Praspaliauskiene, Rima, U. of California Davis, Davis, CA - To aid research on 'Thank You, Doctor: Informed Patients, Healthcare, and Ethics in Post-Socialist Lithuania,' supervised by Dr. Joseph Dumit
RIMA PRASPALIAUSKIENE, then a student at the University of California, Davis, California, was awarded a grant in May 2010, to aid research on 'Thank You, Doctor: Informed Patients, Healthcare, and Ethics in Post-Socialist Lithuania,' supervised by Dr. Joseph Dumit. This project explored how in informal economy illness is experienced and how health is managed. By examining one of the components of health practice -- informal payments -- this project looks at the configuration of the concept of health itself, as it currently emerges at the historical intersection of socialist state practices and liberal technologies of government. And it asks: How did the socialist state provision of health-its practices and technologies-contribute to a definition of health during its heyday? How is this definition of health being rearticulated by the neo-liberal state and how do informal payments interfere with it? What is it like to be a patient or a healthcare provider at these historical crossroads? This research approaches the narratives coalescing illness and told by patients, their relatives and doctors as 'envelope narratives.' The envelope here is not solely a metaphor for a monetary transaction that comes up in the narratives, but a metaphor and a concept that encapsulates the linkages between notion of health, belief, hope, and political economy in contemporary Lithuania. Findings suggest that the interconnectedness of both therapeutic systems and social networks is rendered in the envelope narratives, where illness, hope and social networks are bundled.
Franzen, Margaret, U. of California, Davis, CA - To aid research on 'Intra-Community Food Sharing and Extra-Community Trading in Two Huaorani Communities in Ecuador,' supervised by Dr. Monique B. Mulder
Vanderhurst, Stacey Leigh, Brown U., Providence, RI - To aid research on 'Victimizing Migration: Human Trafficking Prevention and Migration Management in Nigeria,' supervised by Dr. Daniel Jordan Smith
STACEY LEIGH VANDERHURST, then a student at Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island, was awarded funding in May 2010, to aid research on 'Victimizing Migration: Human Trafficking Prevention and Migration Management in Nigeria,' supervised by Dr. Daniel Jordan Smith. Over the past six years, the Nigerian government has implemented a number of policies and programs targeting the trafficking of many thousands of Nigerian women to Europe for sex work. Yet, a portion of these women do not identify as victims and are rescued against their will by both Nigerian and European authorities. This grant supported twelve months of ethnographic research to explore how these interventions play out at a federally run shelter center for human trafficking victims in Lagos, Nigeria, including how the rehabilitation program addresses migration and sex work. Participant observation at the shelter was supplemented by follow-up interviews with victims and other stakeholders as well. Ultimately, this data will be used to advance our understanding the interconnections between migration and human trafficking, including the ways the two phenomena are constructed as humanitarian problems, regulated by states concerned about their consequences, and experienced by the people who move.
Kim, Jaymelee Jane, U. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN - To aid research on 'Transitional Justice in a Non-Transitioning Society: Perceived Efficacy of Canada's Justice and Reconciliation Efforts,' supervised by Dr. Tricia Redeker-Hepner
JAYMELEE JANE KIM, then a graduate student at University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Tennessee, received a grant in April 2013 to aid research on 'Transitional Justice in a Non-Transitioning Society: Perceived Efficacy of Canada's Justice and Reconciliation Effort,' supervised by Dr. Tricia Redeker-Hepmer. From the 1840s-1996, Canadian Aboriginals suffered forced assimilation, sexual abuse, and physical abuse in government-sponsored and church-administrated boarding schools. The Canadian government began to actively address these crimes in 2006 with the negotiation of the Indian Residential School Settlement Agreement. The agreement utilizes transitional justice tools (e.g. commemoration, monetary reparations, investigative truth and reconciliation commission, grave excavation) typically employed in countries undergoing a political regime change and a transition into democracy. Using transitional justice theory and based on data gathered primarily in the lower mainland of British Columbia, this research focuses on: 1) the similarities and differences in stakeholders' goals; 2) transitional justice's perceived efficacy; and 3) the relationship between past and current human rights grievances. Contributing to critical anthropological debate, this research investigates the sociopolitical factors that influence transitional justice in a non-transitioning society that operates with a legacy of institutionalized discrimination and colonization. Broadly, these findings can inform the applied work of transitional justice facilitators, including government officials, lawyers, and anthropologists.
