Nadal, Dr. Deborah, Ca' Foscari U. of Venice, Venice, Italy - To aid research and writing on 'Stray Gods and Rabies: The Phenomenon of Straying in Urban India' - Hunt Postdoctoral Fellowship
Preliminary abstract: The project of this book seeks to examine the complex and broad network of key elements and causes that contribute towards the striking presence of cows, monkeys and dogs in the streets of the Indian cities New Delhi, Jaipur and Jodhpur. It also investigates the link between straying and the extremely high incidence of rabies in this country. Anthropology usually views animals as objects in their relations with humans; uniquely, this research places emphasis on their active role as producers of culturally-specific behaviours which turn the phenomenon of straying, mainly anthropic, into a more multiple, negotiated and bi-directional relationship. The lethal rabies virus is analyzed regarding its capability of crossing species barriers in an agile way and of remarkably affecting the behaviours of the species towards one another. I approach straying using the theoretical concepts of anthropology of life, entanglement and natural-cultural co-produced niche, while from the methodological point of view, multispecies ethnography makes use of participant observation, photographic surveying, semi-structured interview, all benefiting from an extended experience of voluntary work in shelters for street animals. This empirical evidence opens up new possibilities in theorizing human-animal relationships and, within medical anthropology, an original perspective regarding the transmission of infectious diseases.
Berman, Dr. Elise Chertoff, U. of North Carolina, Charlotte, NC - To aid research and writing on 'Producing Age: Children, Deception, and Avoiding Giving in the Marshall Islands' - Hunt Postdoctoral Fellowship
Preliminary abstract: 'Producing Age: Children, Deception, and Avoiding Giving in the Marshall Islands' analyzes immaturity and the production of age differences in a small village that I call Jajikon on a rural atoll in the Republic of the Marshall Islands (RMI). In Jajikon, good people are those who give. But many people do not want to give. 'Producing Age' examines how children and adults in Jajikon differentially avoid giving. While adults tend toward indirection and deception, hiding material goods from the view of others, children often flaunt their goods in public and directly refuse to share. I argue that children's immature social status makes them invaluable economic agents because they are able to avoid giving in ways that adults may not, making children the main people who transport goods around the village. I argue that these child-specific modes of interaction are socially produced and that children are socialized to be different than adults--i.e., into immaturity. Finally, this production of age differences is a central mechanism of socialization. Seemingly paradoxically, it is by doing things that adults should not that children eventually take on mature modes of being, speaking and giving. Hence, 'Producing Age' challenges and modifies theories of exchange, deception and socialization, contributing to a new understanding of the production of difference and its relevance to economic and linguistic anthropology as well as the anthropology of childhood. I propose to use a Hunt fellowship to finish the book manuscript, write two articles based on this research while waiting for reviews, and revise the manuscript according to the reviews.
Berman, Elise. 2014. Holding On: Adoption, Kinship Tensions, and Pregnancy in the Marshall Islands. American Anthropologist 116 (3):578-590.
Rainville, Dr. Lynn, Sweet Briar College, Sweet Briar, VA - To aid research and writing on 'Domestic Activities in Mesopotamian Households and Neighborhoods: A Micro-Archaeological Approach' - Richard Carley Hunt Fellowship
DR. LYNN RAINVILLE, of Sweet Briar College in Sweet Briar, Virginia, was awarded a Richard Carley Hunt Fellowship in June 2003 to aid research and writing on domestic activities in ancient Mesopotamian households and neighborhoods. Taking a microarchaeological approach, Rainville collected microdebris and soil samples from neo-Assyrian contexts at Ziyaret Tepe, a major Bronze Age city on the Tigris River occupied from at least the early third millennium B.C.E. and a provincial capital of the Assyrian Empire between circa 800 and 600 B.C.E. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of the recovered microdebris (such as ceramics, chipped stone, and beads) provided insights into an elite neo-Assyrian residence. In addition, Rainville completed faunal and chemical tests on in-situ remains in the private residence and adjacent structures. Microfaunal analysis revealed the presence of companion animals such as dogs, commensal fauna such as rodents and birds, and domesticates such as cows and sheep or goats. These findings demonstrated that urban faunal assemblages could provide information about the social and economic structure of an urban site, about the functions of different spatial divisions of an urban site, and about the wider urban ecosystem. Soil tests revealed chemical patterns invisible to the human eye that might correlate with ancient activities. Together with the analysis of microartifacts, these results revealed activity areas that would have been invisible using traditional excavation techniques. The data were to be used to build a model of neo-Assyrian urbanism at the edge of empire in upper Mesopotamia.
