Samli, Sherife Ayla, Rice U., Houston, TX - To aid research on 'Containing the Future: The Hope Chest in Contemporary Urban Turkey,' supervised by Dr. James D. Faubion
AYLA SAMLI, then a student at Rice University, Houston, Texas, received funding in November 2007 to aid research on 'Containing the Future: The Hope Chest in Contemporary Urban Turkey,' supervised by Dr. James D. Faubion. This research investigated the hope chest, or çeyiz, as an indicator of changes in women's status in Istanbul, Turkey. A time-honored tradition central to wedding preparations, the hope chest has undergone extreme changes recently, reflecting larger changes in family structure, women's education, and love relationships. This research explored the changing çeyiz as a commodity, a family keepsake, a national symbol, and as a transitional object accompanying the bride into her new home. To understand the çeyiz and its manifold implications, research was undertaken at merchant centers, handiwork courses, wedding-related stores, and in family homes. Intergenerational interviews among families and interviews with brides and grooms explored the hope chest as a negotiated object -- something created and accumulated through bargaining. Implicit to the hope chest was a discussion how young women and their mothers had different expectations regarding women's roles. The data suggests that education, above all other factors, critically shapes women's attitudes toward their hope chests, their expected gender roles in marriage, and their negotiating power in both household purchases and wedding arrangements.
Goodwin, Marc Andrew, U. of California, Berkeley, CA - To aid research on 'A Comparative Ethnographic Inquiry into Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in the United States,' supervised by Dr. Lawrence Marc Cohen
MARC A. GOODWIN, then a student at University of California, Berkeley, California, was awarded a grant in April 2008 to aid research on 'A Comparative Ethnographic Inquiry into Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in the United States,' supervised by Dr. Lawrence Cohen. This project provides an ethnographic analysis of the diagnosis and treatment of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in the United States. Fieldwork was carried out over a period of 13 months (July 2008 to August 2009) with children with ADHD and their parents as well as doctors, teachers, and school administrators in the San Francisco Bay Area. In particular the project sought to trace the specific pathways of diagnosis and treatment for children with ADHD. In doing so the project gave ethnographic attention to many of the problems raised in the fields of education, public health, and public policy. For example, what explains the racial disparities for the treatment of ADHD, what social and cultural factors (broadly defined) help explain these disparities, and how do children first get introduced into the diagnostic and treatment apparatus of ADHD? The project combines this in-depth multi-sited ethnography -- consisting of interviews and participant observation -- with a close symptomatic reading of the medical and parenting literature on hyperactivity to explore how ADHD as a complex technology links together in its operation the domains of school, home, and clinic in the post-welfare United States.
Zukosky, Michael L., Temple U., Philadelphia, PA - To aid research on 'Transforming Environmentality: Subjectivity and Development in China's Altai Mountains, 'supervised by Dr. Sydney D. White
MICHAEL L. ZUKOSKY, then a student at Temple University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, was awarded a grant in May 2004 to aid research on 'Transforming Environmentality: Subjectivity and Development in China's Altai Mountains,' supervised by Dr. Sydney D. White. This research project, through participant observation with Kazakh pastoralists and the collection of various official and expert narratives of grassland science and pastoral development, demonstrated the way that a local political context transformed the efforts of grassland science experts to create viable political subjects. This knowledge did not always contribute to the state's vision of social order, as internally its own incongruities complicated its efforts and as experts interacted with other actors and the improvised political needs of the moment demanded other kinds of solutions. As a point of contrast, this knowledge was successful in creating subjects of 'settlement,' as it linked groups of actors and resources together, but the outcomes differed significantly from what experts had imagined, as pastoralists used 'settlement' in their own ways.
Limerick, Nicholas, U. of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA - To aid research on 'Contested Language Ideologies and the Mediation of Indigenous Schooling in Ecuador,' supervised by Dr. Asif Agha
Preliminary Abstract: This proposal is for a thirteen-month multi-sited study in Quito, Ecuador, investigating intercultural bilingual education (of Quichua and Spanish), a social movement often noted as an exceptional case of Indigenous-run education in Latin America. This project will consider how administrators utilize language ideologies about Quichua for the coordination of intercultural bilingual education, how such ideologies emerge vis-à-vis state policies, and how policies are reformulated across domains where teachers and students may bring their own views to language education.
Beck, Raymond Kelly, U. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT - To aid research on 'The Molecular Genetics of Prehistoric Marine Mammal Hunting on San Miguel Island, California,' supervised by Dr. Jack M. Broughton
RAYMOND K. BECK, then a student at University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah, received funding in April 2009 to aid research on 'The Molecular Genetics of Prehistoric Marine Mammal Hunting on San Miguel Island, California,' supervised by Dr. Jack M. Broughton. Zooarchaeologists interested in the complex relationships between prehistoric hunters and their prey routinely work to develop population histories of exploited taxa. Commonly, such histories are inferred from indexes that describe the relative abundances of different animals present in an assemblage based on bone counts. Relative abundance indexes, however, are sensitive to a number of archaeologically common problems and are indirect proxies for prey population histories. Fortunately, animals maintain a molecular record of their histories. Ancient DNA methods, coupled with theoretical insight from population genetics, provide access to this record and offer a more direct measure of prehistoric prey population history. This project used the genetic record of Guadalupe fur seals (Arctocephalus townsendi) from Middle and Late Holocene assemblages recovered during excavation at four archaeological sites on California's San Miguel Island to confront a longstanding debate in California archaeology about the effect of prehistoric hunting of these animals. Preliminary analysis of eighteen provisional DNA sequences obtained from these faunal assemblages suggest that marine mammal populations were initially small during the Middle Holocene, growing in size and importance to subsistence hunters around 1500 years ago, and thereafter suffering significant hunting pressure and declining in size through the Late Holocene to historic contact.
