Harris, Dr. John William Kendal, Rutgers U., New Brunswick, NJ; and Mbua, Dr. Emma N., National Museums of Kenya, Nairobi, Kenya - To aid collaborative research on 'International Collaborative Paleoanthropological Research Project (lcpr), Ileret, Kenya'
Klarich, Dr. Elizabeth A., Cotsen Inst (UCLA), Santa Monica, CA; and Flores Blanco, Luis A., Puno, Peru - To aid collaborative research on 'Evaluating Early Urbanism at Pukara, Peru'
Preliminary abstract: Funding is requested to support a collaborative archaeological research project in the Lake Titicaca Basin of Peru that includes (1) a field project at the site of Pukara, Department of Puno, and (2) a training component for Peruvian undergraduate students focused on local site museum development. First, the field project consists of two months of mapping and excavations within two major areas at the site--the central district and the site periphery--to evaluate models for why and how Pukara developed into the first regional center in the northern Lake Titicaca Basin during the Late Formative Period (500 BC- AD 400). The mapping and excavations will be co-directed by the ICRG co-applicants, Elizabeth Klarich and Luis Angel Flores Blanco, Andean archaeologists with distinct perspectives based on their regional field experience, academic training, and specific research interests. After the conclusion of the field project, recovered materials will be inventoried, analyzed, and curated. The co-applicants will work jointly in all stages of the field project, including publication of findings in both Spanish and English. Secondly, the proposed training component provides an opportunity for four undergraduate students to develop a permanent exhibit documenting prehistoric and modern pottery production within the Museo Lítico Pukara.
Klarich, Elizabeth. 2014. Crafting, Community, and Collaboration: Reflections on the Ethnographic Sala Project at the Pukara Lithic Museum, Peru. Museum Anthropology 37(2):118-132
Pavlov, Dr. Pavel, Institute of Language, Literature & History, Syktyvkar, Russia; and Roebroeks, Dr. Wil, U. Leiden, The Netherlands - To aid collaborative research on the colonization of the northern world
Taylor, Dr. Tonya, Columbia U., New York, NY; & Chibanda, Dr. Dickson, U. of Zimbabwe, Harare, Zimbabwe - To aid collaborative research on 'Cultural Conceptions of Depression Among Traditional Healers and People Living with HIV/AIDS in Harare, Zimbabwe'
Preliminary abstract: Zimbabwe has one of the most severe AIDS epidemics in the world, with an estimated 1 out of 7 people living with HIV. Since the late 1990s, the country's epidemic has been exacerbated by an acute politic-economic crisis that has also heightened levels of depression. Given that depressed patients seek treatment for traditional healers more than primary care facilities, it is important to understand how cultural beliefs about depression: impact the way individuals respond to symptoms; inform individual decisions to seek care; and affect the manner in which people present their problems. Building on previous research, this proposed study seeks to explore how HIV+ patients and traditional healers in Zimbabwe conceptualize depressive symptoms and how these understandings influence subsequent treatment-seeking behavior and healing processes. Specifically, we will: 1) examine the ways that culture affects the clinical reality of depression, which include subjective experiences, idioms of distress, diagnoses, treatments, and outcomes; and 2) explore how differences in depression with HIV affect engagement with and adherence to HIV care. An understanding of how cultural beliefs of depression impact subjective meanings of experience and subsequent treatment-seeking behaviors may provide insight into how to improve psychosocial support for people with HIV in Zimbabwe.
Blumenschine, Dr. Robert J., Rutgers U., New Brunswick, NJ; and Masao, Dr. Fidelis T., U. of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania - To aid collaborative research on 'Predation Risk And Oldowan Hominin Land Use At Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania'
Blumenschine, Robert J., Ian G. Stanistreet, Jackson K. Njau, et al. 2012. Environments and Hominin Activities across the FLK Peninsula during Zinjanthropus Times (1.84 Ma), Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania. Journal of Human Evolution 63(2)364-383.
Blumenschine, Robert J., Fidelis T. Masao, Harald Stollhofen, Ian G. Stanistreet, et al. 2012. Landscape Distribution of Oldowan Stone Artifact Assemblages across the Fault Compartments of the Eastern Olduvai Lake Basin during Early Lowermost Bed II Times. Journal of Human Evolution 63(2):384-394.
Di Fiore, Dr. Anthony Francis, U. of Texas, Austin, TX; and Link, Dr. Andres, U. de Los Andes, Bogota, Colombia - To aid collaborative research on 'Sociality of the Dispersing Sex: Female Social Relationships in a Patrilineal Primate'
Preliminary abstract: The study of social relationships is a persistent focus of research in primatology, and much attention is given to the importance of 'social bonds' among members of the more philopatric sex. Indeed, recent studies of social bonding among females in matrilineal baboon groups suggest that strong, enduring relationships can provide fitness benefits. Less attention has been paid, however, to bonds among members of the 'dispersing' sex, who can also establish strong and enduring relationships with same-sex groupmates, even in the absence of genetic relatedness. The main objective of our collaborative research project is to explore factors that influence female bonds in two species of South American spider monkeys -- taxa where females routinely disperse. The study draws on our long history of collaborative fieldwork with these species and will combine behavioral, genetic, and habitat-wide phenological data to describe the nature of female-female relationships. Our project provides a counterpoint to the wealth of studies that have examined female bonding and the importance of female sociality in matrilineally-organized primate societies. New data on spider monkeys should improve our understanding of the principles underlying female-female bonds in patrilineal, patrilocal groups -- like those of chimpanzees and humans -- where females often live without close same-sex kin.
