Hayden, Dr. Robert M., U. of Pittsburgh, PA; and Erdemir, Dr. Aykan, Middle East Technical U., Ankara, Turkey - To aid collaborative research on 'Antagonistic Tolerance: Long-Term Sharing Of And Competition Over Religious Sites In Turkey'
DR. ROBERT HAYDEN, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, and DR. AYKEN ERDEMIR, Middle East Technical University, Ankara, Turkey, were awarded an International Collaborative Research Grant in May 2007, to aid collaborative research on 'Antagonistic Tolerance: Long-Term Sharing of and Competition over Religious Sites in Turkey.' This study investigated competition over religious sites shared over long periods by members of different religious communities by determining detailed cultural stratigraphies in a number of sites in Turkey, drawing on ethnographic, archaeological, and historical data. Major sites investigated included the Haci Bayram complex in Ankara, which encompasses remains of a Phrygian temple, a Roman temple, and a Byzantine church intersected by a 14th-century mosque and shrine. Long-term sharing by Muslims and non-Muslims of a pilgrimage site was examined at the 13th-century shrine of Rumi in Konya. Continuing competition between Muslim groups since the Ottoman period was examined at the Rumi shrine in Konya and at the 13th-century shrine at Haci Bektas in Nevsehir, both now officially museums, but among the most popular pilgrimage sites in modern Turkey. Other sites included mosques formed by converting a Byzantine church in Tirilye and a 19th-century one in Derinkuyu. The research tested the applicability of a broader comparative framework on long-term interactions between social groups and was tied to a larger international and multidisciplinary project on Antagonistic Tolerance, which has been funded by NSF, focusing on sites in Bulgaria, India, and Portugal. The data support the model of antagonistic tolerance proposed by Hayden in Current Anthropology (2002).
Hayden, Robert M., Hande Sözer, Tugba Tanyeri-Erdemir, and Aykan Erdemir. 2011. The Byzantine Mosque at Trilye: A Processual Analysis of Dominance, Sharing, Transformation and Tolerance. History and Anthropology 22(1):1-17.
Kulcasr, Dr. Gabriella, Hungarian Acad. of Sciences, Budapest, Hungary; and Earle, Dr. Timothy, Northwestern U., Evanston, IL - To aid research on
'Landscapes Of Complexity: The Politics Of Social, Economic & Ritual Transformations In Bronze Age Hungary'
DR. GABRIELLA KULCSAR, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest, Hungary, and DR. TIMOTHY EARLE, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois, were awarded an International Collaborative Research Grant in November 2011 to aid collaborative research on 'Landscapes of Complexity: The Politics of Social Economic and Ritual Transformations in Bronze Age Hungary.' The project investigated the social, economic, and political organization of a Bronze Age society in the Benta Valley, central Hungary, centered on the fortified settlement at Szazhalombatta-Foldvar, which was occupied for nearly a thousand years. Funding from Wenner-Gren helped to develop a protocol to identify household areas by intensive survey and geophysical prospecting at Bronze Age settlements in the valley outside the central site, and to test excavate trenches at two settlements. Geophysical prospection was carried out successfully at three sites (Bia 1/26, S6skUt 26/4, and Tamok 31/1), two of which were fortified, one unfortified. Based on these results, test trenches were excavated at S6skut and Tamok, revealing compelling remains of Bronze Age habitation, although no preserved house structures. Within the framework of the grant's training component, Hungarian archaeology students received hands-on instruction in geophysical prospection and survey methods, while the Hungarian archaeologist participants took part in a GIS course. Research results will provide the starting point for extended fieldwork at these sites, which will enable the study of the trajectories of socio-political change in a number of micro-regions in Hungary.
Poole, Dr. Deborah A., Johns Hopkins U., Baltimore, MD; and Harvey, Dr. Penelope, U. of Manchester, Manchester, UK - To aid collaborative research on 'Experimental States: Law, Engineering, and Regional Government in Cusco, Peru'
Preliminary abstact: Our collaborative study of the Regional Government of Cusco seeks to open up anthropological approaches to the study of the modern state through an ethnography that brings together Poole's work on law and the state, and Harvey's work on engineering and the 'politics of nature'. Our ethnography of this newly formed layering of the Peruvian state explores the discontinuous relations of expertise and regulation through which state power is reconfigured. More specifically, through intensive collaboration with a local team of Peruvian anthropologists, we propose to study how the regional government engages international regulatory frameworks and technical expertise through its administration of the World Bank funded Vilcanota River Management Project (VRMP). We are particularly interested to understand how the regional government's participation in such processes opens up new spaces of uncertainty and experimentation concerning the imagination and exercise of state power, , and the particular force of technical and scientific expertise in the formation and consolidation of such imaginaries. Our research aims to trace these process through an ethnography that focuses on the material and legal controversies over water, roads, property and patrimony that run through the VRMP.
