Lemorini, Dr. Cristina, U. di Roma 'La Sapienza', Rome, Italy & Skakun, Dr. Natalia, Russian Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg, Russia - To aid 'Developing a FTIR Spectra Collection for Interpreting Residues of the Prehistoric Activities'
Abelmann, Dr. Nancy, U. of Illinois, Urbana, IL; and Dr. Hae-Joang Cho, Yonsei U., Seoul, South Korea - To aid collaborative research on 'The Anxious South Korean Student: Globalization, Human Capital, and Class'
Varela-Silva Dr. Maria, Loughborough U. Loughborough Leicestershire, UK; and Dickinson-Bannack, Dr. Federico, U. Merida, Mexico - To aid collaborative research on 'Nutritional Status and Health Outcomes in a Dual-Burden Population of Maya in Yucatan'.
DR. MARIA VARELA-SILVA, Loughborough University, Loughborough, Leicestershire, United Kingdom, and DR. FEDERICO DISKINSON-BANNACK, University of Merida, Merida, Mexico, were awarded an International Collaborative Research Grant in October 2009, to aid collaborative research on 'Nutritional Status and Health Outcomes in a Dual-Burden Population of Maya in Yucatan.' Developing countries are currently facing a dual burden of chronic malnutrition (stunting) and overweight/obesity. The biocultural determinants of this phenomenon are rooted in the combined effects of socioeconomic change, metabolic impairments, intergenerational effects and negative early-life outcomes. Energy expenditure levels likely play a role, but the extent is not known. This project focuses on an urban Maya community in Merida, Mexico. The aims of this project are to identify long- and short-term causes of the dual burden, and to identify intergenerational and early life biocultural factors that shape nutritional outcomes during childhood. Fifty-eight mother-child pairs were recruited. Anthropometry of mother-child pairs was conducted and a survey of household ecology was done. Questionnaires to assess food frequency, family sociodemographics, ante-natal events, birth outcomes, and post-natal life were also applied. Children's energy expenditure was assessed for five days, under free-living conditions, with a combined heart-rate and accelerometer device (Actiheart®). This project also includes a training component focusing on: 1) energy expenditure assessment; 2) biocultural theory and application; and 3) ecological and anthropological research in Mexico. Four-days of training sessions were open to graduate students and staff from the Centro de Investigaci6n y Estudios Avanzados-Merida.
Wilson, Hannah J., F. Dickinson, P. L. Griffiths, B. Bogin, M. Hobbs, and M.I. Varela-Silva. 2014. Maternal Short Stature Does Not Predict Their Children's Fatness Indicators in a Nutritional Dual-Burden Sample of Urban Mexican Maya. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 153(4):627-634
Campbell, Dr. Roderick B., NYU, New York, NY, and Li Dr. Zhipeng, Chinese Acad. of Social Sciences, Beijing, China - To aid collaborative research on 'Tiesanlu Production Organization Project: Bone Working at 'the Great Settlement Shang', Anyang, PRC'
Preliminary Abstract: The relationship between production and social organization has long been a major focus of archaeological research. Recent work on production in early complex polities, moreover, has increasingly questioned the validity of unilineal evolutionary models and made a case for considering the importance of historically specific modes of organization. Despite its importance, our understanding of production organization in early Chinese polities remains sketchy. Our project will integrate graduate student training with the zooarchaeological and production analyses of an enormous assemblage of Late Shang (ca. 1250-1050 BCE) bone working debris excavated at Tiesanlu, Anyang. Building on preliminary research, we will combine the efforts of four teams: one performing a coarse, comprehensive survey of the bone assemblage; a second performing a fine-grained analysis on a sample; a third providing ceramic dates and archaeological context; a fourth performing GIS spatial analysis. Previous work on Shang China has both suggested the presence of lineage organization and state monopolies. We aim to answer the following questions. Are the debris deposits the remains of multiple domestic crafters or a single large, integrated workshop? Is there any evidence for the centralized, 'modular production' claimed particular to Chinese traditions? Is Anyang production lineage-organized as ancient text suggest?
