Paris, Dr. Elizabeth, St. Lawrence U., Canton, NY; & Lopez Bravo, Dr. Roberto, U. de Ciencias y Artes de Chiapas, Mexico - To aid collaborative research on "Households And Communities In Small Polity Networks: Inter-Polity Interaction In Highland Chiapas"
Preliminary abstract: This project will investigate changing patterns of socioeconomic interaction and integration between two neighboring polity centers in the Jovel Valley of highland Chiapas from the Late Classic period (AD 700-900) to Early Postclassic period (AD 900-1250). Our research will explore the degree to which the residents of these sites exchanged goods and information across polity boundaries and the ways the polities may have been interdependent and integrated through socioeconomic networks.
Hale, Dr. Charles, U. of Texas, Austin, TX; and Velasquez Nimatuj, Dr. Irma, Independent scholar, Guatemala - To aid collaborative research on "When Rights Ring Hollow: Racism and Anti-racist Horizons in the Americas"
Preliminary abstract: This proposal supports two research teams (in Guatemala and Brazil) that form part of a six-country study of indigenous and afro-descendant peoples, as they confront challenges rooted in ongoing social inequality, racial discrimination and limits to participation in their respective national political systems. The research emerges from three year's work with organizations in all six countries, which belong to a hemispheric network of "observatories on racism." Periodic meetings of this network yielded a central empirical observation: throughout the region,
National Research Center on Human Evolution (CENIEH)
November 4, 2014
Bruner, Dr. Emiliano, National Research Center for Human Evolution, Burgos, Spain; and Veleminsky, Dr. Petr, National Museum, Prague, Czech Republic - To aid collaborative research on "Cranial Anatomy, Anthropology, and Vascular System"
Preliminary abstract: The skull has four main vascular systems, largely involved in brain and endocranial blood management. Two of them run directly within or above the bone layers, and their imprints are visible on cranial remains: the middle meningeal vessels and the diploic system. These traits can be used to study vascular biology in situations in which vessels are no more available: archaeology, paleontology, and forensic anthropology. Many of these traits may have also medical importance, being associated with brain oxygenation and thermoregulation.
Covert, Dr. H. Hadley, U. of Colorado, Boulder, CO; and Hoang, Dr. Duc Minh, Inst. of Tropical Biology, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam - To aid collaborative research on 'Behavioral Ecology of Sympatric Colobines at Ta Kou and Nui Ong Nature Reserves'
Preliminary abstract: Recent research on captive Vietnamese colobines has demonstrated interesting differences in feeding and positional behavior and associate anatomy between members of Trachypithecus and Pygathrix and it has been hypothesized that this differences may be the outcome niche partitioning. Here we propose to study representative species of these genera living in the same forest at Ta Kou and Nui Ong Nature Reserves to test a series of hypotheses. We anticipate that Pygathrix will chose to spend more time in the periphery of the canopy feeding on younger leaves and will frequently use suspensory postures and locomotion on the smaller substrates in this forest stratum. In contrast, Trachypithecus will spend more time in other forest strata where they will ingest higher frequencies of mature foliage, and less frequently utilizing suspensory positional behaviors as they use larger substrates. Documenting such differences will not only provide a better understanding of the behavioral ecology of these species but will also provide data that might bear on the evolution of suspensory adaptations in hominoid primates during the Miocene. Phenology of this forest will also be studied here so we will be able to document if either or both of these species are dietary specialists or generalists. This information will add to the growing literature on variation in feeding ecology among the so called leaf monkeys. Finally, this study includes a training component that will provide Vietnamese advanced undergraduates and graduate students and protected area staff an understanding on the relationships between phenology, feeding behavior, and positional behavior in the ecology of primates. This will provide the students the tools to develop anthropological primatology research projects enhancing anthropology scholarship in Vietnam and provide protected area staff knowledge that will better enable them to conserve endangered primates and promote anthropological research in their protected areas.
Fordred-Green, Dr. Lesley J., U. of Capetown, Capetown, South Africa; and Neves, Dr. Eduardo G., U. Sao Paolo, Sao Paolo, Brazil - To aid collaborative research on historiography and archaeology in the Reserva Uaca, Amapa, Brazil
Kelly, Dr. Kenneth, U. of South Carolina, Columbia, SC; and Fall, Dr. Elhadj Ibrahima, University Nelson Mandala, Conakry, Guinea - To aid Landlords & Strangers: Entanglement, Archaeology & The 19th Century 'Illegal' Slave Trade On The Rio Pongo, Guinea.