Downey, Dr. Greg, Macquarie U., Ryde, Australia - To aid research and writing on 'Homo Athleticus: Comparative Sports and Human Physiological Diversity' - Richard Carley Hunt Fellowship
DR. GREG DOWNEY, Macquarie University, Sydney, Australia, was awarded a Hunt Postdoctoral Fellowship in 2006 to aid research and writing on 'The Athletic Animal: Sports and Human Potential.' The book uses a wide range of research on athletes from across many cultures - from Kenyan runners and Korean pearl divers, to no-holds-barred fighters in Brazil and Korean archers - to highlight how humans drive their own physiological and neurological development into distinctive configurations through training regimens, especially running, climbing, throwing, fighting, hitting, and other sports-related activities. Although athletes are extreme examples, they illustrate clearly how culture, patterns of behaviour, training, and body ideals have tangible effects on our bodies and brains. Based in dynamic systems theory and reappraisals of phenotypic plasticity, the book attempts to demonstrate a problem-driven synthesis of findings from both biological and cultural anthropology. Growing out of the research related to this book were also several articles, including one that explored how coaching in the Afro-Brazilian martial art and dance, capoeira, facilitates novices' acquisition of their own idiosyncratic movement techniques, and another on the relation of the 'mirror neuron' system in the human brain to imitative learning in skill acquisition.
Downey, Greg. 2008. Scaffolding Imitation in Capoeira: Physical Education and Enculturation in an Afro-Brazilian Art. American Anthropologist 110(2):204-213
Downey, Greg. 2010. 'Practice without Theory': A Neuroanthropological Perspective on Embodied Learning. Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute (N.S.):S22-S40.
Skrydstrup, Dr. Martin Christian Hugo, Independent Scholar, Copenhagen, Denmark - To aid research and writing on 'Once Ours: Dramas of Repatriation and States of Redemption' - Hunt Postdoctoral Fellowship
Preliminary abstract: What form of property do museum objects embody? How should we understand the coming into being of the institution of 'cultural property' and the contemporary praxis of 'retention', 'return', 'restitution', and 'repatriation'? In my field research, I interrogated these interrelated questions vis-a-vis two distinct cultural property polities: the American NAGPRA regime, which is renowned for a uniform legalistic approach, and the Danish ad hoc ethical modality, which has come to be known under the rubric of UTIMUT. My archival and ethnographic research focused predominantly on the 'experts' of each regime trusted to make findings and deliberate disputes. What emerged was two distinctively different technologies of recognition of claimants, where NAGPRA grappled with definitions of indigeneity, specifically with regard to Hawaii, UTIMUT circumvented this question and only recognized other metropolitan museums as legitimate claimants. I found that the undergirding doctrine of NAGRPA was restoration of 'prior possessions', whereas in UTIMUT the operating modality was 'patrimonial partage', ie a form of division of collections, according to curatorial criteria of preservation and display. I argue that these two operating modalities index different colonial legacies and define the materiality of the objects in question. I show that NAGPRA produce claims, whereas UTIMUT silence claims. Ultimately, I demonstrate that the transactional orders of each cultural property polity simultaneously expose the guilt and consciousness of the postcolonial nation-state and offer prospects for State legitimacy by way of redeeming colonial legacies. During the fellowship, I will complete a book manuscript based on this research tentatively entitled: 'Once Ours: Dramas of Repatriation and States of Redemption.'
Frink, Dr. Lisa, U. of Nevada, Las Vegas, NV - To aid research and writing on 'A Tale of Three Villages: Gender and the Processes of Colonization in Western Alaska' - Richard Carley Hunt Fellowship
FRINK, DR. LISA, University of Nevada, Las Vegas, Nevada, received a Hunt Fellowship in May 2004 to aid research and writing on 'A Tale of Three Villages: Gender and the Processes of Colonization in Western Alaska.' The publications funded by the Hunt Fellowship focus on the development of ideas and interpretation of data that investigate the stages, consequences, and mechanisms of cultural change instigated by colonialism in descendent coastal western Alaska. The research focuses on the interplay of social and economic change and the historically contingent relationships of people, materials, and space. Even though coastal Yup'ik Eskimo communities were relatively sheltered from regularized relations with Russian and later Anglo-American colonists until the early twentieth century, technologies, materials, and ideologies were entwined within the indigenous cultural system. This series of publications explores the complex relationships between precolonial practices, colonial imports, and the redefinition of social identity roles, relationships, and authority. Of note are the tensions that center on the subsistence and market sectors and how technologies and ideologies can aggravate precolonial cultural fissures already present, particularly among groups of women and men, young and old.
Frink, Lisa. 2006. Social Identity and the Yup’ik Eskimo Village Tunnel System in Precolonial and Colonial Western Coastal Alaska. Archeological Papers of the American Anthropological Association, 16:109-125.
Walentowitz, Dr. Saskia, U. of Berne, Berne, Switzerland - To aid research and writing on 'Feeding Dilemmas: Anthropological Perspectives on Reproduction, Breastfeeding, and Science in Contexts of HIV' - Hunt Postdoctoral Fellowship
Preliminary abstract: The book offers an anthropological perspective on feeding dilemmas encountered in contexts of HIV. Drawing from ethnographic data collected during two years of fieldwork conducted in a clinical trial in Nairobi, the study proposes a new theoretical framework to analyze breastfeeding as part of human reproduction. Questioning the naturalistic foundations of anthropological field of reproduction, it can address the cultural complexities of breastfeeding, developing the concept of 'procreativity' by analogy to gender as distinct from sex. The concept of 'procreativity' presupposes that the 'biological' and 'social' dimensions of engendering a new human being are indivisible as regards 'biological reproduction', and refers to the social and cultural construction of reproduction, as implied by a gendered ethos of social reproduction. She further presents a grammar of recurrent perceptions, such as 'bad' versus 'good' breastmilk, analyzing infant feeding experiences and knowledge with reference to cognitively constrained embodied social norms. Fluctuating breastfeeding perceptions and practices of HIV-infected mothers appear as possible adjustments to conflicting biomedical recommendations and infant feeding norms. The book offers new perspectives on anthropological key questions such as structure versus agency and gives critical insight into infant feeding policies in contexts of HIV.
Honeychurch, Dr. Williams, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC - To aid research and writing on 'Not of Place but of Path: Inner Asia and the Spatial Politics of Empire' - Richard Carley Hunt Fellowship
DR. WILLIAM HONEYCHURCH, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC, was awarded a Hunt Postdoctoral Fellowship in May 2005 to aid research and writing on 'Not of Place but of Path: Inner Asia and the Spatial Politics of Empire.' The Eurasian steppe is often described as a territory of pathways, movement, interaction, and exchange. How these factors underwrote the long-term development of political traditions, techniques, and social relations that eventually produced some of the largest and most dynamic imperial states ever known, is a central question explored in this monograph project. Using archaeological data from the Egiin Gol valley in north central Mongolia, long-term trends in local landscape organization are examined in order to understand the changing sources of political finance and control on the steppe. The great size of steppe polities and their emphasis on horse based transport created political system reliant on vast spatial relationships. This 'spatial reach' was matched by internal methods of centralized integration. As polity size and spatial reach expanded over time and across different polities, increasing emphasis was placed upon the manipulation of mobility, its networks, and infrastructure for political ends. This monograph develops and examines the idea of a distinctive kind of 'politics for a mobile set1ing' and uses the concept to compare examples of large-scale imperial polities across different cultural and chronological settings.
Krause, Dr. Elizabeth L. Krause, U. of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA - To aid research and writing on 'Fertile Protest: Memory, Demographic Decline and Economic Angst in Italy' - Richard Carley Hunt Fellowship
DR. ELIZABETH L. KRAUSE, University of Massachusetts Amherst, was awarded a Richard Carley Hunt Fellowship in January 2005 to aid research and writing on 'Fertile Protest: Memory, Demographic Decline and Economic Angst in Italy.' The interdisciplinary project resulted in a series of publications that answer, What do subjugated memories and quotidian practices reveal about Italy's demographic 'decline'? The project traced the cultural politics of family-making in Italy, where women in the 1990s reached record-low fertility rates and where pronatalist urgency exists. The project also explored popular memory, globalization and identity formation. Three publications resulted, with a fourth under review, and a book-length manuscript near completion. The first article theorizes ethnographic method as structured spontaneity and argues that memories of the peasant past work to redefine masculinity and shape fertility practices (American Ethnologist, 2005). A second publication sets forth an ethnographic research agenda for modern Italy (Journal of Modern Italian Studies, 2006). A third essay delineates how demographic alarmism enables racism (The Corner House, 2006). A fourth manuscript (under review) investigates the delicacy of adopting pronatalism as a public position in Italy, revealing concern with social cohesion, modernity and boundaries. Separate from these articles is a book-length manuscript, 'Unraveled: A Weaver's Tale of Life Gone Modern,' which exposes the cultural roots beneath the demographic transition as intricately linked to transformative hidden economies as well as traumatic political processes.
Krause, Elizabeth L. 2005. Encounters with the 'Peasant': Memory Work, Masculinity, and Low Fertility in Italy. American Ethnologist 32(4):593-617.
Krause, Elizabeth L., and Milena Marchesi. 2007. Fertility Politics as 'Social Viagra': Reproducing Boundaries, Social Cohesion, and Modernity in Italy. American Anthropologist 109(2):350-362.
Abadia-Barrero, Dr. Cesar E., Harvard U., Cambridge, MA - To aid research and writing on 'Children's Subjectivities, AIDS, and Social Responses in Brazil' - Richard Carley Hunt Fellowship
Dr. César Abadía-Barrero, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts, was awarded a Richard Carley Hunt Fellowship in July 2004 to aid writing on the lived experiences of children affected by the HIV/AIDS epidemic in Brazil. Dr. Abadía-Barrero's main interest was to describe and conceptualize how the Brazilian social responses to the AIDS epidemic have mediated the relationship between experiences of illness and the social world. He was able to show in several authored and co-authored articles and a co-edited book that the lived experiences of children affected by HIV/AIDS, both individual and collective experiences, are largely influenced by how the Brazilian AIDS Social Movement (BASM) has altered the context of poverty and social inequalities that largely define the vulnerability and suffering of these children and their families. The BASM belongs to the Latin American social medicine tradition and is a complex amalgam of actors coming from several NGO organizations, medical and academic institutions, the AIDS national and regional programs, and the country's health care system. He argues that anthropological analyses should take into account not only the importance of structural violence in defining the individual experience, but also how different social responses shape this relationship and can reduce or increase suffering. This approach requires a set of comparisons: within groups to identify individual differences, between groups to identify local or regional differences, and between nation-state borders to identify country differences. These comparative analyses allow anthropological theory to link differences in subjective experiences with trends in social responses, and to inform public policy.
Abadia-Barrero, Cesar E. 2006. SIDA y Niñez en Brasil: Respuestas Sociales que Promueven la Madurez de los Derechos Humanos. Colección Monografías. No. 22. Caracas: Programa Cultura, Comunicación y Transformaciones Sociales, CIPOST, FaCes, Universidad Central de Venezuela.
Abadia-Barrero, Cesar E. 2006. Pobreza y Desigualdades Sociales: Un Debate Obligatorio en Salud Oral. Acta
Abadia-Barrero, Cesar E. 2004. Políticas y Sujetos del SIDA en Brasil y Colombia. Revista Colombiana de
Abadia-Barrero, Cesar E. and M. LaRusso. 2004. The Disclosure Model versus a Developmental Illness Experience Model for Children and Adolescents Living with HIV/AIDS in Sao Paulo, Brazil. AIDS Patient Care and STDs 20(1):36-43.
Abadia-Barrero, Cesar E. and A. Castro. 2004. Experiences of Stigma and Access to HAART in Children and Adolescents Living with HIV/AIDS in Brazil. Social Science and Medicine 62:1219-1228.
Abadia-Barrero. Cesar E.,and E.F. Cruz (eds.) 2005. Criança, Adolescente e AIDS: Abra este Diálogo. 2004-Forum de ONG AIDS do Estado de São Paulo: Brasil.
Abadia-Barrer, Cesar E., and E.F. Cruz (eds.) 2005. GT: Grupo de Trabalho de Crianças e Adolescentes Viviendo e Convivendo com HIV/AIDS do Forum de ONG/AIDS de São Paulo. In Criança, Adolescente e AIDS: Abra este Diálogo
Abadia-Barrero, C.E. and E.F. Cruz, (eds.) 2004. Forum de ONG AIDS do Estado de São Paulo: Brasil. 2005 Abriendo Diálogo, Buscando Novos Caminhos. In Crianca, Adolescente e AIDS: Abra este Diálogo. Abadia-Barrero, C.E. and E.F. Cruz, eds. 2004-Forum de ONG AIDS do Estado de São Paulo: Brasil.
Franco Cruz, Elizabete, and César Abadia-Barrero (eds.). 2005. Crianças, Adolescentes e AIDS: Abra Este Diálogo. Fórum das ONG’s-AIDS do Estado de São Paolo: São Paolo, Brasil.