Torrence, Dr. Robin, Australian Museum, Sydney, Australia; and Kluyev, Dr. Nikolay A., Russian Academy of Science, Vladivostok, Russia - To aid collaborative research on ''Pleistocene Origins of Long Distance Obsidian Exchange in Far Eastern Russia
Bray, Dr. Tamara L., Wayne State U., Detroit, MI; and Echeverria Almeida, Mr. Jose, Fondo de Salvamento del Patrimonio Cultural, Canton Ibarra, Ecuador - To aid collaborative research on 'Imperial Inca Statecraft and the Architecture of Power'
DR. TAMARA L. BRAY, Wayne State University, Detroit, Michigan, and JOSE ECHEVERRIA ALMEIDA, Fondo de Salvamento del Patrimonio Cultural, Canton Ibarra, Ecuador, were awarded an International Collaborative Research Grant in October 2008, to aid collaborative research on 'Imperial Inca Statecraft and the Architecture of Power.' The focus of this project was the late imperial site of Inca-Caranqui located in the northern Ecuadorian highlands. Situated at the northernmost edge of the Inca Empire, this site is believed to constitute the last imperial construction episode prior to the Spanish invasion. The aim of the project was to explore the role of imperial architecture as a material strategy of Inca statecraft and reveal how such strategies evolved as a function of time and distance from the imperial capital of Cuzco. Using a combination of archaeological, ethnohistoric, and remote-sensing techniques, it was possible to precisely document the main architectural features at the site, create an architectural plan of the site layout, gain insight into the kinds of activities that occurred within the ceremonial core of the site, and establish the presence of a significant earlier Caranqui occupation at the site. These data provide the baseline for the comparative study with Inca installations closer to the heartland and from earlier phases of empire that offer insight into evolving state interests, local dynamics, and imperial innovation. The training component of the project, comprising a two-week seminar on archaeological site conservation, was conducted in collaboration with the INPC, well-attended, and resulted in a practical conservation plan for the site of Inca-Caranqui.
Bray, Tamara L. 2013. Water, Ritual, And Power in the Inca Empire. Latin American Antiquity 24(2):164-190.
Dressler, Dr. Wolfram H., U. of Queensland, Australia; and Pulhin, Dr. Juan M., U. of Philippines - To aid collaborative research on 'An Ethnography of Rural Livelihood Transitions among Migrant and Indigenous Uplanders on Palawan Island, Philippines'
Preliminary abstract: The intensification of the 'agrarian transition' threatens forests and traditional livelihoods in the rural Philippines. In particular, indigenous residents on the frontier island of Palawan contend with rapidly changing livelihoods arising from unequal commodity relations with migrants in an expanding market economy (Eder and Fernandez, 1996; Cramb and Culasero, 2003; Rigg, 2006). As frontiers are settled, indigenous peoples face growing threats to traditional livelihoods and customary practice as they negotiate agricultural intensification and new markets with migrants in the uplands. But how exactly do indigenous livelihood practices respond to the local outcomes of the 'agrarian transition'? How do household social relations and customary practice engage with migrant trade relations and commodity production? This study seeks to examine in ethnographic detail how indigenous households adjust to livelihood transitions, changes in forest landscapes and changes in the regional political economy.
Dressler, Wolfram. 2009. The shifting ground of swidden agriculture on Palawan Island, the Phippines. Agriculture and Human Values. Published online.
Dressler, Wolfram. 2009. People, power and timber: The politics of community-based forest management. Journal of Environmental Management 91: 206-214.
Dressler, Wolfram. 2010. The Role of 'Hybrid' NGOs in the Conservation and Development of Palawan Island, The Philippines. Society and Natural Resources 23:165-180.
Henshilwood, Dr. Christopher, U. of Bergen, Bergen, Norway; and Dr. Francesco d'Errico, U. de Bordeaux 1, Talence, France - To aid collaborative research on use of Nassarius kraussianus shells as ornamentation in southern Africa Middle Stone Age
DR. CHRISTOPHER HENSHILWOOD, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway, and DR. FRANCESCO D'ERRICO, Université de Bordeaux 1, Talence, France, received an International Collaborative Research Grant in October 2006, to aid collaborative research on the use of Nassarius kraussianus shells as ornamentation in southern Africa Middle Stone Age. The aim of this project was to investigate the human use of Nassarius kraussianus (Nk), as ornamentation during the Middle Stone Age and the Later Stone Age in southern Africa. In particular the collaborative research wanted to identify the factors (human choice vs. environmental conditions) playing a role in the size variability of Nk shell beads, and document and identify the causes (taphonomic vs. anthropogenic) of the modifications recorded on archaeological specimens (perforation, pigment staining, color change, use wear, heating). In order to achieve these goals, the researchers used optical and scanning electron microscopy, elemental analysis, and Raman spectroscopy to identify shell structure and composition, document changes under heating at different temperatures and in different environments, and differentiate them from changes produced by diagenetic processes. Optical and electron microscopy was also used to analyze use wear on archaeological and experimentally worn shells. Seven morphological (Perforation Type, Presence/absence of carnivore drills, Color, Location of use-wear, Age-class, State of completeness, Morphology of the Apex) and two morphometric variables (shell height and shell width) were systematically recorded on modern biocoenoses and thanatocoenosis of this species, as well as on two MSA, 37 LSA and seven burial sites (ca 5000 specimens).