Ozden-Schilling, Thomas Charles, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA - To aid research on 'Salvage Cartography: Mapping Futures for Devastated Landscapes in British Columbia,' supervised by Dr. Christine Walley
THOMAS C. OZDEN-SCHILLING, then a graduate student at Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts, received funding in April 2013 to aid research on on 'Salvage Cartography: Mapping Futures for Devastated Landscapes in British Columbia,' supervised by Dr. Christine Walley. Throughout the resource peripheries of North America, institutional realignments caused by economic deregulation, land privatization, and the movement of experts out of large government bureaucracies and into private consultancies has altered the ways in which different publics understand their relationships with-and futures within-rural landscapes. Drawing on interviews and ethnographic fieldwork conducted with these three separate groups engaged in 'resource' mapping and modeling in northwest British Columbia-exploration geologists, forestry scientists, and First Nations cultural heritage cartographers, the dissertation asks: What new professional and epistemic commitments are shaping the politics and subjectivities of these knowledge workers? How are these commitments shaping the idioms of inclusion and the modes of governance through which people understand their relationships with the landscapes they inhabit? These questions are taken up through the lens of a recent, climate-change environmental crisis: the loss of over half of British Columbia's pine trees to an ongoing epidemic of wood-boring mountain pine beetles. The dissertation seeks to use the experiences of individual mapmakers across three domains of practice to show how the Canadian government's uneven response to the epidemic has revealed changes in the way post-deregulation governing bodies use experts to mediate between citizens and the state.
Duke, Guy Stephen, U. of Toronto, Toronto, Canada - To aid research on 'Consuming Identities: Culinary Practice in the Late Moche Jequetepeque Valley, Peru,' supervised by Dr. Edward Rueben Swenson
GUY S. DUKE, then a graduate student at University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada, received funding in April 2013 to aid research on 'Consuming Identities: Culinary Practice in the Late Moche Jequetepeque Valley, Peru,' supervised by Dr. Edward R. Swenson. The archaeological study of culinary practices provides an excellent point of entry to investigate everything from status and ethnicity to group and individual identity. This project was designed to shed light on the cultural politics of food preparation and consumption within the specific context of sociopolitical and environmental transformations distinguishing the Late Moche Period (AD 600-850) in the Jequetepeque Valley. The 2013 field season investigated a rural site on the north side of the valley (Je-64) for comparison with previously excavated data from the large ceremonial centre of Huaca Colorada on the south side of the valley. Preliminary results from Je-64 indicate that the site was composed of seven discrete sectors including two residential/domestic areas and a ritual core marked by differential architecture and ceramic and lithic assemblages. Food remains revealed the presence of llama, cuy, maize, squash, beans, peppers (ají), guava, and potato. The preliminary evidence suggests that distinct 'culinary packages' shaped the experience and perception of different places at Je-64 and Huaca Colorada. The data from both sites are beginning to point to the existence of multiple corporate and individual identities during the Late Moche period in the Jequetepeque Valley.
