Milne, Dr. Sarah, Australian National U., Canberra, Australia - To aid research and writing on 'Saving Nature? The Politics and Practice of Internatinal Conservation in Cambodia' - Hunt Postdoctoral Fellowship
Preliminary abstract: This project examines contemporary global efforts to 'save nature', as seen in the ideas and practices of big conservation organisations. It is important to study these organisations through a critical anthropological lens, because they now have significant influence over how natural resources are managed globally, and an ability to shape fundamentally the relationships between people and nature across the planet. Often their actions take place in tropical developing countries, where biodiversity is most abundant and threatened, and where human needs compete with the demands of conservation projects. The result is a complex, transnational and highly political realm of work; about which little in known. In addition, as environmental problems escalate, many conservation groups are increasingly turning to 'the market' as a tool for saving nature: this neoliberal strategy, with the potential to commodify nature, has unknown effects in practice. My research sheds light upon the nexus of all these issues. I conducted a ten-year study of a major US-based conservation group (2002-2012) and its attempts to implement a market-based conservation project in the remote Cardamom Mountains of Cambodia. Through a multi-sited 'insider ethnography', I reveal how policy ideas were created and implemented across scales; and how unintended consequences emerged when these 'global' ideas were transformed by the local Cambodian context, often in dangerous or damaging ways. Observing project dynamics closely, I saw the conservation organisation's inability/unwillingness to address the gaps between theory and practice. Rather, it focused on the image of success only; highlighting the grave consequences of 'corporate conservation' for people and nature.
Bar-Yosef Mayer, Dr. Daniella E., Peabody Museum, Cambridge, MA - To aid research and writing on 'Archaeo-Malacology: Case Studies from the Levant' - Richard Carley Hunt Fellowship
DR. DANIELLA E. BAR-YOSEF MAYER, University of Haifa, Haifa, Israel, was awarded a Hunt Postdoctoral Fellowship in August 2001, to aid writing 'Archaeo-Malacology: Case Studies from the Levant.' The analysis of over 70 shell assemblages from archaeological sites is the basis for this book. Writing is still underway, but large portions have been completed. The book will include the following topics: 1) the use of shell beads by hunter-gatherers, which discusses the use of shells in Palaeolithic and Neolithic societies; 2) shell beads and artifacts from funerary contexts, which presents the emergence of elaborate pendants found mainly during the Chalcolithic and Early Bronze Age periods; 3) molluscs as food (the importance of shellfish merits a discussion beyond the boundaries of the Levant, where it had a minor role in the diet); 4) elaborate shell vessels and instruments, a dozen different types of artifacts (that are not beads or pendants) include a trumpet and a fish-scaler; 5) the use of shells in construction, Glycymeris' use in floor foundation began in the Middle Bronze Age and continues in some areas up to the recent past; 6) shells' role in pottery production, which discusses their use as temper in clay, and as a tool for burnishing and decorating pottery; 7) shell money is well documented in the ethnographic literature, but how does one identify the use of a shell as money in the past? Examples are found in the Iron Age of the Levant; and 8) purple dye from Murex snails for the production of textile dyes is responsible for large numbers of shell heaps. Their role in the economy of the societies that produced them will be emphasized.
Porter, Dr. Natalie Hannah, U.of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN - To aid research and writing on 'Viral Economies: An Ethnography of Bird Flu in Vietnam' - Hunt Postdoctoral Fellowship
Preliminary abstract: Viral Economies narrates the story of avian influenza in Vietnam. At this center of viral threats, pandemic control efforts are attracting multinational investment and expertise while sparking controversies over how to contain viruses in commercial and laboratory spaces. In this book I trace several bird flu interventions from their inception in transnational research and policy arenas through to their implementation in poultry farming communities. Throughout the analysis, I use 'viral economies' as a heuristic for understanding the political economies of pandemic planning. I suggest that viral economies are characterized by contested entitlements to the tools and devices of biosecurity - including pathogen samples, poultry vaccines, gene sequences, and antiviral therapies. In developing an ethnographic perspective on the economies surrounding viruses, I argue that the story of avian flu in Vietnam is not a simple one of dispossession from South to North, local to global. Instead, this manuscript reconsiders the direction of resource flows in pandemic planning, and signals emerging tensions between the resolutely 'public' ethos of global health and the increasingly proprietary devices of biosecurity. The book thus invites a consideration of property as a means to theorize contemporary knowledge and value production in the global life sciences.
