Paris, Dr. Elizabeth, St. Lawrence U., Canton, NY; & Lopez Bravo, Dr. Roberto, U. de Ciencias y Artes de Chiapas, Mexico - To aid collaborative research on "Households And Communities In Small Polity Networks: Inter-Polity Interaction In Highland Chiapas"
Preliminary abstract: This project will investigate changing patterns of socioeconomic interaction and integration between two neighboring polity centers in the Jovel Valley of highland Chiapas from the Late Classic period (AD 700-900) to Early Postclassic period (AD 900-1250). Our research will explore the degree to which the residents of these sites exchanged goods and information across polity boundaries and the ways the polities may have been interdependent and integrated through socioeconomic networks.
Hale, Dr. Charles, U. of Texas, Austin, TX; and Velasquez Nimatuj, Dr. Irma, Independent scholar, Guatemala - To aid collaborative research on "When Rights Ring Hollow: Racism and Anti-racist Horizons in the Americas"
Preliminary abstract: This proposal supports two research teams (in Guatemala and Brazil) that form part of a six-country study of indigenous and afro-descendant peoples, as they confront challenges rooted in ongoing social inequality, racial discrimination and limits to participation in their respective national political systems. The research emerges from three year's work with organizations in all six countries, which belong to a hemispheric network of "observatories on racism." Periodic meetings of this network yielded a central empirical observation: throughout the region,
National Research Center on Human Evolution (CENIEH)
November 4, 2014
Bruner, Dr. Emiliano, National Research Center for Human Evolution, Burgos, Spain; and Veleminsky, Dr. Petr, National Museum, Prague, Czech Republic - To aid collaborative research on "Cranial Anatomy, Anthropology, and Vascular System"
Preliminary abstract: The skull has four main vascular systems, largely involved in brain and endocranial blood management. Two of them run directly within or above the bone layers, and their imprints are visible on cranial remains: the middle meningeal vessels and the diploic system. These traits can be used to study vascular biology in situations in which vessels are no more available: archaeology, paleontology, and forensic anthropology. Many of these traits may have also medical importance, being associated with brain oxygenation and thermoregulation.
Kaestle, Dr. Frederika A., Indiana U., Bloomington, IN; and Ribeiro-Dos-Santos, Andrea, U. Federal do Para, Belem, Brazil - To aid collaborative research on 'mtDNA in Brazilian Prehistoric Groups of the Last 12,000 Years'
Mijares, Dr. Armand, U. of the Philippines, Quezon City, Philippines; and Detroit, Dr. Florent, Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris, France - To aid research on 'In Search Of The Early Modern Human Diaspora: The Case Of The Callao Hominin'
Archaeological research on Flores Island, eastern Indonesia, has shown that Island Southeast Asia and especially Wallacea (which also includes the Philippines) have an incredible potential to challenge many of the current theories on human colonization and evolution. The recent discovery of a human 3rd metatarsal in Callao Cave, northern Luzon, Philippines, dated by U-series ablation to 67 kya has further highlighted the fact that much is still to be discovered and learned in this region of the world. The metatarsal has been provisionally identified as that of an anatomically modern human, albeit small in size and with unique characteristics. If confirmed, this discovery will contest our current understanding of the timing of colonization of ISEA by modern humans, and also of the timing of their migration out of Africa. If the remains are eventually classified as another hominin species the research will also have important implications for understanding the evolutionary trajectories of hominin ancestors. It is proposed to continue the morphometric research on the Callao fossil and to expand excavations at Callao cave into other areas of the ante chamber, and to re-excavate previous excavation pits, in order to locate, characterize and develop a better understanding of the human occupation of the caves. This will also provide an opportunity to recover more diagnostic human remains with which we can begin to address these critical questions of hominin colonization of, and evolution within, Island Southeast Asia.
