Kilshaw, Dr. Susie, U. College London, London, United Kingdom - To aid research and writing on 'Friendly Fire: An Anthropological Account of Gulf War Syndrome' - Hunt Postdoctoral Fellowship
DR. SUSIE KILSHAW, University College London, London, United Kingdom, received a Hunt Fellowship in October 2007 to aid research and writing about the Gulf War Syndrome (GWS) community in the UK. She prepared a book that conveyed a new complexity to understanding this and other emerging illnesses. Impotent Warriors: Gulf War Syndrome, Masculinity and Vulnerability (Oxford: Berghahn Books, 2009) examines GWS as an illness of its time, revealing its similarity to other contested illnesses and they way it is shaped by wider cultural anxieties. However, the work also shows the illness to be an expression of distress that is unique to a particular group of people. By looking at the narratives that surround GWS, insight is gained into the social and cultural dimensions of the illness and in what ways this has influenced sufferers' understandings. GWS symptom reporting can be interpreted as a vehicle to draw attention to and a means to communicate concerns of the people it affects; issues such as trust, life within a dramatically changing military, gender roles, and toxicity. Revealing how an anthropological approach is necessary to better understanding the condition, the book challenges biomedicine's interpretation of GWS as a psychiatric and somatizing condition. Biomedicine has a rigid, limited view of illness and suffering that is unhelpful and obscures our understanding of illnesses such as GWS. Modernity and increasing individualism as well as the anxieties of (post)modernity are topics of great interest to anthropology and this book contributes to this ongoing discourse.
Kilshaw, Susie. 2009. Impotent Warriors: Gulf War Syndrome, Vulnerability and Masculinity.
Berghahn Press: New York, Oxford.
Kilshaw, Susie. 2009. Obligations to Veteran Informants: Contentious Research and Stakeholder Engagement. Anthropology News 50 (5):28-29.
Murphy, Dr. Liam D., California State U., Sacramento, CA - To aid research and writing on 'A City of Spirit: Religion and Social Change in Belfast, Northern Ireland' - Richard Carley Hunt Fellowship
DR. LIAM D. MURPHY, California State University Sacramento, was awarded a Richard Carley Hunt Fellowship in June 2005 to aid research and writing on 'A City of Spirit: Religion and Social Change in Belfast, Northern Ireland.' Funding assisted writing of a book-length manuscript based on the grantee's doctoral and post-doctoral research among charismatic Christians in Belfast, Northern Ireland. The project examines relations among religiosity, ideas about the self, and socio-political transformations currently underway in Belfast. In particular, the project looks at changes to religiosity stimulated by 1998's Belfast Agreement and 2006's St. Andrew's Agreement - which have seemingly brought the region's low-level civil conflict (the 'Troubles') to an end. Whereas religion has helped to define community boundaries and ideas about self in relation to society since the sixteenth century, the character and purpose of religion in the 'new' Belfast is now subject to a different form of scrutiny and revision. The future status of religion as a marker of identity and selfhood is in doubt. Participants in an ecumenical, evangelically-driven charismatic 'renewal' devise occasions and language of religious devotion that hybridize embodied and ecstatic experience, ideas about civil society in Northern Ireland, Europe, and elsewhere, ritualized practices that embrace elements of Northern Ireland ritual tradition transformed to emphasize social unity, theories of historical change that minimize social difference.
