Larson, Erica Michelle, Boston U., Boston, MA - To aid research on 'Civic Education in the Indonesian Context: Negotiating Public Ethics and Plural Coexistence,' supervised by Dr. Robert Hefner
Preliminary abstract: What underlies the basis for national unity in the ethnically and religiously diverse nation-state of Indonesia? And what is the normative vision it proposes for inclusion and exclusion, relations across religious lines, and the role religion should play in the public sphere? Furthermore, how are such frameworks transmitted, learned, and negotiated? This comparative research of civic education at a public state school, Catholic school, and Muslim school in North Sulawesi, Indonesia will investigate socializing views of the nation with the aim of answering the following research questions: How do curricular models of the nation and its incorporation of difference compare with their pedagogical implementation in secondary schools, and how do these both compare to the way that students negotiate these lessons about Indonesian pluralism and national unity with other understandings they have acquired through broader means of socialization? Also, what model does each level of the educational process being considered propose for dealing with difference and creating a sufficiently overlapping consensus for coexistence across religious lines? This research seeks to bring the anthropology of education in conversation with literature in political anthropology and anthropology of plurality to examine the contribution of formal education in creating a framework for coexistence in a plural society.
Bekelman, Traci Allison, U. of Colorado, Boulder, CO - To aid research on 'Using the Protein Leverage Hypothesis to Understand Socioeconomic Variation in Diet and Body Size,' supervised by Dr. Darna Dufour
Preliminary abstract: The primary objective of the proposed research is to provide insights into the factors responsible for the larger body size of urban Latin American women of low- versus high-socioeconomic status (SES). To accomplish this we intend to focus on dietary factors, of which surprisingly little is known, and specifically to test hypotheses derived from the Protein Leverage Hypothesis, a theoretical model developed by Simpson and Raubenheimer. Guided by the Protein Leverage Hypothesis, this study will test an explanation for the inverse relationship between SES and body size: limited access to dietary protein in low-SES women leads to a lower proportion of protein in the diet which, in turn, drives higher energy intake. To accomplish the research objective, anthropometry and weighed food records will be collected from 134 urban women in low- and high-SES neighborhoods in San José, Costa Rica. We will also examine perceived economic barriers to protein access using structured interviews and the strategies women use to overcome those barriers using a Geographic Information System (GIS). This research will generate new knowledge about how biology, culture and the physical and social environments interact to influence energy intake and body size.
Pile, James S., Princeton U., Princeton, NJ - To aid research on 'Beyond the Clan: Fighting Networks of the Layapo-Enga,' supervised by Dr. Rena Lederman
JAMES S. PILE, while a student at Princeton University in Princeton, New Jersey, was awarded a grant in June 2003 to aid research on fighting networks among the Layapo-Enga of Papua New Guinea (PNG), under the supervision of Dr. Rena Lederman. From June 2003 to May 2004, Pile conducted research in the Lai Valley of Enga Province and elsewhere in PNG, including fieldwork with the Ambulyini clan, interviews with bigmen, war leaders, and gunfighters from tribes and clans throughout Enga Province, and archival research in Wabag, Mount Hagen, and Port Moresby. The work with the Ambulyini clan produced a detailed case study of two gun wars, enabling Pile to document and analyze the mechanisms through which war was declared, the internal politics that shaped the way war was prosecuted, and how the decision to end war was arrived at and put into effect. The interviews and archival research resulted in a regional account of feud relations and patterns of warfare alliance and enmity from contact to the present; a history of how factory-made shotguns and rifles, locally manufactured firearms, and, most recently, assault rifles had been incorporated into tribal fighting; and an analysis of the consequences of gun wars for social, economic, and cultural institutions. Finally, Pile documented how ambitious young men in the Lai Valley innovated on the most archaic traditions in the novel contexts of gun wars to gain control over assault rifles, create new relationships with other gunfighters, and effectively challenge the clan- and tribe-based moral and political foundations of Enga warfare.