Shott, Dr. Michael, U. of Northern Iowa, Cedar Falls; & Dr. Jose Lanata, U. of Buenos Aires, Argentina - To aid collaborative research on High-Latitude Hunter-Gatherers North & South: Variation & Adaptation in the Holocene of Patagonia & the Great Basin
Anderson, Dr. David G. U. of Tromso, Tromso, Norway; and Arzyutov, Dr. Dmitry, U. of Saint-Petersburg - To aid collaborative research on 'The Concept Of The 'Ethnos' In Post-Soviet Russia: The Ethnogenesis Of The Peoples Of The North'
Preliminary abstract: Building on the observations of Earnest Gellner, that in Russia and Eastern Europe social and political thought has been incubated specifically within the discipline of ethnography , this project aims to examine the status of ethnogenetic thinking in post-Soviet Russia. The 'ethnos' concept, with its radical 'primordialism' has been associated strongly with Soviet state-building creating an unarticulated assumption that theory crumbled along with Soviet institutions. It has been one of the surprises of the post-Soviet transition that 'ethnos-style' thinking not only persists but is a vibrant part of the Russian anthropological context. Given that European and North American anthropologists have traditionally interpreted ethnos theory as a sort of deserted island, isolated from the main currents of the discipline, this project aims to rewrite the concept in an active mood demonstrating its evocativeness both to contemporary Russian society and to the discipline as a whole. The project will therefore make use of the interpretative ethnographic techniques developed by historians of science to examine the life history and archaeology of the concept. Although ethnos theory has been widely documented and criticised in English language anthropology, this project, through making use of the archived fieldnotes of late Soviet ethnos-theorists, as well as interviewing contemporary ethnos-craftspeople, will be one of the first to write an epistemology of this tradition. To begin to build a bridge between these traditions the project will organise a set of interviews and collate some unique archival materials. Following from the fieldwork,and beyond the project, the authors will publish the work as a collective book manuscript
Colloredo-Mansfeld, Dr. Rudolf, UNC, Chapel Hill, NC; & Quiroga, Dr. Diego, U. San Francisco de Quito, Ecuador - To aid research on 'Territories, Stewardship, & Place-Based Economies in Andean Communities: Building Participatory Research Capacity'
Preliminary abstract: Building on studies that frame heritage as a common pool resource (CPR), the research tests a central finding of CPR scholarship: the starting point for community economic management is the assertion of some proprietary and exclusive rights to use. In Ecuador and Peru, World-Heritage sites attract hundreds of thousands of visitors, create markets, and open opportunities for community-based businesses. Yet local economies often lose control of their heritage or the earnings it affords. Given the growing legal means for communities to assert local control, the questions of this research are: (1) Under what conditions do communities develop jurisdictions over heritage-based trades? (2) If jurisdictions can be established, do residents mobilize in the defense of their heritage? And (3) where territories exist, do they stabilize earnings, mitigate competition, and encourage stewardship? The project begins with a training workshop on participatory GIS mapping. It continues with fieldwork at three sites in Ecuador and Peru. Over the course of its 18 months, the study will support the Universidad of San Francisco de Quito's effort to establish an undergraduate anthropology major and develop the capacity of the Center of Social Sciences and Humanities Research at USFQ to provide methodological support to anthropological research.
Galaty, Dr. Michael, Millsaps College, Jackson, MS; & Papathanasiou, Dr. Anastasia, Hellenic Ministry of Culture, Athen Greece - To aid 'The Diros Project: Greek-American Collaborative Archaeological Research & Training At Neolithic Alepotrypa Cave'
Preliminary abstract: We seek support for an international, collaborative, multi-disciplinary research project in the western Mani Peninsula of southern Greece, focused on the Neolithic site of Alepotrypa Cave (5800-3100 BC), a massive settlement and mortuary complex that was a regional center from the Early to Final Neolithic. In 2011 and 2012 we ran highly successful pilot field seasons, which generated very interesting results, including the discovery and test excavation of a nearby, contemporaneous open-air site called Ksagounaki. In 2013 we hope to build on these intial results during a one-month field season that will include a training component for Greek archaeology students. Greek students rarely receive formal instruction in modern methods of excavation, regional survey, and artifact analysis, a problem our training program will help rectify. We request funds to conduct scientific study of previously excavated artifacts and human remains, expanded intensive archaeological surveys in the cave's hinterland, and additonal test excavations at Ksagounaki. These methods will allow us to create a high-resolution pottery chronology linked to variations in site use and external trade connections through time, to determine whether the people buried at Alepotrypa and Ksagounaki lived there or were brought to the site following death, and to reconstruct patterns of settlement and land use in the cave's catchment zone. Our results will help define Alepotrypa's social role in the Mani and wider Aegean region. More importantly, our research contributes to ongoing discussions concerning the role of the Neolithic in human history, its connection to the social transformations of the subsequent Bronze Age, and to anthropological debates regarding similar centers of intensive, long-term human interaction that emerged at the same time elsewhere in the world.
Keitumetse, Dr. Susan, U. of Botswana, Maun, Botswana; and Crossland, Dr. Zoe, Columbia U. NY, NY - To aid collaborative research on 'Historical Archaeology Of 'Marginal Landscapes' Of East-Central Botswana: Between Kgalagadi Desert & Limpopo Dry Valleys'
This project looks at archaeological material from the sparsely populated ecotone between the Kalahari desert and the rich subsidiary valleys of the Limpopo river ('marginal spaces'), in order to explore the social and political upheavals of the latter half of the 19th century in Botswana. This was a period characterized by Tswana polities' migrations into present-day Botswana who came across other Tswana and San communities such as Tswana of Bakgalagadi origin in Shoshong town later occupied by BaNgwato polity who had contact with them. Most archaeological work has been directed either towards earlier sites or the royal towns of BaNgwato of the 19th century. Little environmental and social research work has been carried out on what is generally considered as marginal zones, where other communities may have thrived. We propose to carry out surface survey and excavation in a cattle post near Mosolotshane area, along the dry Bonwapitse stream of the Limpopo River Basin (LRB), in order to better understand the changing patterns of landscape inhabitation and social stratification during migration byTswana communities. We will shift focus away from the hilltop settlements (Toutswe) and nucleated towns (e.g. Shoshong, Palatswe, etc), that have been the object of most anthropological research.