Sum, Chun Yi, Boston U., Boston, MA - To aid research on 'The New Vanguard of Civil Society: Morality and Civic Consciousness among College Students in China,' supervised by Dr. Robert P. Weller
CHUN YI SUM, then a student at Boston University, Boston, Massachusetts, received a grant in April 2011 to aid research on 'The New Vanguard of Civil Society: Morality and Civic Consciousness among College Students in China,' supervised by Dr. Robert P. Weller. How do campus organizations affect the cultivation of moral personhood and civic consciousness among Chinese college students? How do expressions of individuality, civility, and morality in student organizations illuminate the nature and development of governance and civil society in Communist China? Analyzing students' motivations of participation and their experiences in volunteering and organizational activities in an elite university in southern China, this dissertation examines how extra-curricular interest groups mediate students' identities and relationships with their peers, the society at large, and various levels of school and state authorities. In this informal, voluntary, and less supervised sphere of tertiary education, frequent contestations and negotiations of individuality and social boundaries have driven young people to reflect critically on their roles and responsibilities in the transforming political economy and moral communities. This research argues that associational experience in the Chinese university has unwittingly disempowered and disillusioned well-intentioned youth from enthusiastic anticipation of, and active engagement in, civic affairs and social initiatives. The exposures to campus politics and social injustices have promoted a sense of inadequacy and helplessness, rather than preparing participants for social integrations as the study's interlocutors have initially hoped. This project examines the manifestations of individualism and civility among China's future elites, and discusses peculiarities and development of China's civil and uncivil society in the midst of new opportunities and challenges presented by changing imaginations in national and global modernities.
Jae, Gina, Columbia U., New York, NY - To aid research on 'Translating Experiments to Experience: Producing Transplant Practices for Sickle Cell Disease in the US and France,' supervised by Dr. Lesley Sharp
GINA JAE, then a student at Columbia University, New York, New York, was awarded a grant in October 2012 to aid research on 'Translating Experiments to Experience: Producing Transplant Practices for Sickle Cell Disease in the US and France,' supervised by Dr. Lesley Sharp. This study examines how healthcare centers are making a risky, expensive, and potentially curative procedure available to children affected by sickle cell disease, a disabling genetic disorder common to minority and immigrant populations in the United States and France. This multi-sited study employs regional and transnational comparative ethnography to elucidate how clinical practices are being produced across four hospital-based centers that provide specialized medical care for children with sickle cell disease in New York and Paris. Sickle cell disease provides a unique lens to compare how divergent standards of care are emerging through the co-production of technological innovation, clinical knowledge, medical authority, ethnicized discourses, and state-level health policies for a disease whose knowledge production has uniquely intertwined with racial, ethnic, and class-based politics and history. Implications of this work include relocating secular scientific priorities toward innovation as not merely the embodiment of positivist objectives to improve health outcomes, but also the means for practitioners to advance professional interests and perform medical authority and expertise. Using the extended case method, this research seeks to refine ongoing theories of biosociality in contemporary risk-based societies and fundamental cause theory in health inequalities.
Munoz, Lizette Alda, U. of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA - To aid research on 'Cuisine and the Conquest: Contrasting Two 16th Century Native Populations of the Viceroyalty of Peru,' supervised by Dr. Marc Bermann
Preliminary abstract: Foodways are intertwined with dynamics of ethnic identity, social interaction, gender, status expression, and economic standing. Therefore, subsistence and cuisine can offer a valuable window on times of transformation, such as those of colonial periods, when people are faced with new social and economic settings. By contrasting indigenous foodways at two Early Colonial (c. AD 1540 -- 1570) sites in the Viceroyalty of Peru, I explore variability in how the political, economic, and religious processes set in motion by the Spanish arrival intersected with native practices of food procurement, preparation, and consumption. The sites of Malata, Peru, and Porco, Bolivia, provide a chronologically controlled window on two populations - a doctrina village, and a community of industrial workers, respectively - that differ in the degree to which its native inhabitants were integrated into a global economic system. Occupations to be studied at each site date to a period about which relatively little is known from either archaeological or written sources. My research is a comprehensive, comparative archaeobotanical study of previously excavated samples from two sites, which offers a 'grass roots' native perspective that is currently lacking from scholarship concerning identity formation in early colonial Latin America as a whole.