Ratanapruck, Prista, Harvard U., Cambridge, MA - To aid research on 'Merchants, Women, and States: Nepali Trade Diaspora in Indian - Southeast Asian States and Societies,' supervised by Dr. Engseng Ho
PRISTA RATANAPRUCK, then a student at Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts, was awarded funding in June 2004 to aid research on 'Merchants, Women, and States: Nepali Trade Diaspora in Indian - Southeast Asian States and Societies,' supervised by Dr. Engseng Ho. In the established historiography of transregional trade in Asia, the role of Asian merchants is perceived to have ended since the arrival of European East India Companies. This research project, however, investigates how small Asian peddlers such as Manangis (Nepalis) have continued to operate and remain thriving traders. It explores how today's transnational peddling traders such as Manangis use pre-existing trade relations and social ties to form trade and social networks to negotiate with local states in world capitalist economy. Field research shows that Manangis form strong and enduring social and economic ties both internally within their community and externally between them and local communities abroad. These relationships which range from generation-long friendships and kindship relations through marriages help them reduce protection costs-costs that emerge from conflicting and cooperative relationships with the states, and are often referred to as bribery. Besides relying on these social resources, Manangis also pool together material and financial resources through their religious institution, for redistribution in their society. That is, much of profits from trade are spent on supporting Tibetan Buddhist monasteries and religious events. But before the donations are used for their intended religious purposes, they are temporarily redistributed in the community in the form of loans, often to finance trade and business ventures. In this context, economic activities and the expansion of trade are propelled by the accumulation and redistribution of surplus through religious institutions. The research illustrates how Manangis expand their trade as well as fulfill their social purposes according to what they value. This project shows an alternative way of thinking about the development of capitalistic enterprise, besides the history of Western capitalism and questions assumption about the rise of the West.
Ratanapruck, Prista. 2007. Kinship and Religious Practices as Institutionalization of Trade Networks: Manangi Trade Communities in South and Southeast Asia. Journal of the Economic and Social History of the Orient 50(2):325-346
Fouratt, Caitlin E., U. of California, Irvine, CA - To aid research on 'Presences and Absences: Nicaraguan Migration to Costa Rica and Transnational Families,' supervised by Dr. Leo Chavez
CAITLIN E. FOURATT, then a student at University of California, Irvine, California, received funding in April 2011 to aid research on 'Presences and Absences: Nicaraguan Migration to Costa Rica and Transnational Families,' supervised by Dr. Leo Chavez. This ethnographic study examined how Nicaraguan migrants and their family members confront the contradictions of remaining 'family' despite absence and distance. Over 300,000 Nicaraguans, many of them undocumented, live in Costa Rica where they represent between seven and ten percent of the population and fill low-paying jobs that form the basis of the country's agricultural and service sectors. But even as they build new lives in Costa Rica, many migrants maintain ties to households and families in Nicaragua. Through participant observation and ethnographic interviews with Nicaraguan migrants in Costa Rica and their families in Nicaragua, this project studied how Nicaraguan families express care and intimacy across physical and legal boundaries as they adapt to the context of transnational migration and, in the process, transform what it means to be related. In particular, this project examines the contradictions and tensions in Nicaraguan transnational family-life, including how Costa Rican immigration law conditions the possibilities for such families, the flexibility of Nicaraguan kinship and transnational family formation, and the specificities of transnational forms of care. Migration represents both a response to economic and social crisis, even as it generates new forms of instabilities and uncertainties for Nicaraguan families.
Weiss, Joseph Julian Ziems, U. of Chicago, Chicago, IL - To aid research on 'Unsettled Co-Existence: Political Community and Everyday Life on Canada's Northwest Coast,' supervised by Dr. Jean Comaroff
JOSEPH WEISS, then a student at University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois, was awarded funding in October 2011 to aid research on 'Unsettled Co-Existence: Political Community and Everyday Life on Canada's Northwest Coast,' supervised by Dr. Jean Comaroff. This research investigates the consequences of political transformation in the Haida community of Old Massett on the islands of Haida Gwaii. In particular, it asks what the effects are on the day to day lives of Haida people and their non-Aboriginal neighbors of a recent treaty-alternative 'Reconciliation Process' that is being implemented between the Council of the Haida Nation, British Columbia, and Canada. As fieldwork has made clear, the people of Haida Gwaii encounter the consequences of this moment of political transformation in a multiplicity of ways. They encounter them directly, for instance, in their questions over what jobs will be created and benefits brought to their communities by their governments and their concerns over what proper Haida and Canadian leadership should entail. And yet the challenges posed by political change also implicitly imbue a range of concerns that Haida people deal with over the course of their lives, from the ways in which they figure Haida Gwaii as a distinctly Haida 'home' to their protests against potentially dangerous new oil pipelines. This research has explored their responses and the ways in which they, in turn, allow us insight into global questions about the nature of sovereignty, nationhood, and indigeneity.
Kleyna, Mark A., Columbia U., New York, NY - To aid research on 'Spectacles of the Modern: Technology, Development, and the Imagination of the Indian Nation, 1947-1965,' supervised by Dr. Nicholas B. Dirks