Preliminary abstract: This proposal aims to conduct archaeological work at 3 19th c sites along the Rio Pongo in Guinea, to explore the cultural entanglement manifest in the interaction of European and American traders with local elites, and the impacts of the slave trade on local societies. Following the early 19th c. close of the slave trade, the 'illegal' slave trade shifted away from the long-standing entrepots of the Slave and Gold coasts to the Upper Guinea coast. Taking advantage of the traditional 'landlord/stranger' relationships of obligation, European and American traders established a series of trading 'factories' linked with local, small scale polities. These traders married into local elite families, creating trader elite lineages that controlled the trade in captives and commodities. We will: 1) document and examine discrete archaeological contexts; 2) map changes in social organization and economy through an analysis of material culture; and 3) situate these changes in light of the traditional 'landlord-stranger relationship' of elite obligation to host foreign traders (Mouser 1973). Success of this project requires collaboration which marries the methodological strengths of Kaba, trained in archaeology and a museum and heritage preservation professional and ethnographer since 1981, and Kelly, who has conducted archaeological research investigating the entanglements of the African Diaspora in Africa and Caribbean settings for over 25 years. This project has broad implications for anthropological research: 1) we document the dynamics of the 'illegal' trade for which the archival record is incomplete, and yet was an important part of the African Diaspora of the 19th c; 2) we contribute to current conversations about cultural identities, and the role material culture plays in the their expression; 3) we investigate the strategies employed in the negotiation of cultural entanglements; and 4) we contribute to a more nuanced understanding of the political economy of the slave trade and its impact on the Upper Guinea Coast.
Parkinson, Dr. William A., Ohio State U., Columbus, OH; and Gyucha, Dr. A., Munkacsy Mihaly Museum, Hungary - To aid collaborative archaeological research into Transition to the Copper Age in Southeastern Carpathian Basin
DR. WILLIAM A. PARKINSON, Florida State University, Tallahassee, Florida, and ATTILA GYUCHA, Munkácsy Msueum, Békéscsaba, Hungary, were awarded an International Collaborative Research Grant in September 2001 to aid research on the transition to the Copper Age in the Southeastern Carpathian Basin. This collaborative research brought together scholars and students from the United States and Hungary to explore the various social changes that occurred at the end of the Neolithic on the Great Hungarian Plain. Specifically, the funding aided systematic archaeological excavations at two Wearly Copper Age (Tiszapolgár Culture) settlement sites (i.e., Vésztö 20 and Körösladány 14) and supported geophysical prospection, remote sensing, and paleo-environmental analyses in the Körös River Valley in eastern Hungary. The research clarified the nature of socioeconomic organization on the Great Hungarian Plain during the transition from the Late Neolithic (ca 5000-4500 BC) to the Early Copper Age (ca 4500-4000BC). In addition, to elucidating the social transformations that occurred during this interesting time in prehistoric Central and Eastern Europe, the research contributed to general understanding of social organization in 'middle-range' or 'tribal' societies. Finally, the grantees established a long-term, collaborative, multi-disciplinary, regional research project - the Körös Regional Archaeological Project - aimed at modeling the trajectories of social change that occurred during the later prehistory of the Great Hungarian Plain.
Smith, Dr. Lindsay, U. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM; and Garcia Deister, Dr. Vivette, U. Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico City - To aid collaborative research on 'Migrant DNA: The Science Of Disappearance And Death Across The Mexican Borderlands'
Preliminary abstract: Forensic DNA is an ever-growing scientific and political regime in spaces of violence, dispossession, and death. This Project, working in the Mexican borderlands, from Guatemala to the United States, will examine the emergence and consolidation of forensic genetics at the intersection of state-based and grass-roots responses to migration and migrant death. Focusing on scientists, we seek to elucidate the knowledge practices that shape death and identification, particularly the way that genetics has emerged as a contested paradigm for making sense of the crisis of migration and human rights. Drawing on the anthropology of science, critical forensic anthropology, and migrant studies, this study explores the epistemology of forensic genetics in this border region. We seek to elucidate the role of genetics within a new politics of life and death, one where the dead body, made legible through the molecular gaze becomes a contested space for narrating the suffering of violence. This ethnography of forensic science in Mexico adds a new dimension to the theorization of the border, bringing critical attention to the role of forensic science as a knowledge-making borderland straddling justice and research, humanitarian identification and state obfuscation, and the consolidation and contestation of Mexican state power. By focusing on migrant DNA an integral component of the production of violence, justice, and belonging in the global economy, we propose a new methodology for a multi-disciplinary anthropology of science that moves out of the laboratory to better understand the epistemologies and violences of truth-making in the borderlands.