Bar-Yosef Mayer, Dr. Daniella E., Peabody Museum, Cambridge, MA - To aid research and writing on 'Archaeo-Malacology: Case Studies from the Levant' - Richard Carley Hunt Fellowship
DR. DANIELLA E. BAR-YOSEF MAYER, University of Haifa, Haifa, Israel, was awarded a Hunt Postdoctoral Fellowship in August 2001, to aid writing 'Archaeo-Malacology: Case Studies from the Levant.' The analysis of over 70 shell assemblages from archaeological sites is the basis for this book. Writing is still underway, but large portions have been completed. The book will include the following topics: 1) the use of shell beads by hunter-gatherers, which discusses the use of shells in Palaeolithic and Neolithic societies; 2) shell beads and artifacts from funerary contexts, which presents the emergence of elaborate pendants found mainly during the Chalcolithic and Early Bronze Age periods; 3) molluscs as food (the importance of shellfish merits a discussion beyond the boundaries of the Levant, where it had a minor role in the diet); 4) elaborate shell vessels and instruments, a dozen different types of artifacts (that are not beads or pendants) include a trumpet and a fish-scaler; 5) the use of shells in construction, Glycymeris' use in floor foundation began in the Middle Bronze Age and continues in some areas up to the recent past; 6) shells' role in pottery production, which discusses their use as temper in clay, and as a tool for burnishing and decorating pottery; 7) shell money is well documented in the ethnographic literature, but how does one identify the use of a shell as money in the past? Examples are found in the Iron Age of the Levant; and 8) purple dye from Murex snails for the production of textile dyes is responsible for large numbers of shell heaps. Their role in the economy of the societies that produced them will be emphasized.
Reyes-Garcia, Dr. Victoria, Brandeis U., Waltham, MA - To aid research and writing on 'Ethnoecological Knowledge and Markets: How to Measure the Link?' - Richard Carley Hunt Fellowship
DR. VICTORIA REYES-GARCIA, Brandeis University, Waltham, Massachusetts, was awarded a Hunt Postdoctoral Fellowship in January 2005 to aid research and writing on 'Ethnoecological Knowledge and Markets: How to Measure the Link?' Information learned in school is considerated a main form of knowledge and is associated with positive outcomes (i.e more income, better health), but for most of human history people's main form of knowledge has not been schooling, but traditional ecological knowledge. Using a quantiataive approach, this research explored: 1.) the link between traditional ecological knowledge and economic activities; and, 2.) the benefits that traditional ecological knowledge offers to the people and societies holding the knowledge. Results showed that integration to the market economy did not explain per se why people acquire or lose traditional ecological knowledge. Activities that take people out of their habitat (e.g. wage labor) were associated with less traditional ecological knowledge, whereas activities that kept people in the forest (e.g. sale of forest products) were associated with more traditional ecological knowledge. Findings also suggested that people with more traditional ecological knowledge have better health, and that traditional ecological knowledge is related to lower clearance of tropical rainforest for agriculture. Thus, traditional ecological knowledge benefits the people and the societies holding the knowledge. To continue this line of research, researchers should address methodological issues, such as how to measure individual traditional ecological knowledge with accuracy and reliability.
Reyes-García, Victoria. 2006. Personal and Group Incentives to Invest in Prosocial Behavior: A Study in the Bolivian Amazon. Journal of Anthropological Research, 62(1):81-102.
Vadez, Vincent, Victoria Reyes-Garcia, Tomás Huanca, William R. Leonard. 2008. Cash Cropping, Farm Technologies, and Deforestation: What are the Connections? A model with Empirical Data from the Bolivian Amazon. Human Organization 67(4):384-395.
Godoy, R., V. Reyes-García, T. McDade, T. Huanca, W. Leonard, S. Tanner, and V. Valdez. 2006. Does Village Inequality in Modern Income Harm the Psyche? Anger, Fear, Sadness, and Alcohol Consumption in a Pre-Industrial Society. Social Science & Medicine 63:359-372.
Godoy, Ricardo, Victoria García-Reyes, Elizabeth Byron, William Leonard, and V. Valdez. 2005. The Effect of Market Economies on the Well-Being of Indigenous Peoples and on Their Use of Renewable Natural Resources. Annual Reviews in Anthropology 34:121-138.
Reyes-Garcia, Victoria, R. Godoy, V. Valdez, T. Huanca, and W. Leonard. 2006. Personal and Group Incentives to Invest in Prosocial Behavior. Journal of Anthropological Research 62:81-101.
Reyes-Garcia, Victoria, V. Valdez, S. Tanner, T. McDade, T. Huanca, and W. Leonard. 2006. Evaluating Indices of Traditional Ecological Knowledge: A Methodological Contribution. Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine 2(21):1-9.
