Arkush, Dr. Elizabeth Nelson, U. of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA - To aid research and writing on 'War, Violent Spectacle, and Political Authority in the Pre-Hispanic Andes' - Hunt Postdoctoral Fellowship
DR. ELIZABETH N. ARKUSH, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia, was awarded a Hunt Postdoctoral Fellowship in April 2009, to aid research and writing on 'War, Violent Spectacle, and Political Authority in the Pre-Hispanic Andes.' Over the course of millennia in the pre-Columbian Andes, leaders extended their power with both military victories and a panoply of warlike representations and performances: the display of human trophies, the mutilation and sacrifice of captives taken in combat, staged battles for an audience, weapons intended for display rather than use, warrior processions, the interment of elites presented as warriors, and militaristic iconography. These displays have conditioned longstanding discussions among archaeologists about the extent to which pre-Columbian Andean warfare was ritualized, comparable to 'western kinds of war' or uniquely Andean. This book draws on information in the archaeological and ethnographic literature to disentangle evidence about the practice and intensity of war from spectacles and statements about war, examining how these phenomena informed each other and diverged from each other over Andean prehistory. Skeletal trauma and defensive settlement patterns form reliable indicators for the level of violent threat Andean populations actually faced in different times and places. This evidence is compared with patterns of militaristic display to show how both warfare and violent spectacle were related to the changing nature of Andean political authority and the balance of constraint, coercion, and attraction in political interaction.
Raichlen, Dr. David Allan, U. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ - To aid research and writing on 'Linking Brains and Brawn: Neurobiological Rewards, Cognition, and the Evolution of Endurance Running in Humans' - Hunt Postdoctoral Fellowship
DR. DAVID ALLAN RAICHLEN, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona, was awarded a Hunt Postdoctoral Fellowship in April 2010, to aid research and writing on 'Linking Brains and Brawn: Neurobiological Rewards, Cognition, and the Evolution of Endurance Running in Humans.' This two-part project explores the evolutionary connection between the mind and body, and develops a novel hypothesis that selection acting to improve endurance exercise performance in humans had a significant impact on human neurobiology. The first part examined the role of the 'runner's high' in motivating endurance exercise during human evolution. The fellowship supported the writing of three articles showing that selection for endurance exercise linked neurobiological rewards with exercise and explains why exercise has a positive impact on mood in living humans. The second part of the project supported the writing of two manuscripts (one published at the time of fellowship completion) that details a new hypothesis linking the evolution of endurance exercise to the evolution of increased brain size in humans and other mammals. This hypothesis is based on a wide range of literature (both experimental and comparative) and links a proximate mechanism (exercise upregulates neurochemicals that promote the growth of new neurons) to an evolutionary event (selection acting on exercise capacity leads to increased signaling of these neurochemicals over time). In the end, this fellowship supported the write-up of five manuscripts that detail a new area of biological anthropology exploring mind-body connections in human evolution.
Raichlen, D.A., Gordon, A.D. (2011) Relationship between exercise capacity and brain size in mammals. PLoS ONE. 6: e20601.
Cowie, Dr. Sarah Elizabeth, U. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ - To aid research and writing on 'Industrial Capitalism and the Company Town: Structural Power, Bio-Power, and Identity in Nineteenth-Century Fayette, Michigan' - Hunt Postdoctoral Fellowship
DR. SARAH E. COWIE, of the University of Arizona, received a Hunt Postdoctoral Fellowship in October 2008 to aid research and writing on the subtle distribution of power within industrial capitalism, as seen in the 19th-century company town of Fayette, Michigan. She prepared a book titled Industrial Archaeology and the Plurality of Power: Capitalism and the 19th-Century Company Town of Fayette, Michigan, to be published in February 2011 by Springer Publishing. Research for the project included an analysis of the built environment; ethnohistorical research on the community; and archaeological excavations of household refuse from three class-based neighborhoods. Issues surrounding power and agency are explored in regard to three heuristic categories of power. In the first category, the company imposed a system of structural, class-based power that is most visible in pay, housing, and consumer behavior. A second category, bio-power, addresses disciplinary activities surrounding the human body and explores disposal patterns of industrial waste, incidence of intestinal parasites, access to healthcare, and subjugation to surveillance. The third ensemble of power relations is pluralistic, heterarcical, and determined by personal identities and relationships. Individuals drew upon non-economic capital (social, symbolic and cultural capital) to bolster status and express identity and power apart from the corporate hierarchy.
