Reddy, Malavika, U of Chicago, Chicago, IL - To aid research on 'Legal Practice and the Production of Licit Subjects in Thailand,' supervised by Dr. John Kelly
MALAVIKA REDDY, then a student at University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois, received funding in May 2010 to aid research on 'Legal Practice and the Production of Licit Subjects in Thailand,' supervised by Dr. John Kelly. The research focuses on a recent trend in Thailand for Burmese workers -- people who otherwise occupy a liminal status in that country -- to make claims in the Thai legal system. Conducted through fifteen months of ethnographic observation of legal aid workers and their clients in Mae Sot, Thailand, the research answers three questions: 1) How do foreign workers with marginal status mobilize the law on their behalves? 2) What do these mobilizations suggest about the possibilities of law in an era in which the presence of people with no meaningful legal status is a structuring principle of the nation-state? And 3) As law defines new people and spaces as its object, how does legal practice re-subjectify not only claimants, but also lawyers, activists, and legal aid workers? The study concludes that legal practitioners, from police to claimants and lawyers, are defining a licit jurisdiction -- an authority with which the breadth of both legal and illegal migrant livelihoods in Mae Sot can be adjudicated. Called up by those acting in the name of law, authority in this jurisdiction is nonetheless exercised not according to legal statutes, but by using law and legal procedure as a foil or context to practice.
George, Ian Douglas, U. of Missouri, Columbia, MO - To aid research on 'Mapping the Cerebrocerebellar Language Network and its Role in Human Neuroevolution,' supervised by Dr. Kristina Aldridge
Preliminary abstract: Language is arguably the key factor that has influenced the evolution of the human brain. It is likely that increased language capabilities in humans are associated with both gross morphological changes as well as with novel neural networks. Endocasts, our only direct evidence of the brains of human ancestors, have revealed a disproportionate increase in size of the cerebellum relative to the cerebrum. Moreover, it is thought the cerebellum plays an important role in modulating language production through neural networks with the cerebellum. This project seeks to map the connectivity between the cerebrum and cerebellum and establish the pattern of the language-specific cerebrocerebellar network (LSCN) in the adult human brain thought the use cutting-edge in vivo quantitative imaging techniques. The proposed research will be the first to verify that the cerebellum is a key component of the language network in the brain. In addition, the proposed research will provide critical data on how much can be known about language from the study of fossil brain endocasts by testing the assumption that surface morphology reflects the architecture of underlying brain structure, enabling us to test the hypotheses that make predictions about the behavior of fossil hominin ancestors from endocast data.
Webb, Martin, U. of Sussex, Brighton, UK - To aid research on 'The Social Life of Anti-Corruption in India,' supervised by Dr. Geert deNeve
MARTIN WEBB, then a student at University of Sussex, Brighton, United Kingdom, received funding in November 2005 to aid research on 'The Social Life of Anti-Corruption in India,' supervised by Dr. Geert deNeve. This project looks at the social life of anti-corruption activist networks in Delhi, India. These networks contain a wide range of people and groups, from the social elite of lawyers, activists, journalists and ex-military and civil service people working on high level policy issues, to some of the poorest in the city living in slums and doing the daily work of the 'community mobilizer' in activist groups that work in very specific localities. This social world provides a space in which to investigate how power relations based on class, caste, gender and education operate and facilitate the work that groups do, as well as providing an historical perspective through contact with older activists who had been involved in previous movements for ethical change. A focus on the relationships between these actors reveals how everyday life and livelihoods are caught up in a scene that connects urban slum dwellers to elite individuals and then on to national and international sources of funding that enable them all to continue to muddle through the work that they do.
Kwon, JongHwa, State U. of New York, Binghamton, NY - To aid research on 'Green Dreams: Development, Climate Change, and Making Carbon Markets in Korea,' supervised by Dr. Frederic C. Deyo
JONGHWA KWON, then a student at State University of New York, Binghamton, New York, was awarded funding in April 2011 to aid research on 'Green Dreams: Development, Climate Change, and Making Carbon Markets in Korea,' supervised by Dr. Frederic C. Deyo. This ethnographic research to situate carbon markets of Korea in terms of a community of experts, calculative devices, and the entangled networks of legislative performance makes the following conclusions. First, when a market is saturated with institutional uncertainties -- caused by such factors as political precariousness, lack of comprehensive legal policies on property rights, or just simply its early stage of development -- the success, or the functionality, of a market heavily depends on the availability of diverse modes of valuation and the flexibility of involved agents to coordinate those heterogeneous valuation processes. Second, the speculative nature of carbon markets -- a preemptive practice that brings 'possible' futures into the present -- is key to its consistent dominance in climate-change discourse nowadays. In South Korea this speculative aspect is also closely related with conjuring up tales of economic development in the past to render historical anticipations. Finally, the dichotomies between market abstraction and cultural/social value quantification and qualification (both virtual and real) are not suitable for understanding the dynamics of contemporary market processes. Since carbon markets constantly reform and produce social and economic meaning to environmental crisis through market transactions, looking at how market objects and actors are simultaneously inserted into and abstracted from the social relation is crucial.