Farquhar, Dr. Judith B., U. of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC; and Zhang, Dr. Qicheng, Beijing, China - To aid collaboration on practices of cultivating life: yang sheng and everyday life in Beijing
DR. JUDITH B. FARQUHAR, then at the University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC; and DR. QICHENG ZHANG, Beijing University, Beijing, China, were awarded an International Collaborative Research Grant in July 2002, to aid collaborative research on 'Practices of Cultivating Life: Yangsheng and Everyday Life in Beijing.' Yangsheng, or nurturing life, is a rubric that in China today incorporates medical selfcare, nutrition, exercise, daily habits, hobbies, and healthful dispositions. Yangsheng offers a vision of a good society rooted in wholesome lives, combining notions of life, the person, and the social world. This project has been an anthropological investigation of this complex indigenous category and social theory. An American anthropologist and a Chinese philosopher have here collaborated to understand how contemporary Beijingers configure lives in ways indebted both to cultural tradition and Maoist mobilization, both idiomatically Chinese and modernistically global. The research looked at unique modern Chinese values and proclivities at work: 1) an emphasis on life nurturance as pure enjoyment; 2) an emphasis on everyday life activism; 3) a depoliticized but quiet politics, visible in the ways large groups occupy public space to nurture their lives; 4) resonances among official health propaganda, informants' common sense, and esoteric Chinese philosophies. Theoretical questions also arose: the nature of the political, the charging of urban space in practice, the 'life' of 'tradition,' the constitution of meaning in the practice of the everyday. Publications have appeared from this project, notably three articles by Judith Farquhar and several mass market books by Qicheng Zhang. A co-authored English-language monograph from the study is in press with Zone Books.
Honeychurch, Dr. William, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC; and Amartuvshin, Chunag, Academy of Sciences, Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia - To aid collaborative research on early Iron age political transition, Middle Gobi, Mongolia, 2004
DR. WILLIAM HONEYCHURCH, of the Smithsonian Institution in Washington, DC, and DR. CHUNAG AMARTUVSHIN, of the Institute of Archaeology, Academy of Sciences, Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia, were awarded an International Collaborative Research Grant in May 2004 to aid collaborative research on the early Iron Age political transition in the middle Gobi Desert of Mongolia. The emergence on the Inner Asian steppe of regional confederacies of pastoral nomads figured prominently in the early historical records of China and other Old World states. Current hypotheses differ about whether such polities arose as the result of indigenous political processes or from the influence of sedentary neighbors. Models illustrating these hypotheses are often based on historical sources and are rarely designed for testing against archaeological evidence. The Baga Gazaryn Chuluu survey was designed to test ideas for early political development on the steppe using regional survey data and excavation. The project was set in a marginal frontier area with characteristics suitable for the study of both internal and external economic and political processes. The second season of research, July through August 2004, resulted in the survey of approximately 103 square kilometers. More than 500 archaeological sites were discovered, ranging from the Paleolithic to the early twentieth century and including settlements, tombs, and petroglyphs. Sites dating to the early first millennium b.c.e. and to the period of the emerging Xiongnu steppe polity (ca. 200 b.c.e.) provided evidence that competition between Early Iron Age centers, networks of exchange extending as far as Inner Mongolia, and patterns of differential political sustainability were important in the rise of the first regionally organized, complex polity on the northeastern Asian steppe.
Lemorini, Dr. Cristina, U. di Roma 'La Sapienza', Rome, Italy & Skakun, Dr. Natalia, Acad. of Sciences, St. Petersburg, Russia; et al. - For collaborative research on 'Developing a FTIR Spectra Collection for Interpreting Prehistoric Activities'
DR. CRISTINA LEMORINI, University of Rome, Rome, Italy, and DR. NATALIA SKAKUN, Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg, Russia, were awarded an International Collaborative Research Grant in May 2009, to aid collaborative research on 'Developing a FTIR Spectra Collection for Interpreting Prehistoric Activities.' More than 200 archaeological tools made of lithic or hard animal materials showing, according to use-wear analysis, evidence of contact with vegetable tissues have been spectroscopically examined using an infrared microscope. The systematic non-invasive investigation aimed to verify the presence of micro-residues at the working edges of the items. In order to identify the nature of the micro remains, a parallel analysis, in the same experimental conditions, was conducted on a set of suitable replicas (95 items) that worked a large variety of plants. In almost all cases cellulose and lignine could be individuated. Furthermore, a few significant sets of spectral data obtained both on archaeological and experimental items were also statistically analyzed. The theoretical treatment added precious details both to use-wear and spectroscopic analysis suggestions. For sake of completeness, residues extracted from lithic groundstones from Italian and Israeli sites were also spectroscopically analyzed. Comparison to spectral patterns of grains and stems of a great number of domestic and wild vegetable species evidenced a significant presence of proteins in grains only and provided a criterion to distinguish between fibers and grains processing. As for botanical analysis, only few remains of fibers and body silica (phytoliths) were detected on the archaeological tools.