Shipley, Dr. Jesse Weaver, Haverford College, Haverford, PA - To aid research and writing on 'Living and Preaching the Hiplife: Afro-Cosmopolitanism and Moral Mediation in Ghanaian Popular Culture' - Hunt Postdoctoral Fellowship
DR. JESSE W. SHIPLEY, Haverford College, Haverford, Pennsylvania, was awarded a Hunt Postdoctoral Fellowship in April 2008 to aid research and writing on 'Living and Preaching the Hiplife: Afro-Cosmopolitanism and Moral Mediation in Ghanaian Popular Culture.' In the 1990s in Accra, Ghana, musicians and producers created hiplife, a musical genre blending local highlife and hip hop-oriented Black diasporic music. This research examines how young entrepreneurial artists create and circulate music reshaping styles, aspirations, and possibilities for Ghanaian urbanites. The book argues popular music practices are central to a rising aesthetics of entrepreneurship. Ghanaian subjectivities and public life are reshaped by the conjuncture between popular culture and business practice. To make this case the book focuses ethnographically on young Ghanaians in Accra, New York, and London as they produce hiplife music in studios, perform live, and use new digital production and circulation technologies, reshaping how Ghanaians imagine their relationship to globalization, race, and nationhood. Music provides a set of daily practices shaped through free market sensibilities. The valorization of the entrepreneur associated with neo-liberalism has particular resonance due to the historical centrality of trade networks and complex value conversions in West Africa. For critics and fans alike hip hop provides a historically premeditated idea of what Blackness entails. For young Africans hip hop music maps a contested global language of Black racial affiliation which simultaneously refracts more specific Ghanaian political conflicts of generation, gender, and class.
Shipley, Jesse Weaver. 2013. Transnational Circulation and Digital Fatigue in Ghana's Azonto Dance Craze. American Ethnologist 40(2):362-381.
Shipley, Jesse Weaver. 2009 Comedians, Pastors, and the Miraculous Agency of Charisma in Ghana. Cultural Anthropology 24(3):523-552.
Fibiger, Dr. Linda, U. of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom - To aid research and writing on 'Confronting Violence: Skeletal Evidence for Interpersonal Violence In Neolithic Europe (5500-2000 BC)' - Hunt Postdoctoral Fellowship
DR. LINDA FIBIGER, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, United Kingdom, was awarded a Hunt Postdoctoral Fellowship in October 2010 to aid research and writing of 'Confronting Violence: Skeletal Evidence for Interpersonal Violence In Neolithic Europe (5500-2000 BC).' The Hunt Fellowship made possible the completion of four articles on patterns of violence in the small-scale societies of Neolithic Europe, exploring regional as well gender and age-related patterns of violent interaction. Skeletal trauma, especially head trauma, presents the only direct evidence for the occurrence of violence in the past. The population-based study of head trauma in over 1000 individuals from Germany, Denmark, and Sweden reveals endemic, yet not uniform levels of violence across the study area and identifies physical violence as a commonplace rather than an exceptional mode of interaction. Injury types and frequencies best fit a context of small-scale violent events, such as minor battles, surprise raids or feuds, which seemed to be most frequent in southern Scandinavia, especially Denmark. Adult males are significantly more affected, though women and children show an equal risk of sustaining fatal head injuries. While injury patterns confirm adult men as the main instigators of violent interaction it was women and children who most frequently suffered its fatal consequences. Indications of active involvement of the latter two in violent confrontations challenges perceived notions of gendered identities and divisions of labour as well as concepts of childhood in the small scale societies of the central and northern European Neolithic.
