Nading, Dr. Alexander Montgomery, Franklin & Marshall College, Lancaster, PA - To aid research and writing on 'Mosquito Trails: Ecology, Health, and The Politics of Entanglement in Nicaragua's Age of Dengue' - Hunt Postdoctoral Fellowship
DR. ALEX M. NADING, Franklin & Marshall College, Lancaster, Pennsylvania, was awarded a Hunt Postdoctoral Fellowship in April 2013 to aid research and writing on 'Mosquito Trails: Ecology, Health, and the Politics of Entanglement.' The book profiles a group of community health workers, or 'brigadistas,' who led house-by-house mosquito control campaigns near Managua, Nicaragua. While the brigadistas' mission seemed simple, many residents refused to allow their homes to be 'inspected' by government auditors. The sizeable number of people in the city who scavenged for recyclable garbage feared that they might be punished for harboring mosquitoes in the things they collected. Others wondered how an emphasis on domestic hygiene could counterbalance the dilapidation of the city's public spaces. The brigadistas themselves, who were predominantly women, wondered if the domestication of the problem might unfairly gender the problem. The work's central claim is that for people in dengue-endemic communities, a view of humans and mosquitoes as mortal enemies is not compelling. It argues for a reconception of health not as an absence of mosquitoes or viruses but as a management of connections among human bodies, human dwellings, and the nonhuman beings that shared them.
Nading, Alex. 2014. Mosquito Trails: Ecology, Health, and the Politics of Entanglement. University of California Press: Berkeley.
Barker, Dr. Alex W., Milwaukee Public Museum, Milwaukee, WI - To aid research and writing on 'Chiefdoms and the Economics of Perversity: Redistributive Buffering & Social Trajectories of Prestate Political Hierarchies' - Richard Carley Hunt Fellowship
DR. ALEX W. BARKER, of the Milwaukee Public Museum in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, received a Richard Carley Hunt Fellowship in June 2001 to aid research and writing on redistributive buffering and the social trajectories of chiefdoms. Recent research has been critical of redistribution as a significant economic form in chiefdoms, but Barker's review of case studies suggested that a particular form of redistribution-redistributive buffering-was actually widespread. Using mathematical models for taxation in hierarchical societies, Barker identified an archaeological signature for redistributive buffering. But whereas chiefs use marginal surpluses to buffer against shortfalls, household production is based on logics that make the production of marginal surpluses uncertain. Chayanovian theory suggests that households select production targets by balancing the utility of additional units produced against the drudgery they require. As redistributive buffering becomes better established as a means of bankrolling households in need, however, the Chayanovian balance point between utility and drudgery shifts, with the result that as bankrolling becomes established, the marginal surpluses on which it is premised become less reliable. Archaeological data from the Coles Creek period, lower Mississippi Valley, were examined to assess the validity of this approach and were found to conform to the theoretical expectations of the model. Coles Creek and Mississippian chiefdoms seem to have followed different logics, and Barker examined the economic basis for those differences, as well as that governing nonhierarchical political economies such as those of the American Southwest. He suggested that all conform to the z-score model, which predicts that whereas some societies may try to dampen resource variations, for others the preferred strategy may be to amplify variations and bet on the upper tail of the probability distribution.
Riley, Dr. Kathleen C., U. of Vermont, Burlington, VT - To aid research and writing on 'The Emergence of Dialogic Identities: Transforming Heteroglossia in the Marquesas, French Polynesia' - Richard Carley Hunt Fellowship
DR. KATHLEEN C. RILEY, of the University of Vermont in Burlington, Vermont, received a Richard Carley Hunt Fellowship in May 2002 to aid research and writing on language socialization and the construction of heteroglossic identities in the Marquesas, French Polynesia. Riley conducted a short ethnographic study of language socialization in January 2003, revealing that various structural, discursive, and ideological supports were contributing to the maintenance of 'enana, the Polynesian language spoken in the Marquesas, despite long-term social, political, and economic pressures to shift to français, the colonial language. Although young children in both this and a previous study conducted in 1993 used more français than 'enana, a number of contexts provided youths with the opportunity to acquire 'enana for everyday village discourse and as an emblem of the vibrant cultural revival movement. The latter was in part a reaction to the growing political and economic hegemony of Tahitians in the territory and the threat of an imminent French withdrawal. Several writing projects resulted from the two periods of research, including an article focusing on gender and sexuality in the Marquesas, two conference papers concerning language socialization and language ideology, and two book manuscripts, one devoted to heteroglossic socialization and the other to coordinating an ethnohistorical examination of first contact situations in the Marquesas with reflections on first contact experiences during ethnographic fieldwork.