Lemorini, Cristina, Thomas W. Plummer, David R. Braun, et al. 2014. Old Stones' Song: Use-Wear Experiments and Analysis of the Oldowan Quartz and Quartzite Assemblage from Kanjera South (Kenya). Journal of Human Evolution 72:10-25
Reeves, Dr. Madeleine, U. of Manchester, Manchester, UK; and Aitpaeva, Dr.Gulnara, Aigine Cultural Research Centre, Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan - To aid collaborative research on 'Conviviality And Contention In Southern Kyrgyzstan: An Infrastructural Approach'
Preliminary abstract: This project contributes to a critical interdisciplinary scholarship on the politics of conflict prediction and 'preventive development' in rural Central Asia through a collaborative ethnography of the infrastructures and material practices facilitating yntymak (inter-communal conviviality) and chatak (contention) in Batken, southwest Kyrgyzstan. Batken oblast', the irrigation-dependent southern fringe of Central Asia's Ferghana valley, where Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan and Tajikistan meet, often figures in popular and policy accounts in determinist terms: as a region unusually liable to conflict, marked by an excess of ethnic and geopolitical complexity. The current project aims to shed light on the habitual dynamics through which local disputes are regulated, channeled or diffused in this region by adopting an infrastructural perspective. Rather than taking the ethnic community as our ethnographic starting point, we rather pose as an empirical question how and under which conditions certain kinds of public come to be habitually reproduced and others come to be 'blocked'. We do so by focusng on particular critical infrastructures that connect borderland villages and kinds of public space that these serve to materailize. Drawing on ethnographic research and infrastructural mapping in two pairs of geographically contiguous villages, we look at the social relations that coalesce around water channels and pipes, roads and public transport; markets, medical clinics and sacred sites (mazarlar). We suggest that doing so can provide an alternative geography of social relations and social contention from that which dominates in existing academic and policy studies. In so doing we seek to invigorate a debate about the stakes and dynamics of interethnic conflict in Central Asia, one that has tended to be polarized by disagreement over whether 'resources' or 'identities' should be considered analytically primary.
Acuto, Felix, CONICET, Buenos Aires, Argentina and Troncoso Melendez, Andres, U. of Chile, Santiago- To aid collaborative research on 'Inca Ritual Activities and Landscapes in the Southern Andes'
Acuto, Félix A. 2011. Encuentros Coloniales, Heterodoxia y Ortodoxia en el Valle Calchaqui Norte Bajo El Dominio Inka. Estudios Atacamenios. 42:5-32.
Acuto, Felix A. 2012. Landscapes of Inequality, Spectacle, and Control: Inka Social Order in Provincial Contexts. Revista de Antropologia 25(1):9-64.
Acuto, Félix A., Andrés Troncoso, and Alejandro Ferrari. 2012. Recognizing Strategies for Conquered Territories: A Case Study from the Inka North Calchaqui Valley. Antiquity 86: 1141-1154.
Acuto, Félix A., Marina Smith, and Ezequiel Gilardenghi. 2011. Reenhebrando El Pasado: Hacia Una Epistemologia de la Materialidad. Boletin del Museo Chileno de Arte Precolombino 16(2):9-26.
Andrés Troncoso, Daniel Pavlovic, Félix Acuto, Rodrigo Sánchez, A. César González-García. 2012. Complejo Arquitectonico Cerro Mercachas: Arquitectura y Ritualidad Incaica en Chile Central. Revista Espanola de Anthropologia Americana 42(2):293-319
Acuto, Felix A., Marisa Kergaravat, and Claudia Amuedo. 2014. Death, Personhood, and Relatedness in the South Andes a Thousand Years Ago. Journal of Material Culture 19(3):303-326