Krause, Dr. Elizabeth Louise, U. of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA; and Bressan, Dr. Massimo, U. of Florence, Florence, Italy - To aid collaborative research on 'Tight Knit: Familistic Encounters in a Transnational Fast Fashion District'
Preliminary abstract: The intensely globalized Province of Prato serves as an ethnographic laboratory for investigating the conditions of fast fashion. Here, a historic textile district known for its MADE IN ITALY 'brand' has earned the distinction of having Europe's largest Chinese community. Most of these transnational migrants produce low-cost items for the fast-fashion industry. Historically, the success of the MADE IN ITALY 'brand' was attributed to small family firms lauded for their flexibility for meeting work demands. Less celebrated is the long history of an informal economy characterized by family arrangements tied to unwritten contracts, clandestine work, and old-world sensibilities of reciprocity. Many of these longstanding practices persist, yet the status quo has changed. Workers have intensified their ways of being flexible, and the state has deepened its mechanisms of control. Primary targets are transnational family firms and workers. What family arrangements does this economy require, repel, or generate? How do family members cope with über-flexible lives? Finally, what cultural logics and values emerge from encounters between fast-fashion workers and state institutions? Substantive contributions to anthropology are made in two primary areas: economic anthropology and critical embodiment studies. An innovative encounter ethnography approach locates places where fast-fashion workers and state institutions encounter one another. Collaboration occurs at all levels of the project: research design, data collection, data analysis, training, writing, and policy-making. A training component focuses on developing systematic approaches to qualitative data analysis to enhance the relevance of anthropology for graduate students interested in addressing social challenges in transnational encounter zones.
Parkinson, Dr. William A., Ohio State U., Columbus, OH; and Gyucha, Dr. A., Munkacsy Mihaly Museum, Hungary - To aid collaborative archaeological research into Transition to the Copper Age in Southeastern Carpathian Basin
DR. WILLIAM A. PARKINSON, Florida State University, Tallahassee, Florida, and ATTILA GYUCHA, Munkácsy Msueum, Békéscsaba, Hungary, were awarded an International Collaborative Research Grant in September 2001 to aid research on the transition to the Copper Age in the Southeastern Carpathian Basin. This collaborative research brought together scholars and students from the United States and Hungary to explore the various social changes that occurred at the end of the Neolithic on the Great Hungarian Plain. Specifically, the funding aided systematic archaeological excavations at two Wearly Copper Age (Tiszapolgár Culture) settlement sites (i.e., Vésztö 20 and Körösladány 14) and supported geophysical prospection, remote sensing, and paleo-environmental analyses in the Körös River Valley in eastern Hungary. The research clarified the nature of socioeconomic organization on the Great Hungarian Plain during the transition from the Late Neolithic (ca 5000-4500 BC) to the Early Copper Age (ca 4500-4000BC). In addition, to elucidating the social transformations that occurred during this interesting time in prehistoric Central and Eastern Europe, the research contributed to general understanding of social organization in 'middle-range' or 'tribal' societies. Finally, the grantees established a long-term, collaborative, multi-disciplinary, regional research project - the Körös Regional Archaeological Project - aimed at modeling the trajectories of social change that occurred during the later prehistory of the Great Hungarian Plain.
Perry, Dr. George, Pennsylvania State U., University Park, PA; and Garcia, Dr. Hector, U. Peruano Cayetano Heredia, Lima, Peru - To aid research on 'Hominin Dietary Evolution: A Tapeworm Parasite Proxy Study Of Meat Eating & Food Cooking Behaviors'
Preliminary abstract: We propose a novel Taenia tapeworm parasite proxy study of fiercely debated aspects of the evolutionary history of the hominin diet -- the origins of consistent meat eating and food cooking behaviors. These behaviors are in turn hypothesized to have played critical roles in the development of other key human traits, including brain size increases, masticatory system changes, dispersal patterns, and social structures. Specifically, we will first sequence the nuclear genomes of 13 Taenia tapeworm species and use a molecular clock to estimate the divergence times of the two human lineages from their closest evolutionary relatives (lion and hyena tapeworms), which must be either commensurate with or subsequent to the onset of consistent hominin meat-eating behavior. We will then identify signatures of natural selection in the human-specific tapeworm lineages and estimate the dates of Heat Shock Protein gene duplications, which may be adaptations to cooking-associated heat stresses. Next, we will compare tapeworm cyst viability across species under various heat stress conditions, with experiments conducted in Peru where human tapeworms are endemic. Finally, we will collect and analyze RNA-sequencing data to identify tapeworm genes that are differentially expressed following the exposure of cysts to heat stress.