da Silva, Dr. Telma C., Independent Scholar, Goiania, Brazil - To aid research and writing on 'Radiation Illness Representation and Experience: The Aftermath of the Goiania Radiological Disaster' - Richard Carley Hunt Fellowship
DR. TELMA DA SILVA, an independent scholar in Goiania, Brazil, was awarded a Hunt Postdoctoral Fellowship in June 2003 to aid research and writing on 'Radiation Illness Representation and Experience: The Aftermath of the Goiania Radiological Disaster.' The book focuses on a radiation disaster that occurred when a caesium-137 teletherapy unit was abandoned and then opened up by scavengers workers, in 1987, in Goiânia, Brazil. The manuscript is based upon data collected during a follow-up investigation (2003-2004) and from a doctoral dissertation research. The book analyses: 1) the ways in which a catastrophic event has produced a set of discourses and practices that defined illness and its effects during ten years (1987-1997) and, 2) it discusses how the traumatic memory shapes the everyday life of the disaster survivors. The main premise of the work is that finished the emergency phase, the disaster continues to affect those individuals whose suffering is denied and disqualified by the Brazilian Nuclear Agency and by the Fundação Leide das Neves Ferreira, who were in charge for classifying the victims and to provide health care treatment for those already defined as disaster's affected. This denial along with the process of erasing the marks of the catastrophe from the urban site brings trauma and distress. Thus, survivors' suffering is provoked not exclusively by the physical and mental pain, but also by the struggles people undertake concerning health, legal, and moral issues along the years.
Settle, Dr. Heather A., Duke U., Durham, NC - To aid research and writing on 'Love in the Last Days of Fidel: Everyday Life in Post-Revolutionary Cuba' - Hunt Postdoctoral Fellowship
DR. HEATHER SETTLE, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina, was awarded a Hunt Postdoctoral Fellowship in October 2009 to aid research and writing on 'Love in the Last Days of Fidel: Everyday Life in Post-Revolutionary Cuba.' This project theorizes the emergence of discourses of crisis as a key dimension of everyday life during the late years of Cuba's Special Period. It looks at how Cubans in two poor barrios of Havana in the early 2000s drew on the language of 'crisis' to make sense of their experiences of economic hardship and personal distress since the fall of the Soviet Union and the subsequent introduction of neoliberal economic reforms. Revisions to the project, undertaken during the fellowship period, added four new elements: 1) incorporation of new anthropological understandings of 'crisis' developed by theorists of humanitarian intervention and exception; 2) post-2008 reflections on the relationship of Cuba's crisis to the global economic crisis; 3) greater historical contextualization of phases within the Special Period and its relationship to earlier cycles of revolution, reform and critique; and 4) an argument for reading the assertion that 'Cuba is in crisis' as a form of discursive intervention that indexes not only disenchantment and loss but persistent, ambivalent hopes for a better future.
Fibiger, Dr. Linda, U. of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom - To aid research and writing on 'Confronting Violence: Skeletal Evidence for Interpersonal Violence In Neolithic Europe (5500-2000 BC)' - Hunt Postdoctoral Fellowship
DR. LINDA FIBIGER, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, United Kingdom, was awarded a Hunt Postdoctoral Fellowship in October 2010 to aid research and writing of 'Confronting Violence: Skeletal Evidence for Interpersonal Violence In Neolithic Europe (5500-2000 BC).' The Hunt Fellowship made possible the completion of four articles on patterns of violence in the small-scale societies of Neolithic Europe, exploring regional as well gender and age-related patterns of violent interaction. Skeletal trauma, especially head trauma, presents the only direct evidence for the occurrence of violence in the past. The population-based study of head trauma in over 1000 individuals from Germany, Denmark, and Sweden reveals endemic, yet not uniform levels of violence across the study area and identifies physical violence as a commonplace rather than an exceptional mode of interaction. Injury types and frequencies best fit a context of small-scale violent events, such as minor battles, surprise raids or feuds, which seemed to be most frequent in southern Scandinavia, especially Denmark. Adult males are significantly more affected, though women and children show an equal risk of sustaining fatal head injuries. While injury patterns confirm adult men as the main instigators of violent interaction it was women and children who most frequently suffered its fatal consequences. Indications of active involvement of the latter two in violent confrontations challenges perceived notions of gendered identities and divisions of labour as well as concepts of childhood in the small scale societies of the central and northern European Neolithic.
Fibiger, Linda. 2014. Misplaced Childhood? Interpersonal Violence and Children in Neolithic Europe. In The Routledge Handbook of the Bioarchaeology of Human Conflict, 127-145.( C. Knüsel & M. Smith ,eds.) Abingdon, Routledge.
Fibiger, Linda, Torbjörn Ahlström, Pia Bennike, and Rick J. Schulting. 2013. Patterns of Violence-Related Skull Trauma in Neolithic Southern Scandinavia. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 150(2):190-202.