Tryon, Christian A., U. of Connecticut, Storrs, CT - To aid research on 'The Acheulian to Middle Stone Age Transition in the Southern Kapthurin Formation, Kenya,' supervised by Dr. Sally McBrearty
CHRISTIAN A. TRYON, while a student at the University of Connecticut in Storrs, Connecticut, was awarded a grant in June 2001 to aid research on the Acheulean to Middle Stone Age transition in the southern Kapthurin Formation, Baringo, Kenya, under the supervision of Dr. Sally McBrearty. Excavations at Koimilot (GnJh-74) have revealed two stratified, in situ, early Middle Stone Age (MSA) archaeological assemblages in the southern Kapthurin Formation. Tephrostratigraphic correlation has shown that these assemblages are the youngest known from the formation and overlie a sequence of interstratified Acheulean, Sangoan, and MSA sites dated by 4OArp/39Ar to more than 284,000 years ago. The Kapthurin Formation preserves one of the few well-dated, continuous sedimentary and archaeological sequences appropriate for assessing the nature of the Acheulean-MSA transition, a technological shift reflecting profound behavioral changes in the later middle Pleistocene, the likely time and place of the appearance of modern humans. Preliminary sedimentological data from Koimilot, artifact size and distribution studies, and analysis of refitted flakes suggested an intact flaking floor at Koimilot Locus 1, with hominid activities directed toward raw material acquisition and the production of typically oval flakes by Levallois methods. The stratigraphically younger Koimilot Locus 2 showed a technology that targeted the production of large Levallois points or elongated flakes. These data suggested a diversification during the early MSA of methods initially developed within the local Acheulean. Additional landscape-scale studies of sites and paleoenvironmental features linked through tephrostratigraphic studies were expected to contribute to an understanding of this variability and to facilitate extraregional comparisons of the end of the Acheulean.
Keimig, Rose Kay, Yale U., New Haven, CT - To aid research on 'Growing Old in China's New Nursing Homes,' supervised by Dr. Marcia Inhorn
Preliminary abstract: How do elders, families, and caregivers negotiate new forms of institutionalized eldercare in contemporary China? The one-child policy of the late 1970s has given rise to stark demographic imbalances today, and has stimulated an increase in demand for residential care facilities. The proposed project is one of the first to ethnographically explore how experiences with elderly institutionalization in China are mediated by pluralistic medical systems, changing moral worlds, and shifting demographics. The proposed research will be conducted in Kunming, the capital of Yunnan province in southwestern China. Using a combination of participant observation and interviews with staff, residents, and families of institutionalized and non-institutionalized elders, this study aims to show how people are grappling with the everyday challenges of new forms of eldercare. The wide range of research methods and informants will provide a rich account of how the broader themes of biomedicalization, kinship, and urbanization map onto the aging experience in contemporary China. By showing how aging is experienced, caregiving decisions are made, and family responsibilities are reworked in institutional settings, this research seeks to illuminate areas for policy interventions that will make the demographic transition easier for future caregivers, elders, and families in China and around the globe.
Al-Dewachi, Omar, Harvard U., Cambridge, MA - To aid research on 'The Professionalization of Iraqi Doctors in Britain: Citizenship, Sovereignty, and Empire,' supervised by Dr. Steven C. Caton
OMAR ALDEWACHI, then a student at Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts, was awarded funding in June 2005 to aid research on 'The Professionalization of Iraqi Doctors in Britain: Citizenship, Sovereignty, and Empire,' supervised by Dr. Steven C. Caton. This thesis was an historical and ethnographic investigation of the professionalization of Iraqi doctors in Britain. Through this multi-disciplinary approach, it explored the journey and mobility of the Iraqi medical doctor through the historical, political and institutional terrains of the medical profession. The historical component of the thesis explored the role of British doctors and British medicine under the British mandate (1919-1932) in the formation of the medical profession and education in Iraq. It revealed how British medicine became an extension of the Iraqi medical institutions and continued to shape the Iraqi medical profession during post-colonial nation building in Iraq. The ethnographic component examined the diasporic population of Iraqi doctors who currently reside and work in Britain in the face of on-going war in Iraq as well as the re-shaping of the British National Health Services (NHS). In examining the historical and ethnographic facets of the relationship between Iraqi doctors and Britain, the thesis aimed at demonstrating the larger transnational landscape of the medical profession and its embeddedness in empire building and the imagination of the modern Iraqi nation-state.