Link, Andrés, and Anthony Di Fiore. 2013. Effects of Predation Risk on the Grouping Patterns of White-Belied Spider Monkeys (Ateles belzebuth belzebuth) in Western Amazonia. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 150(4):579-590.
Hayashida, Dr. Frances Mariko, U. of New Mexico, Albuuerque, NM; and Troncoso, Dr. Andres, U. of Chile, Santiago, Chile - To aid collaborative research on 'Agriculture and Empire in the High-Altitude Atacama'
Preliminary abstract: In the 15th Century, the Inka conquered the Atacama highlands to take control of its mineral wealth. To extract resources and administer the region, they expanded the road system, built new installations, and stationed officials at existing political centers. We propose that these activities were accompanied by the reorganization of irrigation agriculture to provision state personnel. With the shift from subsistence to tributary production, we also expect a change in the kinds or proportions of crops that were grown. Furthermore, community and household organization was likely transformed by state efforts to control and increase production. In a new collaboration, researchers from the U.S., Chile, and Spain will begin to collect data to test these ideas from two sites located between the Upper Loa and Salado drainages during a six week field season. Fieldwork will include mapping and surface observations, geological survey, test excavations, and sample collection for dating, soil, and botanical analyses. Participating Chilean students will learn how archaeologists study and interpret past land use and will gain hands-on experience in the field with specialists in geospatial technologies, dating and environmental archaeology. Results from the 2013 season will be used to formulate multi-year requests to other agencies for continued fieldwork.
Krause, Dr. Elizabeth Louise, U. of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA; and Bressan, Dr. Massimo, U. of Florence, Florence, Italy - To aid collaborative research on 'Tight Knit: Familistic Encounters in a Transnational Fast Fashion District'
Preliminary abstract: The intensely globalized Province of Prato serves as an ethnographic laboratory for investigating the conditions of fast fashion. Here, a historic textile district known for its MADE IN ITALY 'brand' has earned the distinction of having Europe's largest Chinese community. Most of these transnational migrants produce low-cost items for the fast-fashion industry. Historically, the success of the MADE IN ITALY 'brand' was attributed to small family firms lauded for their flexibility for meeting work demands. Less celebrated is the long history of an informal economy characterized by family arrangements tied to unwritten contracts, clandestine work, and old-world sensibilities of reciprocity. Many of these longstanding practices persist, yet the status quo has changed. Workers have intensified their ways of being flexible, and the state has deepened its mechanisms of control. Primary targets are transnational family firms and workers. What family arrangements does this economy require, repel, or generate? How do family members cope with über-flexible lives? Finally, what cultural logics and values emerge from encounters between fast-fashion workers and state institutions? Substantive contributions to anthropology are made in two primary areas: economic anthropology and critical embodiment studies. An innovative encounter ethnography approach locates places where fast-fashion workers and state institutions encounter one another. Collaboration occurs at all levels of the project: research design, data collection, data analysis, training, writing, and policy-making. A training component focuses on developing systematic approaches to qualitative data analysis to enhance the relevance of anthropology for graduate students interested in addressing social challenges in transnational encounter zones.
Perry, Dr. George, Pennsylvania State U., University Park, PA; and Garcia, Dr. Hector, U. Peruano Cayetano Heredia, Lima, Peru - To aid research on 'Hominin Dietary Evolution: A Tapeworm Parasite Proxy Study Of Meat Eating & Food Cooking Behaviors'
Preliminary abstract: We propose a novel Taenia tapeworm parasite proxy study of fiercely debated aspects of the evolutionary history of the hominin diet -- the origins of consistent meat eating and food cooking behaviors. These behaviors are in turn hypothesized to have played critical roles in the development of other key human traits, including brain size increases, masticatory system changes, dispersal patterns, and social structures. Specifically, we will first sequence the nuclear genomes of 13 Taenia tapeworm species and use a molecular clock to estimate the divergence times of the two human lineages from their closest evolutionary relatives (lion and hyena tapeworms), which must be either commensurate with or subsequent to the onset of consistent hominin meat-eating behavior. We will then identify signatures of natural selection in the human-specific tapeworm lineages and estimate the dates of Heat Shock Protein gene duplications, which may be adaptations to cooking-associated heat stresses. Next, we will compare tapeworm cyst viability across species under various heat stress conditions, with experiments conducted in Peru where human tapeworms are endemic. Finally, we will collect and analyze RNA-sequencing data to identify tapeworm genes that are differentially expressed following the exposure of cysts to heat stress.