Taylor, Dr. Michael J., U. of Botswana, Gaborone, Botswana - To aid research and writing on 'Struggles Over Resource Rights by San in Northern Botswana' - Richard Carley Hunt Fellowship
DR. MICHAEL J. TAYLOR, of the University of Botswana in Gaborone, Botswana, was awarded a Richard Carley Hunt Fellowship in January 2003 to aid research and writing on struggles over resource rights by San in northern Botswana. Taylor's central research question was how San's contemporary struggles for rights to resources, particularly land, were being shaped. Exploring this question involved the continuation of ethnographic fieldwork in several San villages and the contextualizing of local processes within the wider dynamics of San ethnicity and development in Botswana with respect to land rights. Two recent factors in the political economy of Botswana had been particularly important: a large-scale program by the government to privatize communal land into ranches for wealthy cattle owners in areas predominantly used by San, and the much-publicized removals of San from the Central Kalahari Game Reserve. These actions had contributed to an increasing politicization of resource tenure issues among San in Botswana. Relating the complex and evolving policy environment to the local-level ethnography brought to light dynamics at the local level as individual San communities attempted to contest government policy or use aspects of it to achieve their own development goals. Particularly evident were various dynamics of power, such as the power to define what was a legitimate land use and what was not. Ethnicity remained a central argument in contestations over resource rights and the legitimacy of such claims. The changing policy environment and political climate in Botswana heightened the salience of such arguments, because the changes encouraged further alienation of San communities from land and other resources.
Hannig, Dr. Anita, Brandeis U., Waltham, MA - To aid research and writing on 'Surgery and Salvation: Women, Religion, and Bodily Injury at an Ethiopian Fistula Hospital' - Hunt Postdoctoral Fellowship
Preliminary abstract: Funding from the Hunt Postdoctoral Fellowship will support the completion of my book manuscript, Surgery and Salvation. Based on over fourteen months of ethnographic fieldwork, the book investigates a set of Christian hospitals in Ethiopia dedicated to treating women who suffer from obstetric fistula, a maternal childbirth injury that leads to chronic incontinence. My work takes Ethiopian women's experience with fistula and their surgical treatment as an occasion to delve into deeper reflections on the intimate and collective experience of bodily affliction, the present-day place of medical missions in Africa, and the equivocal role of Western medicine as a modern form of salvation. The core argument of my book project is two-fold: that illness experience, though distressing, can also be multiply productive, and that the effects of treatment are often much more ambiguous and disruptive than one might expect. My research seeks to enhance key contemporary debates in medical and cultural anthropology in relation to scholarship on structural violence; health, illness, and suffering; and Western global medical engagement. In doing so, my work makes the case for the continued relevance of anthropological inquiry in shaping public debates on the role of medicine in society.
Hannig, Anita. 2015. Sick Healers: Chronic Affliction and the Authority of Experience at an Ethiopian Hospital. American Anthropologist 117(4):640-651
Zhang, Dr. Hong, Colby College, Waterville, ME - To aid research and writing on 'In the Shadow of Patriarchy: Gender, Marriage, and Social Transformation in Central China' - Richard Carley Hunt Fellowship
DR. HONG ZHANG, of Colby College, Waterville, Maine, was awarded a Richard Carley Hunt Fellowship in May 2002 to aid research and writing on 'In the Shadow of Patriarchy: Gender, Marriage, and Social Transformation in Central China.' Research and writing focused on a central China village from 1900 to 2001. Patriarchal and patrilineal principles have long been regarded as the quintessential features of what it means to be Han Chinese and the key to Chinese political authority and control. This view has led scholars to treat Chinese society as essentially and predominantly focused on male authority and privilege in the areas of social organization, family life, inheritance, residence, and gender relations. The current research revisits these assumptions of patriarchal dominance, examining the contestation and manipulation of that dominance in everyday social practice. It does so by looking closely at an issue of ostensibly minor importance - uxorilocal marriage, in which a man reverses the normative marriage pattern by marrying into his wife's family. Through reconstructing the collective history of marriage practices through the memories and life experience of the villagers who made this history from 1900 to 2001, this study documents the viability of uxorilocal marriages despite the hegemonic ideals of the Chinese patriarchal and patrilineal system, and demonstrates how rural family structures and marriage strategies have adapted to the rapidly changing social, demographic, economic, and political contexts of twentieth-century China.
Karkazis, Dr. Katrina A., Stanford U., Palo Alto, CA - To aid research and writing on 'The Intersex Debates: Clashes in Culture and Science' - Richard Carley Hunt Fellowship
DR. KATRINA A. KARKAZIS, Stanford University, Palo Alto, California, was awarded a Hunt Postdoctoral Fellowship in January 2005 to aid research and writing on 'The Intersex Debates: Clashes in Cultue and Science.' The fellowship enabled the grantee to write full time from January 2005 to October 2005 towards completion of the manuscript. During this period, the grantee completed substantial revisions to the manuscript, which included a major reorganization of the material and a substantial cut of almost over one-third of the material. The grantee was not able to finalize the manuscript, but the revised manuscript has since been submitted to Duke University Press for final approval.