Deomampo, Dr. Daisy Faye, Fordham U., New York, NY - To aid research and writing on 'Transnational Reproduction: Kinship, Power, and Commercial Surrogacy in India' - Hunt Postdoctoral Fellowship
Preliminary abstract: The proposed book project examines the global surrogacy industry in India, in which would-be parents from around the world travel to India in order to obtain assisted reproductive technology procedures such as gestational surrogacy and egg donation. Across transnational and local socioeconomic hierarchies, how do commissioning parents, surrogate mothers, and egg donors understand and articulate their relationships with one another as they collaborate in the creation of babies? In addressing this question, I show the diverse ways in which actors attempt to conceal, or misrecognize, the commercial and commodifying aspects of transnational reproduction. My book, Transnational Reproduction: Kinship, Power, and Commercial Surrogacy in India, grapples with disparate acts of misrecognition, arguing that such processes of misrecognition ultimately obscure broader patterns of stratification, while reinforcing socioeconomic hierarchies. I draw critical attention to global relations between and among countries, systems of commerce, and global regulatory systems, as well as the local conditions that make possible the kinds of transnational relationships I describe. Without such an analysis, ongoing debates around policy and bioethics remain problematically focused on abstract principles or rigid rules. Instead, this project calls for a practice-oriented approach that accounts for the multiple perspectives and experiences of those involved in transnational surrogacy. Based on fourteen months of ethnographic fieldwork, this book will make an important contribution to the fields of medical anthropology, science and technology studies, feminist studies, and bioethics.
Smythe, Dr. Kathleen R., Xavier U., Cincinnati, OH - To aid research and writing on 'Fipa Families: Social Reproduction and Catholic Evangelization in Nkansi, Ufipa, 1880-1960 - Richard Carley Hunt Fellowship
DR. KATHLEEN R. SMYTHE, Xavier University, Cincinnati, Ohio, was awarded a Hunt Postdoctroal Fellowship in June 2002 to aid research and writing on 'Fipa Families: Social Reproduction and Catholic Evangelization in Nkansi, Ufipa, 1880-1960. Funding was used to transcribe oral interviews, to index oral and archival material, and to write detailed outlines for the two remaining chapters of a book entitled, 'Fipa. Families: Missionary Evangelization and Social Reproduction in Nkansi,Ufipa, 1880-1960'. The two chapters concern missionary boarding schools and priesthood and sisterhood training. In the former chapter, the focus is on families' attitudes toward education over generations. What emerges from this chapter is the important role missionaries played in encouraging Fipa boys and girls to attend school. The second chapter examines the African men and women who followed the call to become men and women religious in the Catholic Church. The first generation faced a number of obstacles to successfully pursuing their vocations. While the increasing numbers of African personnel certainly made it easier for the next generations, a career in the Church was sometimes incompatible with significant responsibility for one's natal family.
Fowles, Dr. Severin Morris, Barnard College., New York, NY - To aid research and writing on 'The Magician's Progress: Archaeology, Secularism, and Pre-Modern Religion' - Hunt Postdoctoral Fellowship
DR. SEVERIN M. FOWLES, Barnard College, New York, New York, was awarded a Hunt Postdoctoral Fellowship in April 2010 to aid research and writing on 'The Magician's Progress: Archaeology, Secularism, and Pre-Modern Religion.' Is there such a thing as 'premodern religion?' A century of research was premised on the reality of this category, as ethnographers documented the strange ceremonies of non-state natives throughout the world and as archaeologists unearthed artifacts supposedly providing evidence of religious rituals all the way back to the Paleolithic. Recently, however, a large body of anthropological scholarship has placed into question the universality of religion as an analytical category, arguing that what we, in the West, understand to be 'religion' is largely a modern construction linked to the project of secularization. With support from the Hunt Postdoctoral Fellowship, An Archaeology of Doings: Secularism and the Study of Pueblo Religion (2013, School for Advanced Research Press) was written to engage this challenge in one of the great heartlands of anthropological study: the Pueblo region of the American Southwest, long viewed as providing iconic images of intense premodern religiosity. Drawing together a decade of archaeological and ethnographic research, An Archaeology of Doings explores the alterity of ancestral Pueblo society, arguing that we learn much more once we free ourselves of the seductive notion that the Pueblos 'had religion' and explore instead indigenous worlds using indigenous categories of thought and action
Fowles, Severin. 2013. An Archaeology of Doings: Secularism and the Study of Pueblo Religion. School for Advanced Research Press: Santa Fe
White, Dr. Carolyn Louise, U. of Nevada, Reno, NV - To aid research and writing on 'Fashioning the Changing Self: Clothing and Adornment in Trans-Atlantic Perspective' - Hunt Postdoctoral Fellowship
DR. CAROLYN L. WHITE, University of Nevada, Reno, Nevada, received a Hunt Postdoctoral Fellowship in 2012 to aid research and writing on 'Fashioning the Changing Self: Clothing and Adornment in Trans-Atlantic Perspective.' Support assisted the completion of a book manuscript and preparation of two articles that examine trans-Atlantic trade, use of personal adornment, and the construction of identities in the eighteenth and early nineteenth century. Artifacts of personal adornment shed light on a powerful aspect of daily life: the ways that people physically presented themselves, communicating ideas about their individuality as well as their membership in groups. Through archaeological information, visual culture, and archival records, the research considers the meaning of clothing in a broad context, divulging how people visually constructed and constituted themselves across gender, class, ethnicity, and age boundaries. First, it examines the use of personal adornment on domestic sites in England and in New England to look at the ways that people expressed individual identity and social groupings through clothing and personal appearance. Second, the project explores the role of Britain as a supplier of personal adornment goods to America in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. Third, the work compares colonial and post-colonial self-presentation on two sides of the Atlantic.