Di Fiore, Dr. Anthony, New York U., New York, NY; and Dr. Eduardo Fernandez-Duque, Formosa, Argentina - To aid collaborative research on comparative socioecology of monogamous neotropical primates in the Ecuadorian Amazon and the Argentinian Chaco
Lemorini, Dr. Cristina, U. di Roma 'La Sapienza', Rome, Italy & Skakun, Dr. Natalia, Russian Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg, Russia - To aid 'Developing a FTIR Spectra Collection for Interpreting Residues of the Prehistoric Activities'
Flad, Dr. Rowan K., Harvard U., Cambridge, MA; and Li, Dr. Shuicheng, Peking U., Beijing, P.R. China - To aid collaborative research on 'Changing Landscape and Settlement Patterns during the Rise of Complexity in the Chengdu Plain, Sichuan, China'
DR. ROWAN K. FLAD, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts, and DR. SHUICHENG LI, Peking University, Beijing, P.R. China, were awarded an International Collaborative Research Grant in May 2008, to aid collaborative research on 'Changing Landscape and Settlement Patterns during the Rise of Complexity in the Chengdu Plain, Sichuan, China.' During the 2008-10 field seasons, the Chengdu Plain Archaeological Survey conducted large-scale surface survey, systematic augering, geomorphological testing, and geophysical prospection in a 314 km-square area of the Chengdu Plain around the site of Gucheng, to investigate the changing patterns of settlement in this region during the Late Neolithic and Bronze Age periods. Large numbers of previously unknown sites were identified across the region. Throughout the time periods being investigated, sites are located consistently on landforms overlooking hydrological channels as reconstructed by the geomorphological work. Geophysical prospection identified archaeological features from different time periods, some of which were tested to extract archaeobotanical materials. The survey also identified broad changes in orientation of sites over time that suggest regional processes reorganized the pattern of human settlements --from one that was locally oriented to one that was partly tied into macro-regional processes -- that involved the establishment of a major political center in the area of the modern city of Chengdu. The data are integrated using a digital GIS database, and a workshop on GIS development and analysis for Chinese archaeologists was also funded by the grant. Ongoing research will continue to analyze the data collected and explore these preliminary patterns.
Poole, Dr. Deborah A., Johns Hopkins U., Baltimore, MD; and Harvey, Dr. Penelope, U. of Manchester, Manchester, UK - To aid collaborative research on 'Experimental States: Law, Engineering, and Regional Government in Cusco, Peru'
Preliminary abstact: Our collaborative study of the Regional Government of Cusco seeks to open up anthropological approaches to the study of the modern state through an ethnography that brings together Poole's work on law and the state, and Harvey's work on engineering and the 'politics of nature'. Our ethnography of this newly formed layering of the Peruvian state explores the discontinuous relations of expertise and regulation through which state power is reconfigured. More specifically, through intensive collaboration with a local team of Peruvian anthropologists, we propose to study how the regional government engages international regulatory frameworks and technical expertise through its administration of the World Bank funded Vilcanota River Management Project (VRMP). We are particularly interested to understand how the regional government's participation in such processes opens up new spaces of uncertainty and experimentation concerning the imagination and exercise of state power, , and the particular force of technical and scientific expertise in the formation and consolidation of such imaginaries. Our research aims to trace these process through an ethnography that focuses on the material and legal controversies over water, roads, property and patrimony that run through the VRMP.
Boric, Dr. Dusan, Cardiff U., Cardiff, UK; and Sljivar, Dr. Dusko, National Museum in Belgrade, Belgrade, Serbia - To aid collaborative research on 'Household Craft Specialization and Emergence of Metallurgy in the Neolithic Vinca Culture of SE Europe'
Preliminary abstract: The project focuses on questions surrounding the emergence of craft specialization, including early stages of metallurgy, in early agrarian society. The case study chosen relates to the Vinca culture communities of southeast Europe with the earliest currently dated evidence of copper mining and metallurgy in Europe. We focus on the site of Belovode, eastern Serbia. Belovode spans the whole duration of the culture history phenomenon known as the Late Neolithic Vinca culture (5400-4500 cal BC). Vinca culture agrarian communities are characterized by new forms of craft production in the form of dark burnished ceramics, a specific style of ceramic figurines, and, importantly, copper metallurgy. Our work should enable us to specify in more detail aspects of houselhold level craft specialization in relation to metallurgy as well as all other aspects of material culture (ceramics, lithic, ground stone, etc.), and to differentate between likely existence of specialized zones of activities within the settlement limits. This will be achieved by investigating two different areas of the Belovode settlement with identified burnt house features as well as 'empty' areas with no apparent structures. This phase of research is the first step in developing longer term research dedicated to this period and region.
Conklin, Dr. Beth A, Vanderbilt U., Nashville, TN; and Vilaca, Dr. Aparecida, Museu Nacional, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil - To aid collaborative research on places and bodies as sites of identity among the Wari' of western Brazil
Zhang, Dr. Liangren, Nanjiig U., Nanjing, P.R. of China; and Pernicka, Dr. Ernst, U. Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany - To aid collaborative research on 'Prehistoric Metallurgy of Eastern Xinjiang'
Preliminary abstract: The project aims to explore into the early development of metallurgy in Eastern Xinjiang using metal artifacts uncovered from several Bronze Age and Early Iron Age cemeteries. Because of political and language barriers, this body of materials has been under-studied in international scholarship. The project will first deal with the origin of metallurgical knowledge in Eastern Xinjiang in the broad context of technological transmission and population migration across the Western Hexi Corrdor, the Mongolian Plateau, and the Minusinsk Basin. More importantly, it will combine the research resources of both China and Germany to investigate the production and trade of metal artifacts of Eastern Xinjiang. The existing morphological and compositional data indicate that at least a part of them were produced locally, but whether metal minerals, especially the tin, the deposit of which is canty over the globe, were acquired from local or external sources remain an unsolved questions. The project will survey mineral mines in Eastern Xinjiang and the adjacent Hexi Corridor, acquire samples for trace elements and isotopic analyses, compare the resulting data with those of samples of metal artifacts from Eastern Xinjiang to determine if the local sources were exploited; moreover, it will compare them with the existing data of the nearest known tin sources of Central Asia, including Eastern Kazakhstan and the Upper Zeravshan valley to see if the tin mineral from them was traded to Eastern Xinjiang. It will eventually employ the dataset to elucidate the pattern of local populations interacting with their comtemporaneous counterparts in the surrounding regions, and bear upon the concept of 'negotiated periphery.'