Hayashida, Dr. Frances Mariko, U. of New Mexico, Albuuerque, NM; and Troncoso, Dr. Andres, U. of Chile, Santiago, Chile - To aid collaborative research on 'Agriculture and Empire in the High-Altitude Atacama'
Preliminary abstract: In the 15th Century, the Inka conquered the Atacama highlands to take control of its mineral wealth. To extract resources and administer the region, they expanded the road system, built new installations, and stationed officials at existing political centers. We propose that these activities were accompanied by the reorganization of irrigation agriculture to provision state personnel. With the shift from subsistence to tributary production, we also expect a change in the kinds or proportions of crops that were grown. Furthermore, community and household organization was likely transformed by state efforts to control and increase production. In a new collaboration, researchers from the U.S., Chile, and Spain will begin to collect data to test these ideas from two sites located between the Upper Loa and Salado drainages during a six week field season. Fieldwork will include mapping and surface observations, geological survey, test excavations, and sample collection for dating, soil, and botanical analyses. Participating Chilean students will learn how archaeologists study and interpret past land use and will gain hands-on experience in the field with specialists in geospatial technologies, dating and environmental archaeology. Results from the 2013 season will be used to formulate multi-year requests to other agencies for continued fieldwork.
Krause, Dr. Elizabeth Louise, U. of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA; and Bressan, Dr. Massimo, U. of Florence, Florence, Italy - To aid collaborative research on 'Tight Knit: Familistic Encounters in a Transnational Fast Fashion District'
Preliminary abstract: The intensely globalized Province of Prato serves as an ethnographic laboratory for investigating the conditions of fast fashion. Here, a historic textile district known for its MADE IN ITALY 'brand' has earned the distinction of having Europe's largest Chinese community. Most of these transnational migrants produce low-cost items for the fast-fashion industry. Historically, the success of the MADE IN ITALY 'brand' was attributed to small family firms lauded for their flexibility for meeting work demands. Less celebrated is the long history of an informal economy characterized by family arrangements tied to unwritten contracts, clandestine work, and old-world sensibilities of reciprocity. Many of these longstanding practices persist, yet the status quo has changed. Workers have intensified their ways of being flexible, and the state has deepened its mechanisms of control. Primary targets are transnational family firms and workers. What family arrangements does this economy require, repel, or generate? How do family members cope with über-flexible lives? Finally, what cultural logics and values emerge from encounters between fast-fashion workers and state institutions? Substantive contributions to anthropology are made in two primary areas: economic anthropology and critical embodiment studies. An innovative encounter ethnography approach locates places where fast-fashion workers and state institutions encounter one another. Collaboration occurs at all levels of the project: research design, data collection, data analysis, training, writing, and policy-making. A training component focuses on developing systematic approaches to qualitative data analysis to enhance the relevance of anthropology for graduate students interested in addressing social challenges in transnational encounter zones.
Perry, Dr. George, Pennsylvania State U., University Park, PA; and Garcia, Dr. Hector, U. Peruano Cayetano Heredia, Lima, Peru - To aid research on 'Hominin Dietary Evolution: A Tapeworm Parasite Proxy Study Of Meat Eating & Food Cooking Behaviors'
Preliminary abstract: We propose a novel Taenia tapeworm parasite proxy study of fiercely debated aspects of the evolutionary history of the hominin diet -- the origins of consistent meat eating and food cooking behaviors. These behaviors are in turn hypothesized to have played critical roles in the development of other key human traits, including brain size increases, masticatory system changes, dispersal patterns, and social structures. Specifically, we will first sequence the nuclear genomes of 13 Taenia tapeworm species and use a molecular clock to estimate the divergence times of the two human lineages from their closest evolutionary relatives (lion and hyena tapeworms), which must be either commensurate with or subsequent to the onset of consistent hominin meat-eating behavior. We will then identify signatures of natural selection in the human-specific tapeworm lineages and estimate the dates of Heat Shock Protein gene duplications, which may be adaptations to cooking-associated heat stresses. Next, we will compare tapeworm cyst viability across species under various heat stress conditions, with experiments conducted in Peru where human tapeworms are endemic. Finally, we will collect and analyze RNA-sequencing data to identify tapeworm genes that are differentially expressed following the exposure of cysts to heat stress.
Thompson, Dr. Eric C., National U. of Singapore, Singapore; and Chulanee, Dr. Thianthai, Chulalongkorn U., Bangkok, Thailand - To aid collaborative research on 'Thai and Indonesian Migrant Cultures in Bangkok, Jakarta and Singapore'
Boric, Dr. Dusan, Cardiff U., Cardiff, UK; and Sljivar, Dr. Dusko, National Museum in Belgrade, Belgrade, Serbia - To aid collaborative research on 'Household Craft Specialization and Emergence of Metallurgy in the Neolithic Vinca Culture of SE Europe'
Preliminary abstract: The project focuses on questions surrounding the emergence of craft specialization, including early stages of metallurgy, in early agrarian society. The case study chosen relates to the Vinca culture communities of southeast Europe with the earliest currently dated evidence of copper mining and metallurgy in Europe. We focus on the site of Belovode, eastern Serbia. Belovode spans the whole duration of the culture history phenomenon known as the Late Neolithic Vinca culture (5400-4500 cal BC). Vinca culture agrarian communities are characterized by new forms of craft production in the form of dark burnished ceramics, a specific style of ceramic figurines, and, importantly, copper metallurgy. Our work should enable us to specify in more detail aspects of houselhold level craft specialization in relation to metallurgy as well as all other aspects of material culture (ceramics, lithic, ground stone, etc.), and to differentate between likely existence of specialized zones of activities within the settlement limits. This will be achieved by investigating two different areas of the Belovode settlement with identified burnt house features as well as 'empty' areas with no apparent structures. This phase of research is the first step in developing longer term research dedicated to this period and region.