Henshilwood, Christopher S., Francesco d’Errico, and Ian Watts. 2009 Engraved Ochres from the Middle Stone Age Levels at Blombos Cave, South Africa. Journal of Human Evolution 57(1):27-47.
Laudati, Dr. Ann, Utah State U., Logan, UT; and Kabamba, Dr. Patience, U. of Johannesburg, South Africa - To aid collaborative research on 'Securing Livelihoods From Insecurity: Grassroots Actors And Parallel Economies Of Accumulation In War-Torn DRC'
Preliminary Abstract: Despite the convergence of a growing number of scholars, practitioners, and NGOs to investigate the continuing landscape of violence within the Eastern region of the Democratic Republic of Congo, the 'relative silence' of systematic studies at the grassroots level lends support to Mamdami's (2009) recent critique on the underwhelming attention given to the region by the international community, and fosters a superficial and incomplete understanding of the conflict and its aftermath -- with significant implications for peace. Through site-specific empirical work in Eastern Democratic Republic of Congo, this study examines the role of grassroots actors in facilitating or challenging institutions and networks through which conflict occurs, violence is perpetrated and insecurity is sustained through an investigation of two groups of actors engaged in the peripheral economies of illegal trade. Using a mixed methodology in the area most affected by conflict, North Kivu Province, this research examines how; (1) the Nande of Butembo, and (2)armed groups in the Lubero/Beni region through their respective involvement in parallel networks of accumulation, promote the continuation of and shape Congo's violent landscape, how they contribute to the evolution of new conflicts, and the transformative effects they may offer to peace-building and development in the region.
Prendergast, Dr. Mary E., St. Louis U. in Madrid, Madrid, Spain; and Mabulla, Dr. Audax, U .of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania - To aid collaborative research on 'Archaeological Investigation of a 'Moving Frontier' of Early Herding in Northern Tanzania'
Preliminary Abstract: This project aims to understand the spread of herding and impacts on foragers in eastern Africa ca. 3000 years ago. Sites with so-called 'Pastoral Neolithic' ceramics, often associated with remains of livestock in Kenya, are found in an area stretching from the Serengeti to the Rift Valley in northern Tanzania. This poorly documented area is usually thought to mark the southern 'boundary' of early pastoralism. The existence and implications of this boundary have not been questioned, and it might be more appropriately thought of as a 'frontier' that may shift, dissolve or solidify depending on the nature of forager-food producer relationships. Thus sites in this area are ideal testing grounds for anthropological theories regarding such contact. We explore the 'moving frontier' of herding through systematic surveys and test excavations in the Manyara and Engaruka basins of the Rift Valley. We aim to: understand how land use varied according to subsistence strategy; refine the local chronology for early herding; examine claims for contact among Rift Valley populations; and elucidate the relationship, if any, between material culture and subsistence. The team includes specialists from Tanzania, Europe and the US who will train Tanzanian students in field methods and materials analyses.
Tunstall, Dr. Elizabeth, Swineburne U. of Tech, Melbourne, Australia; & Hang Dr. Hai, China Central Academy of Fine Arts - To aid research on 'Living Blue: Design Anthropology & the Designer's Role in the Shifting Meanings of Indigo in India & China'
Preliminary abstract: This international collaborative research grant proposal outlines a multi-sited project to study the role of designers in the shifting cultural meanings of indigo dyes in contemporary China and India. In the project, four international research partners will conduct two field study trips and two Design Anthropology workshops with students. During each field study trip, the partners will spend four weeks at indigo dyeing and weaving field sites in Uravakonda, Andhra Pradesh and Damadka, Kutch, Gujarat, India (October-November 2014) and in Nantong, Jiangsu Province, China (September-October 2015). Framed by the emerging discipline of Design Anthropology (e.g. how design translates values into experience with which people can directly respond), the purpose of the field research is to evaluate the use of Design Anthropology approaches in India and China. Specifically, the project explores the experiences of those who produce and use indigo dyes, as affected by designers, in order to determine the gap between the values expressed and the people's contemporary lived experiences. The project seeks to use this knowledge to define India and China specific Design Anthropologies.