Reyes-Garcia, Victoria, T. Huanca, V. Valdez, W. Leonard, and D. Wilkie. 2006. Cultural, Practical, and Economic Value of Wild Plants: A Quantitative Study in the Bolivian Amazon. Economic Botany 60(1):62-74.
Reyes-Garcia, Victoria, T. Huanca, V. Valdez, W. Leonard, and D. Wilkie. 2006. Knowledge and Consumption of Wild Plants: A Comparative Study in Two Tsimane? Villages in the Bolivian Amazon. Ethnobotany Journal, Vol. 3.
de Ruiter, Dr. D.J., U. of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, S. Africa - To aid research & writing on 'Palaeodemography & Palaeoenvironment of Hominins in the Plio-Pleistocene Fossil Deposits of the Sterkfontein Valley' - Richard Carley Hunt Fellowship
DR. D. J. DE RUITER, of the University of the Witwatersrand in Johannesburg, South Africa, was awarded a Richard Carley Hunt Fellowship in May 2002 to aid research and writing on the paleodemography and paleoenvironment of hominins in the Plio-Pleistocene fossil deposits of the Sterkfontein Valley. De Ruiter examined the relative abundance of hominins and other macromammals from several sites in the valley in order to determine whether patterns in faunal representation were consistent across localities. If similar patterns of faunal abundance were evident across geological time, space, and collecting agent, then it could be hypothesized that these cave assemblages were reasonably reliable samplings of the paleocommunities from which they were drawn. This would provide strong support for hypothesized paleoenvironmental reconstructions based on excavated faunal assemblages. Utilizing a novel quantification technique that incorporated a maximum of available fossil material, de Ruiter examined the faunal assemblages from the sites of Swartkrans, Kromdraai, and Coopers in order to assess relative abundance. The results suggested that the assemblages were remarkably similar. Hominins were consistently rare in the fossil accumulations and were therefore hypothesized to have been, demographically, rare animals in the paleocommunity. This rarity of hominins does not support taphonomic hypotheses involving specialized primate predation or cave occupation in the Sterkfontein Valley. Paleoenvironmental conditions were probably broadly similar across all of the examined sites. Although similar paleohabitats for Paranthropus robustus can be inferred from these localities, it is unlikely that the breadth of habitat tolerance for this species is represented. Sampling from additional early Homo- and Paranthropus-bearing sites in the area will shed additional light on the interactions of the hominins and their surrounding paleocommunities.
Smith-Nonini, Dr. Sandy, Elon U., Elon, NC - To aid research and writing on 'Healing the Body Politic' - Richard Carley Hunt Fellowship
DR. SANDY SMITH-NONINI, Elon University, Elon, North Carolina, received a Hunt Postdoctoral Fellowship in November 2005 to aid research and writing on 'Healing the Body Politic.' The fellowship allowed several months of work across several disciplines focused at the intersection of the body and relations with state power, including new research on the mind-body relationship, dialectical approaches to moral reasoning and power relations as applied to social movements and political life. The manuscript develops an argument that acknowledges human universals (as well as our particularities) and allows that a moral ecology, as well as individual identities, may shape our social commitments and relationships with power.
Fogelin, Dr. Lars Edward, U. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ - To aid research and writing on 'An Archaeological History of Indian Buddhism' - Hunt Postdoctoral Fellowship
DR. LARS E. FOGELIN, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona, received a Hunt Postdoctoral Fellowship in April 2012 to aid research and writing on 'An Archaeological History of Indian Buddhism.' Support assisted the completion of the final six chapters of a comprehensive survey of Indian Buddhism, from its origins in c. 500 BCE through its decline in mainland South Asia by c. 1400 CE. This book provides a markedly new perspective on Buddhist history. Specifically, it draws upon archaeological remains, architecture, iconography and epigraphy (inscriptions) to uncover the quotidian concerns and practices of Buddhist monks and their lay adherents -- concerns and practices often obscured in studies of Buddhism premised largely, if not exclusively, on doctrinal and theological texts. Throughout the book a fundamental disjuncture between the solitary, meditative aspects of Buddhism and the need to forge and maintain a coherent community of Buddhists is examined. An Archaeological History of Indian Buddhism will also serve as an exemplar for the anthropological study of long-term religious change. During the period supported by the fellowship, the draft of the manuscript was completed, with delivery to Oxford University Press expected in December 2013.