Ofstehage, Andrew Lehne, U. of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC - To aid research on 'Crisis and Continuity in Soylandia: An Ethnography of Transnational Agrarianism,' supervised by Dr. Rudolf Collored-Mansfeld
Preliminary abstract: I propose to conduct ethnographic work with two North American agricultural populations, Mennonites from Ohio and farmers from the U.S. Midwest, that have migrated to Goiás and Western Bahia, Brazil to farm soybeans and cotton. I intend to understand everyday practices and everyday ethics of large-scale landowners in the 'soy boom' and to examine the cultural, ethical, and ecological aspects of this transnational agrarian model. The soy boom is the expansion of soy production in South America, which now extends into Argentinian shrub forests, Paraguayan pastures, Bolivian lowlands, and the Brazilian Amazon and Cerrado. The very nature of farming in Soylandia has undergone a shift from poor farmers planting diversified crops to MBA-holding farm managers directing the cultivation of bio-engineered monocultures, known as the Brazilian Model. Farmers from the United States have been present and active during the expansion of the soy frontier to the Amazon in the late 1960s via a Mennonite colony in Goiás and on the Cerrado of Northeast Brazil beginning in the 1980s via Midwestern farmers. However the role of large-scale farmers in general, is it as harbingers of oppression and destruction, improvisational entrepreneurs, or refugees of crisis remains unresolved, as does the specific role of North Americans. Accounts of the soy boom suggest that landowners are driven primarily by profit seeking behavior and impose this vision on the land and workers while adopting the Brazilian model of agriculture wholesale. My research tests this thesis by asking if Mennonite and Midwestern farmers' work also implies the creative reproduction of farming histories in the face of crisis and the emergence of landscape aesthetics, social relations, and socially-valued forms of farm work.
Ditto, Emily Cubbon, U. of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC - To aid research on 'Cosmological Caches: Organization and Power at Chaco Canyon, New Mexico (A.D. 850-1150),' supervised by Dr. Vincas P. Steponaitis
Preliminary abstract: My dissertation focuses on Chaco Canyon, New Mexico, where clear indications of social differentiation in the Pueblo world first appeared during the 9th-11th centuries. Though research has been conducted since 1896, many central questions, such as the distinct nature of Chacoan organization and leadership, have been difficult to solve. Recently, many scholars have argued convincingly for strong ritual components. One key question concerns the roles of dual organization (moieties) and ritual sodalities (non-kin groups). Current evidence for dualism is biological and architectural. Artifacts, especially details regarding their contexts, and what they reveal about ritual and power, have been underemphasized in recent Chaco research. In addition, two conspicuously elaborate groups of burials found in Pueblo Bonito (the largest great house, in the canyon center) are often cited as the most unmistakable evidence for Chacoan social differentiation. Despite their widely recognized importance and potential to address difficulties understanding the roles of Chacoan leaders, no systematic study of artifact distributions relative to skeletal remains has been conducted. My research will use artifacts to investigate whether dualism was represented in Chacoan organization by analyzing patterns of variation among ritual caches and comparing the contents and symbolic associations of the two Pueblo Bonito burial assemblages.
Stefanoff, Lisa B., New York U., New York, NY - To aid research on 'From Voice to Property: The Social Practices of Indigenous Media Production at C.A.A.M.A,' supervised by Dr. Fred R. Myers
LISA B. STEFANOFF, then a student at New York University, New York, New York, received funding in January 2003 to aid research on 'From Voice to Property: The Social Practices of Indigenous Media Production at CAAMA,' supervised by Dr. Fred R. Myers. The research details the production of audio-visual 'Aboriginal Media for the World' by culturally diverse teams supported by the Central Australian Aboriginal Media Association (CAAMA) at the start of the 21st century. Field and media-archival research investigated the meanings and values, for a variety of CAAMA film-makers, of the collective enterprise of 'storytelling.' The project traced individuals' identifications with CAAMA's encompassing corporate invocation to 'See the World Through Aboriginal Eyes.' Located in intersecting fields of cultural production -- Central Australian desert culture, Aboriginal national politics, Australian culture and arts bureaucracies, the community broadcasting mediascape, Australian/Indigenous artworlds, and the Australian screen industry -- six CAAMA documentaries, fiction films, and television community service announcements are examined as forms of material culture with alienable and inalienable property values. As sites and symbols of intercultural exchange that have been key to the construction of new Indigenous identities, CAAMA screen works mediate motivating experiences and anxieties about cultural loss. Drawing on participant observation of these processes and in-depth interviews with key creators, the study describes the creation of these works from pre-production to distribution. It illustrates how CAAMA's screen work achieves market values as Indigenous expression by only by mediating colliding cultural interests, contradictory creative impulses, and unanticipated constraints.