Assefa, Dr. Zelalem, Smithsonian Inst., WDC; Pleurdeau, Dr. David, Institut de Paleontologie Humaine, Paris, France - To aid research on
'Archaeological Investigations of the Middle/Later Stone Age Occupation at Goda-Buticha, Southeastern Ethiopia'
DR. ZELALEM ASSEFA, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC, and DR. DAVID PLEURDEAU, Institut de Paleontologie Humaine, Paris, France, were awarded an International Collaborative Research Grant in November 2010, to aid collaborative research on 'Archaeological Investiations of the Middle/Later Stone Age Occupation at Goda-Buticha, Southeastern Ethiopia.' This ICRG-funded project was the systematic excavation of Goda Buticha, a cave site in southeastern Ethiopia discovered during an archaeological survey in 2007. A test excavation conducted in 2008 at this site revealed well-stratified deposits containing a diversity of Later Stone Age (LSA) and Middle Stone Age (MSA) material. A series of AMS and U-Th dates obtained in 2008 from charcoal and speleothem samples, respectively, provided dates ranging from mid-Holocene to 46 ka, but also indicated some complexities in the sedimentary and cultural sequence. The 2011 excavation at Goda Buticha clarified the sedimentary sequence and recovered a rich collection of archaeological materials using controlled excavation methods. Many LSA and MSA artifacts and faunal remains were recovered. Additional ostrich eggshell beads and isolated human skeletal remains were also found in the MSA levels. Sedimentological samples were collected for OSL dating and micro-morphological analysis. While thorough assessment of the significance of the site rests with the archaeological analysis and the chronometric dating that are in progress, the 2011 excavation has demonstrated the potential of Goda Buticha to provide insight into the late Middle Stone Age and later prehistory of the region.
Craig, Dr. Sienna, Dartmouth College, Hanover, NH; and Ao, Dr. Tsochen, Arura Group, Qinghai Province, PR China - To aid collaborative research on 'Tibetan Medicine Between Local and Global Worlds: Standardization, Commodification, and Clinical Use'
Preliminary abstract: Today, Tibetan medicine illustrates multiple, and somewhat confounding, agendas. This 'science of healing' must retain a sense of cultural authenticity and a connection to Tibetan Buddhism, yet it must be proven efficacious and safe according to international biomedical standards. Its practice must reflect both integrity and innovation within the scientific tradition from which it emerges, and operate in the context of medical pluralism, commingling with biomedical drugs, diseases, and practices - and, in China, with mainstream Chinese medicine. Tibetan medicines must treat illnesses in specific individuals and communities throughout the Himalaya and Tibetan Plateau, and are often given for free. They must also find a place within the multi-billion dollar global market for 'traditional' and 'complementary' medicines, and appeal to non-Tibetan consumers seeking alternate paths to wellness. Finally, Tibetan medicine must address the paradoxes of industry growth and environmental stewardship, given that this healing system depends on the materia medica of high Asia. In collaboration with colleagues in Germany and China, the proposed research will investigate how Tibetan medicines are being standardized and commodified through industry growth in China, how they circulate through diverse social settings as commodity goods and gifts; how they are prescribed and marketed as targeted therapies and as panacea for biophysical and psychosocial ills; and how they elucidate a larger biopolitics of traditional medicine, in both local and global arenas. Specifically, this multi-sited ethnography will: 1. explore the industrial production and marketing of Tibetan medicines and related clinical research agendas from within China's largest producer of these 'traditional' formulas: the Arura Group, Qinghai Province; and 2. examine how Tibetan medical practitioners living and working in the US procure, prescribe, and relate to their pharmacopia, now that they are practicing under radically different circumstances on new patients.