West, Dr. Cathrine P., Rutgers U., New Brunswick, NJ - To aid research and writing on 'Conservation and Development at Crater Mountain' - Richard Carley Hunt Fellowship
West, Paige. 2003. Knowing the Fight: The Politics of Conservation in Papua New Guinea. Anthropology in Action 10(2):38-45.
West, Paige. 2004. Translation, Value, and Space: Theorizing an Ethnographic and Engaged. Environmental Anthropology. American Anthropologist 107(4):632-642.
West, Paige. 2005. Holding the Story Forever: The Aesthetics of Ethnographic Labour. Anthropological Forum 15(3):267-275.
West, Paige. 2006. Environmental Conservation and Mining: Between Experience and Expectation in the Eastern Highlands of Papua New Guinea. The Contemporary Pacific 18(2):295-313.
West, Paige. 2006. Conservation Is Our Government Now: The Politics of Ecology in Papua New Guinea. Duke University Press: Durham and London.
West, C. Paige, and David Ellis. 2004. Local History as ?Indigenous Knowledge?: Aeroplanes, Conservation, and
Development in Haia and Maimafu, Papua New Guinea, pp. 105-127, in Investigating Local Knowledge: New Directions, New Approaches, (Eds. Alan Bicker, Paul Sillitoe, and Johan Pottier, eds.) Ashgate, Aldershot, United
West, Paige, James Igoe, and Dan Brockington. 2004. Parks and Peoples: The Social Impact of Protected Areas. Annual Reviews in Anthropology 35:251-277.
Carrier, James G. and Paige West. 2004. Ecotourism and Authenticity: Getting Away from It All? Current Anthropology 45(4):483-497.
Brockington, Dan and Paige West. 2004. An Anthropological Perspective on Some Unexpected Consequences of Protected Areas. Conservation Biology 20(3):609-616.
Hernandez-Reguant, Dr. Ariana, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC - To aid research and writing on 'Radio Taino and the Globalization of the Cuban Culture Industries' - Richard Carley Hunt Fellowship
Kim, Dr. Eleana Jean, U. of California, Irvine, CA - To aid research and writing on 'Making Peace with Nature: The Greening of the Korean Demilitarized Zone' - Hunt Postdoctoral Fellowship
Preliminary abstract; The Korean demilitarized zone (DMZ), the buffer zone that separates the two Koreas, has been uninhabited for more than sixty years, and in that time it has transformed into an accidental ecological haven for rare and endangered species. Ecologists and preservationists in South Korea and internationally have recognized the unique conservation possibilities of the DMZ since the 1960s, yet only in the past decade has active government and NGO attention been concentrated on rebranding of the DMZ as a zone of 'peace and life' rather than a traumatic scar of national division and war. Empirically, my research focuses on the South Korean border area and what I call the DMZ's 'ecological exceptionalism,' which emerges out of the social practices and relations among scientists, ecologists, environmentalists, activists, local residents, bureaucrats, and nonhuman actants, including endangered birds, alien fish, uncultivated flora, and land mines. The monograph and articles I plan to complete analyze how the production of the DMZ's nature also entails the naturalization of the DMZ as a space of social and political exception that takes place in relation to Korean nationalisms and unification politics, global environmentalisms, neoliberal capitalism, and political violence. But beyond deconstructing the DMZ's nature as always already social and political, my work identifies the mutual constitution of hope and nature in contemporary attempts to grapple with planetary futures and the limits of human agency. I argue that political ecology debates over capitalism and conservation must also include issues of global security and militarization and that the politics and poetics of utopian imaginaries are crucial to an anthropological understanding of what many refer to as the Anthropocene.