Barnes, Jessica Emily, Columbia U., New York, NY - To aid research on 'Farming Fayoum: The Flows and Frictions of Irrigation in Egypt,' supervised by Dr. Paige West
JESSICA BARNES, then a student at Columbia University, New York, New York, received funding in October 2007 to aid research on 'Farming Fayoum: The Flows and Frictions of Irrigation in Egypt,' supervised by Dr. Paige West. This research asks how farmers' everyday practices of water use in the Fayoum, Egypt, are affected by changes in the national and international context in which they make their decisions, and how farmers' decisions, in turn, shape this context. The research explores the relationship between government policy shifts, international donors' agendas, and farmers' decision-making on water management through analysis of four central themes: 1) water scarcity; 2) management of excess water through drainage; 3) participatory water management; and 4) the diversion of water to irrigate newly reclaimed desert lands. Through participant observation, interviews, and documentary analysis, this research follows the flows of water across time and space, highlighting the points of friction where the water does not flow. The research builds on the anthropological literature on irrigation, extending it in new ways through bringing in insights from science and technology studies and embedding the study of local irrigation practices within the broader context of national and international, political and economic transitions.
Pennesi, Karen E., U. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ - To aid research on 'Communication and Uses of Traditional and Scientific Climate Forecasts in Ceara, Brazil,' supervised by Dr. Jane H. Hill
KAREN PENNESI, then a student at the University of Arizona in Tucson, Arizona, received funding in January 2005 for dissertation fieldwork on rain predictions in Ceará,Northeast Brazil, under the supervision of Jane H. Hill. The project investigated how environmental knowledge is communicated differently by traditional 'rain prophets' and meteorologists. A central question was how communication practices affect the interpretation, evaluation, and perceived relevance of climate forecasts to smallholder farmers. During 13 months of fieldwork, Pennesi observed the generation and interpretation of traditional and scientific climate forecasts. Field trips and interviews with rain prophets (who make predictions based on continual observation of the ecosystem) provided insights into traditional practices. In the scientific domain, understanding grew from weekly interactions with meteorologists and attendance at workshops, press conferences, and presentations. Information from recorded interviews, focus group discussions, media broadcasts, and public events was used to develop a 4 survey administered to 189 rural households in three regions of Ceará state: Quixadá, Tauá, and Cariri. The survey explored knowledge of both traditional and meteorological rain indicators as well as opinions related to climate forecasting. Pennesi has now cataloged over 900 traditional rain indicators. Further questions about agricultural practices, religion, government, and science provided data used to elucidate cultural models affecting how climate forecasts are interpreted and judged. Feedback on preliminary conclusions was obtained from rain prophets, meteorologists, and farmers. In the final months, Pennesi's research was used as part of a communication plan in development at the Ceará Foundation for Meteorology and Hydrological Resources.
Fattal, Alexander L., Harvard U., Cambridge, MA - To aid research on 'Guerrilla Marketing: Information Warfare and the Demobilization of FARC Rebels,' supervised by Dr. Kimberly Susan Theidon
ALEXANDER L. FATTAL, then a student at Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts, was awarded a grant in April 2009 to aid research on 'Guerrilla Marketing: Information Warfare and the Demobilization of FARC Rebels,' supervised by Dr. Kimberly Theidon. This research, which builds on two years of ethnographic fieldwork in Colombia and five months in Sweden, explores the counterinsurgency in Colombia through a detailed study of the Program for Humanitarian Attention to the Demobilized (PAHD) within the Colombian Ministry of Defense, the everyday lives of former insurgents, and the way the PAHD partners with an advertising firm to sell its program to current rebels and update the image of the Colombian armed forces. This dissertation argues that the assemblage of the individual demobilization policy in Colombia and its media dimensions seeks to radically rebrand the Colombian counterinsurgency as humanitarian, and elide its abysmal human rights record. At stake in the Colombian government's efforts is the very definition and future of demobilization as a peace-building policy, as well as a greater understanding of how war and capitalism intertwine in contemporary civil wars.
Thomas, Samuel Atsushi, U. of Oxford, Oxford, UK - To aid research on ''Knowing difference': Healing, History, and the Other in Afro-Indigenous Relations in the Pacific Lowlands, