Duin, Dr. Renzo Sebastiaan, Leiden U., Leiden, The Netherlands - To aid research and writing on 'Ritual Economy: Historicities, Materiality, and Power in the Eastern Guiana Highlands (Northern Amazonia)' - Hunt Postdoctoral Fellowship
Preliminary abstract: Duin's research in Guiana (northern Amazonia, northern Lowland South America), leading to this book proposal, is a contribution to Neil Whitehead's (1956-2012) advocacy that it is necessary to reconceptualize basic social and historical processes in the region, rather than just add 'new data' to the 'old theory.' Elsewhere in Amazonia, there is a growing number of archaeologists unearthing man-made structures that evidence supravillage organizations prior to the arrival of the Europeans. In Guiana, however, the perception of indigenous settlements as politically autonomous, reigns supreme. Duin's in-depth research among the Wayana indigenous people of the Upper Maroni Basin (Suriname and French Guiana) with a focus on (1) settlement patterning and organization and (2) biographies of ritual objects, provides new insights into the dynamics and the central role of ritual in the socio-political arena of tropical forest cultures. Amazonian supravillage organization manifests in ritual performance, and therefore it is hypothesized that host villages have a stronger claim to a higher rank by manipulating the flow of ritual objects and thus managing the socio-political process. Accordingly, socio-political relations in the region are articulated through ritual objects, and the road to power is situated within a ritual economy. The Hunt Fellowship provides a period to assess and write on this interdisciplinary research (archaeology, history, and ethnology) acknowledging elements of regional organization in the socio-political aspects of tropical forest cultures; exposing a hitherto inconceivable dynamism to the origins and development of indigenous Amazonian societies in Guiana, and thus proposing a much needed reconceptualization of basic social and historical processes in the region.
Szmidt, Dr. Carolyn Corinne, U. of Toronto, Toronto, Canada - To aid research and writing on 'Neanderthals and Modern Humans: Investigating Interaction, Dispersal, and the Timing of Innovations through Improved Chronology' - Hunt Postdoctoral Fellowship
DR. CAROLYN C. SZMIDT, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada, received a Hunt Postdoctoral Fellowship in November 2005 to aid research and writing on 'Dating the Middle-Upper Palaeolithic Transition in Southern France: Pyrenean, Mediterranean and Southwestern Regions.' This fellowship aided publication of research involved in dating (through AMS radiocarbon) more accurately and precisely the Middle Palaeolithic (Mousterian) to Upper Palaeolithic (Aurignacian) transition (ca. 28,000 - 40,000 years ago) in the Mediterranean, Pyrenean and Southwestern France regions. During the tenure of the fellowship, the grantee made significant progress on five publications. Three of these have been published (Journal of Archaeological Science and Comptes Rendus Palevol) and the other two are near completion. These publications show that Mousterian/Châtelperronian and Aurignacian dates overlap, indicating that the two species likely coexisted and influenced each other. In addition, results push back substantially in time a key techno-cultural innovation of the Aurignacian, that of extensive antler shaping, and have placed in absolute time the oldest amber pendants known. They also seriously hamper the exclusive association made between split-based points and the Classic Aurignacian, thus forcing a reassessment of the way in which this Technocomplex is characterized. In addition, through the gamut of site-types and Aurignacian periods represented by these sites, these articles contribute to characterizing more precisely Aurignacian variability. Methodologically, the importance of selecting samples with good archaeological and chemical properties and from sound geoarchaeological provenience is demonstrated in this research.
Garling, Dr. Stephanie Jane, U. of St. Andrews, St. Andrews, United Kingdom - To aid research and writing on 'Evolutions or Revolutions? Interaction and Exchange at the Post-Lapita 'Transition' in Island Melanesia' - Hunt Postdoctoral Fellowship.
DR. STEPHANIE JANE GARLING, University of St. Andrews, St. Andrews, United Kingdom, was awarded funding in April 2011 to aid research and writing on 'Evolutions or Revolutions? Interaction and Exchange at the Post-Lapita 'Transition' in Island Melanesia.' This monograph rethinks a pivotal stage in the prehistory of Island Melanesia: the elusive cultural 'transition' of the closing centuries of the third millennium BP. On the one hand this was marked by the seeming final 'demise' of the Lapita Cultural Complex-the archaeological signature of the last major human migration event in world prehistory-and on the other, by the flowering of striking new styles of pottery decoration across the regiom. the much debated and yet ill-defined 'Incised and Applied Relief' (IAR) ceramic tradition. It tackles the crux of the largely polarized 'Post-Lapita Transition' debates: Did these island communities continue to interact? How and why did interaction change? Are Lapita and Post-Lapita related? The monograph brings together archaeological and anthropological theory, a re-examination of the underpinnings, and much-needed new research from the Tanga Islands. It tracks interaction through a variety of evidence: some orthodox in Pacific archaeology (the style and composition of pottery; obsidian; pig and dog remains), one under-utilized (rock-art), and another novel (red ochre). Overlaying these distinctive patterns of interaction and teasing out how they match and mismatch-and their 'evolutions' and 'revolutions' from Lapita-illuminates the 'transition' and contributes to our wider understanding of how island identities and interaction patterns are formed and transformed.