Fibiger, Linda. 2014. Misplaced Childhood? Interpersonal Violence and Children in Neolithic Europe. In The Routledge Handbook of the Bioarchaeology of Human Conflict, 127-145.( C. Knüsel & M. Smith ,eds.) Abingdon, Routledge.
Fibiger, Linda, Torbjörn Ahlström, Pia Bennike, and Rick J. Schulting. 2013. Patterns of Violence-Related Skull Trauma in Neolithic Southern Scandinavia. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 150(2):190-202.
Walentowitz, Dr. Saskia, U. of Berne, Berne, Switzerland - To aid research and writing on 'Feeding Dilemmas: Anthropological Perspectives on Reproduction, Breastfeeding, and Science in Contexts of HIV' - Hunt Postdoctoral Fellowship
Preliminary abstract: The book offers an anthropological perspective on feeding dilemmas encountered in contexts of HIV. Drawing from ethnographic data collected during two years of fieldwork conducted in a clinical trial in Nairobi, the study proposes a new theoretical framework to analyze breastfeeding as part of human reproduction. Questioning the naturalistic foundations of anthropological field of reproduction, it can address the cultural complexities of breastfeeding, developing the concept of 'procreativity' by analogy to gender as distinct from sex. The concept of 'procreativity' presupposes that the 'biological' and 'social' dimensions of engendering a new human being are indivisible as regards 'biological reproduction', and refers to the social and cultural construction of reproduction, as implied by a gendered ethos of social reproduction. She further presents a grammar of recurrent perceptions, such as 'bad' versus 'good' breastmilk, analyzing infant feeding experiences and knowledge with reference to cognitively constrained embodied social norms. Fluctuating breastfeeding perceptions and practices of HIV-infected mothers appear as possible adjustments to conflicting biomedical recommendations and infant feeding norms. The book offers new perspectives on anthropological key questions such as structure versus agency and gives critical insight into infant feeding policies in contexts of HIV.
Hansing, Dr. Katrin, Florida International U., Miami, FL - To aid research and writing on 'Rasta, Race and Revolution: The Emergence and Development of the Rastafari Movement in Socialist Cuba' - Richard Carley Hunt Fellowship
DR. KATRIN HANSING, of Florida International University in Miami, Florida, was awarded a Richard Carley Hunt Fellowship in July 2003 to aid research and writing on the emergence and development of the Rastafari movement in socialist Cuba. Within the previous three decades, the Jamaican Rastafari movement had been transformed from a local Caribbean into a global cultural phenomenon. Reggae music and other popular cultural media had been the primary catalysts in this international spread of the movement. As a result, Rastafari had lost its original territorial moorings and become a traveling culture. Global in scope, Rastafari had nevertheless been localized in very different ways in different places. Under the fellowship, Hansing produced a book manuscript and articles examining the processes involved in the transnational journey of the Rastafari movement's ideas, images, and music and the multiple mechanisms involved in its indigenization, with specific reference to its emergence and development in Cuba. In particular, she looked at how the movement entered the island, why and by whom it was adopted, and how it manifested itself locally.
Kelly Luciani, Dr. Jose, CNRS, Paris, France - To aid research & writing on 'A Political Anthropology of Indigenous Health in Venezuela: Amazonian Cosmopolitics & State Policy Implementation among the Yanomami of Amazonas' - Hunt Postdoctoral Fellowship
DR. JOSE KELLY LUCIANI, French National Center for Scientific Reesarch, Paris, France, was awarded a Hunt Postdoctoral Fellowship in October 2007 to aid research and writing on 'A Political Anthropology of Indigenous Health in Venezuela: Amazonian Cosmopolitics and State Policy Implementation among the Yanomami of Amazonas.' The grantee used the fellowship period to write a book-length monograph entitled 'Yanomami, Doctors and the State: The Cosmopolitics of Indian-White Relations in Venezuela' and an article entitled 'Equívocos sobre Cultura e Identidad: Un Comentario sobre la Formulación de Políticas para los Pueblos Iindígenas de Venezuela'. The monograph, which is devoted to the analysis of Yanomami-State relations as seen through the operation of the Venezuelan state health system, develops theoretical insights that contribute to Amazonianist and medical anthropological literature. Beyond the basic Yanomami ethnography presented, the theoretical argumentation and insights have implications for the analysis of many contexts of indigenous peoples' relations with their respective nation-states. The manuscript is currently being considered for publication by Arizona University Press. The second piece is a long discussion expanding part of a chapter from the main manuscript. It is centered on the double or mutual misunderstandings that both sustain and limit Indian-white and Indian-state relations, specifically in the context of integration into nation-states via public services. This article is due to be published in an edited volume on indigenous health in Venezuela by the Instituto Venezolano de Investigaciones Cientificas (IVIC). The volume is also being considered for publication in English.
