antagonistic tolerance proposed by Hayden in Current Anthropology (2002).
Hayden, Robert M., Hande Sözer, Tugba Tanyeri-Erdemir, and Aykan Erdemir. 2011. The Byzantine Mosque at Trilye: A Processual Analysis of Dominance, Sharing, Transformation and Tolerance. History and Anthropology 22(1):1-17.