White, Carolyn. 2013. 'Faith in the Familiar, Hope for Change: Trans-Atlantic Perspectives on 18th-Century Clothing,' pp. 57-71. In Historical Archaeologies of Cognition. James Symonds, Anna Badcock, and Jeff Oliver, eds. Equinox Press: London.
Hill, Dr. Sarah, Western Michigan U., Kalamazoo, MI - To aid research and writing on 'Matter In and Out of Place at the U.S.- Mexico Border' - Richard Carley Hunt Fellowship
DR. SARAH HILL, Western Michigan University, Kalamazoo, Michigan, received a Hunt Postdoctoral Fellowship in May 2004 to aid research and writing on 'Matter In and Out of Place at the U.S.-Mexico Border.' This fellowship aided publication of research that explores the relationship between wastes and resources, production and disposal, and pollution and social boundaries. These publications show how immigrants get blamed for border pollution, how an early 20th century U.S.-Mexico boundary dispute characterized border garbage disposal, and why Michigan thinks Toronto's trash is dirtier than its own. During the tenure of the fellowship (June 2004-May 2005), the grantee made significant progress on several publications that explore empirically and theoretically the relations between waste and resources, production and destruction, and pollution and boundaries.The ethnohistorical context of this project draws from long-term research at the U.S.-Mexico border (since 1992). In addition, the grantee's more recent residence (since 2002) near the U.S.-Canadian border (in Kalamazoo, Michigan), has expanded comparative analysis in this venture, thanks to an on-going dispute at this international boundary over the importation of Canadian municipal solid waste to a Detroit-area landfill.
Hill, Sarah. 2005. The Chamizal Tipping Point? El Paso’s Garbage in 1910. Passwords, the Quarterly Journal of the El Paso County Historical Society 50(3):142-149.
Hill, Sarah. 2005. The Trouble with Toronto’s Trash. Rhizone, Newsletter of the Environmental Studies Association of Canada 15(1):12-13.
Hill, Sarah. 2006. Purity and Danger on the U.S.-Mexico Border, 1990-1994. South Atlantic Quarterly 105(4):777-800.
Kim, Dr. Eleana Jean, U. of California, Irvine, CA - To aid research and writing on 'Making Peace with Nature: The Greening of the Korean Demilitarized Zone' - Hunt Postdoctoral Fellowship
Preliminary abstract; The Korean demilitarized zone (DMZ), the buffer zone that separates the two Koreas, has been uninhabited for more than sixty years, and in that time it has transformed into an accidental ecological haven for rare and endangered species. Ecologists and preservationists in South Korea and internationally have recognized the unique conservation possibilities of the DMZ since the 1960s, yet only in the past decade has active government and NGO attention been concentrated on rebranding of the DMZ as a zone of 'peace and life' rather than a traumatic scar of national division and war. Empirically, my research focuses on the South Korean border area and what I call the DMZ's 'ecological exceptionalism,' which emerges out of the social practices and relations among scientists, ecologists, environmentalists, activists, local residents, bureaucrats, and nonhuman actants, including endangered birds, alien fish, uncultivated flora, and land mines. The monograph and articles I plan to complete analyze how the production of the DMZ's nature also entails the naturalization of the DMZ as a space of social and political exception that takes place in relation to Korean nationalisms and unification politics, global environmentalisms, neoliberal capitalism, and political violence. But beyond deconstructing the DMZ's nature as always already social and political, my work identifies the mutual constitution of hope and nature in contemporary attempts to grapple with planetary futures and the limits of human agency. I argue that political ecology debates over capitalism and conservation must also include issues of global security and militarization and that the politics and poetics of utopian imaginaries are crucial to an anthropological understanding of what many refer to as the Anthropocene.
Nashif, Dr. Esmail, Birzeit U., Birzeit, Palestine - To aid research and writing on 'Identity, Community, and Text: The Production of Meaning among Palestinian Political Prisoners' - Richard Carley Hunt Fellowship
DR. ESMAIL NASHIF, Birzeit U., Birzeit, Palestine, was awarded a Hunt Postdoctoral Fellowship in June 2005 to aid research and writing on 'Identity, Community, and Text: The Production of Meaning among Palestinian Political Prisoners.' From the time of Israel's occupation of the West Bank and the Gaza Strip in 1967, until 1993, almost a quarter of the Palestinian society in these regions was imprisoned by the Israeli authorities on political grounds. Israel's use of political imprisonment on a massive scale ignited constitutive processes which led to the building of the community of Palestinian political prisoners in the Israeli colonial prison system. This ethnographic research traces the processes of community building in the context of almost total annexation of its material conditions by the colonial power structures. The main characteristic of this community is its resorting to meaning pro