Mookherjee, Nayanika, Lancaster U., Lancaster, United Kingdom - To aid research and writing on 'Specters and Utopias: Sexual Violence, Public Memories, and the Bangladesh War of 1971' - Richard Carley Hunt Fellowship
DR. NAYANIKA MOOKHERJEE, Lancaster University, Lancaster, United Kingdom, was awarded a Hunt Postdoctoral Fellowship in June 2005 to aid research and writing on 'Specters and Utopias: Sexual Violence, Public Memories, and the Bangladesh War of 1971.' 'Specters and Utopias' is a book-length project which aims to map out the public memories of sexual violence of the Bangladesh Liberation War of 1971. Situated within the context of anthropology of gender, violence, body, the state and South Asia this is rooted in the paradigm of political and historical anthropology. The study is discursive, is based on fieldworks in 1997-1998,2003,2005-2006 in Dhaka and Enayetpur, a village in west Bangladesh. In Bangladesh, the end of the nine-month long war in 1971 found 3 million dead and 200,000 women raped by the Pakistani army and their local collaborators. After the war, in an attempt to rehabilitate the women raped, the state eulogised them as birangonas (war-heroines). Within the context of a transnational global language of human rights, in Bangladesh, the histories of rape exist on one hand, in the realms of the valorised, national imaginary among the state and civil society through the processes of documentation of narratives of rape. On the other hand, the lived-in experience of the war-heroines provides a reconceptualisation about the 'trauma' involved in the violence of rape vis-a-vis the natio,nal documentation of their history. The study concludes that these public memories of rape based on political, historical and social contingency, suppress the experiences and needs of birangonas. The focus on intersubjective lived experiences of the raped women can alone ensure an ethical exploration of the sexuality of war, its processes of gendering and its effect on the individuals affected by sexual violence.
Morley, Dr. Iain Robert MacLean Roffe, U. of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK - To aid research and writing on 'The Evolutionary Origins and Archaeology of Music: Investigation into the Prehistory of Human Musical Capacities' - Hunt Postdoctoral Fellowship
DR. IAIN MORLEY, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, United Kingdom, was awarded a Hunt Postdoctoral Fellowship in April 2008 to aid research and writing on 'The Evolutionary Origins and Archaeology of Music: Investigation into the Prehistory of Human Musical Capacities.' The Hunt Fellowship was awarded for the preparation of a manuscript entitled The Prehistory of Music, to be published by Oxford University Press. The funding made possible the updating and expanding of previous research on the evolutionary origins and archaeology of music, an area fundamental to human cognitive development that is the subject of rapidly growing interest in the field of the evolution of the human mind and cognition. The research explores the nature and time of the development of the foundations of musical ability, selective reasons for these developments within the human lineage, functional and cognitive links between the earliest language and musical abilities, and evolutionary rationales for human emotional response to music. It also analyzes the earliest archaeological evidence for musical behaviors, dating to more than 30,000 years ago. It concludes that musical behaviors have their foundations in tonal emotional vocal expression, and rhythmic-motor coordination involved in the emotional gesture and vocalization. These increased in complexity throughout human evolution; symbolic associations and diversity of these behaviors occurred with Homo sapiens, who were carrying out sophisticated instrumental musical behaviors upon their arrival in Europe. It is intended that the resulting book will be published in 2010.
Morley, Iain. 2013. The Prehistory of Music: Human Evolution, Archaeology & the Origins of Musicality. Oxford University Press: Oxford.