Horwitz, Dr. Liora Rochelle Kolska, Hebrew U., Jerusalem, Israel - To aid research and writing on 'Detecting Domestication: An Expose of the Archaeozoological Record of the Levant' - Hunt Postdoctoral Fellowship
DR. LIORA KOLSKA HORWITZ, Hebrew University, Jerusalem, Israel, was awarded a Hunt Postdoctoral Fellowship in April 2007 to aid research and writing on 'Detecting Domestication: An Expose of the Archaeozoological Record of the Levant.' This study was designed to collate in book form, the results of research on animal domestication in the Levant. The core of the book is the large corpus of archaeozoological data that the grantee has accrued over many years of research, which is integrated here with published archaeozoological and other literature on the topic. The book aims at tracking the onset and evolution of animal domestication in the Levant and exploring its impact on human societies and the natural landscape over the period. The process of 'Neolithization' is thus presented from a faunal perspective.
Lee, Dr. AnRu, California State U., Sacramento, CA - To aid research and writing on 'In the Name of Harmony and Prosperity: Labor and Gender Politics in Taiwan's Economic Restructuring' - Richard Carley Hunt Fellowship
DR. ANRU LEE, of California State University in Sacramento, California, received a Richard Carley Hunt Fellowship in June 2002 to aid research and writing on labor and gender politics in Taiwan's recent economy. Since the 1980s, Taiwan has grown into a global manufacturing powerhouse, a model of success that has inspired emulation throughout the developing world. Yet at the very peak of this expansion, Taiwan began to feel squeezed by changes both domestic and international. Lee's book, In the Name of Harmony and Prosperity: Labor and Gender Politics in Taiwan's Economic Restructuring, examines Taiwan's economic restructuring since the late 1980s. In it Lee discusses the latest phase of Taiwan's socioeconomic development-most importantly, the dialectical relationship between its export-oriented industrialization, changes in production processes, discourses on work ethics, and the subject formation of women workers-as it relates to conditions in the global economy. At the center of the study is the process by which labor-capital relations become fair and legitimate. The study contributes to the understanding of Asian capitalism and its role in the world economy.
Nonaka, Dr. Angela M., U. of Texas, Austin, TX - To aid research and writing on ''It Takes a Village': Anthropological Analysis of Indigenous Sign Language Development and Decline in Thailand' - Hunt Postdoctoral Fellowship
DR. ANGELA M. NONAKA, University of Texas, Austin, Texas, was awarded a Hunt Postdoctoral Fellowship to aid research and writing on ''It Takes a Village:' Anthropological Analysis of Indigenous Sign Language Development and Decline in Thailand.' It Takes a Village is a 311-page manuscript that traces the life cycle of Ban Khor Sign Language. BKSL arose some 80 years ago in response to an unusually high incidence of hereditary deafness, and until recently was widely used in daily life by both hearing and deaf villagers, fostering participation and inclusion of the latter. This rare sociolinguistic ecology is undergoing dramatic changes, however, that threaten the continued vitality of BKSL, which is being supplanted by Thai Sign Language. Synthesizing more than a decade of continuous, holistic anthropological research, this study examines the causes and consequences of language emergence, maintenance, and shift. Ethnographically compelling on their own merits, the descriptive particulars of the Ban Khor case study have applied import for understanding the widespread endangerment of this rare sign language variety. This project also breaks new theoretical ground. By adopting a language socialization perspective that emphasizes interactional, use-based analysis of BKSL, this study counters key assumptions in formal linguistics about 'village' or 'indigenous' sign languages (and other lesser-known signing varieties), by demonstrating their full linguistic complexity and utility in situ, in the course of quotidian talk and interaction.
Belmaker, Dr. Miriam, Harvard U., Cambridge, MA - To aid research and writing on 'The Paleoecology of 'Ubeidya (Israel) and Its Implications for Early Hominin Dispersal Events' - Richard Carley Hunt Fellowship
DR. MIRIAM BELMAKER, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts, was awarded a Hunt Postdoctoral Fellowship in October 2006, to aid research and writing on 'The Paleoecology of 'Ubeidya (Israel) and Its Implications for Early Hominin Dispersal Events.' This fellowship aided publication of research that explored the paleoecology of the early Paleolithic site of 'Ubeidiya (Israel) dated to ca. 1.6 - 1.2 Ma in relation to early hominin adaptation and their ecological success in northern latitudes. These publications show that hominins inhabited a novel environments in early stages of their dispersal out of Africa. The paleoecological reconstruction of 'Ubeidiya (as well as many of other early 'Out of Africa' hominin sites) should be assigned to a Mediterranean and temperate woodland and not to a savanna grassland contrary to previous suggestions. During the tenure of the fellowship the grantee made significant progress on over five publications that explore the relationship between the hominin dispersal in the Pleistocene and the environment in their region of origin (East Africa) and in the region to which they dispersed (such as the Levantine corridor and East Asia). Thus the study provides an environmental framework for illuminating issues of human dispersal from African into Eurasia and insight into the place of hominins within their ecological milieu.
Martinez-Navarro, Bienvenido, Miriam Belmaker, and Ofer Bar-Yosef. 2009. The Large Carnivores from ‘Ubeidiya (Early Pleistocene, Israel): Biochronological and Biogeographical Implications. Journal of Human Evolution 58(5):514-524.
El Zaatari, Dr. Sireen, American School of Classical Studies, Athen, Greece - To aid research and writing on 'Them and Us: Behavioral Differences Between Neandertals and Early Modern Humans'- Hunt Postdoctoral Fellowship
DR. SIREEN EL ZAATARI, American School of Classical Studies, Athens, Greece, was awarded a Hunt Postdoctoral Fellowship in October 2012 to aid research and writing for a series of articles on 'Them and Us: Behavioral Differences between Neandertals and early Modern Humans.' These articles present the results of the first large-scal