Di Rienzo, Dr. Anna, U. of Chicago, Chicago, IL; and Dr. Rem Sukernik, Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk, Russia - To aid collaborative research on adaptive evolution of mitochondrial and nuclear DNA loci in circumpolar populations of Siberia
Hayden, Dr. Robert M., U. of Pittsburgh, PA; and Erdemir, Dr. Aykan, Middle East Technical U., Ankara, Turkey - To aid collaborative research on 'Antagonistic Tolerance: Long-Term Sharing Of And Competition Over Religious Sites In Turkey'
DR. ROBERT HAYDEN, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, and DR. AYKEN ERDEMIR, Middle East Technical University, Ankara, Turkey, were awarded an International Collaborative Research Grant in May 2007, to aid collaborative research on 'Antagonistic Tolerance: Long-Term Sharing of and Competition over Religious Sites in Turkey.' This study investigated competition over religious sites shared over long periods by members of different religious communities by determining detailed cultural stratigraphies in a number of sites in Turkey, drawing on ethnographic, archaeological, and historical data. Major sites investigated included the Haci Bayram complex in Ankara, which encompasses remains of a Phrygian temple, a Roman temple, and a Byzantine church intersected by a 14th-century mosque and shrine. Long-term sharing by Muslims and non-Muslims of a pilgrimage site was examined at the 13th-century shrine of Rumi in Konya. Continuing competition between Muslim groups since the Ottoman period was examined at the Rumi shrine in Konya and at the 13th-century shrine at Haci Bektas in Nevsehir, both now officially museums, but among the most popular pilgrimage sites in modern Turkey. Other sites included mosques formed by converting a Byzantine church in Tirilye and a 19th-century one in Derinkuyu. The research tested the applicability of a broader comparative framework on long-term interactions between social groups and was tied to a larger international and multidisciplinary project on Antagonistic Tolerance, which has been funded by NSF, focusing on sites in Bulgaria, India, and Portugal. The data support the model of antagonistic tolerance proposed by Hayden in Current Anthropology (2002).
Hayden, Robert M., Hande Sözer, Tugba Tanyeri-Erdemir, and Aykan Erdemir. 2011. The Byzantine Mosque at Trilye: A Processual Analysis of Dominance, Sharing, Transformation and Tolerance. History and Anthropology 22(1):1-17.
Kulcasr, Dr. Gabriella, Hungarian Acad. of Sciences, Budapest, Hungary; and Earle, Dr. Timothy, Northwestern U., Evanston, IL - To aid research on
'Landscapes Of Complexity: The Politics Of Social, Economic & Ritual Transformations In Bronze Age Hungary'
DR. GABRIELLA KULCSAR, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest, Hungary, and DR. TIMOTHY EARLE, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois, were awarded an International Collaborative Research Grant in November 2011 to aid collaborative research on 'Landscapes of Complexity: The Politics of Social Economic and Ritual Transformations in Bronze Age Hungary.' The project investigated the social, economic, and political organization of a Bronze Age society in the Benta Valley, central Hungary, centered on the fortified settlement at Szazhalombatta-Foldvar, which was occupied for nearly a thousand years. Funding from Wenner-Gren helped to develop a protocol to identify household areas by intensive survey and geophysical prospecting at Bronze Age settlements in the valley outside the central site, and to test excavate trenches at two settlements. Geophysical prospection was carried out successfully at three sites (Bia 1/26, S6skUt 26/4, and Tamok 31/1), two of which were fortified, one unfortified. Based on these results, test trenches were excavated at S6skut and Tamok, revealing compelling remains of Bronze Age habitation, although no preserved house structures. Within the framework of the grant's training component, Hungarian archaeology students received hands-on instruction in geophysical prospection and survey methods, while the Hungarian archaeologist participants took part in a GIS course. Research results will provide the starting point for extended fieldwork at these sites, which will enable the study of the trajectories of socio-political change in a number of micro-regions in Hungary.
Poole, Dr. Deborah A., Johns Hopkins U., Baltimore, MD; and Harvey, Dr. Penelope, U. of Manchester, Manchester, UK - To aid collaborative research on 'Experimental States: Law, Engineering, and Regional Government in Cusco, Peru'
Preliminary abstact: Our collaborative study of the Regional Government of Cusco seeks to open up anthropological approaches to the study of the modern state through an ethnography that brings together Poole's work on law and the state, and Harvey's work on engineering and the 'politics of nature'. Our ethnography of this newly formed layering of the Peruvian state explores the discontinuous relations of expertise and regulation through which state power is reconfigured. More specifically, through intensive collaboration with a local team of Peruvian anthropologists, we propose to study how the regional government engages international regulatory frameworks and technical expertise through its administration of the World Bank funded Vilcanota River Management Project (VRMP). We are particularly interested to understand how the regional government's participation in such processes opens up new spaces of uncertainty and experimentation concerning the imagination and exercise of state power, , and the particular force of technical and scientific expertise in the formation and consolidation of such imaginaries. Our research aims to trace these process through an ethnography that focuses on the material and legal controversies over water, roads, property and patrimony that run through the VRMP.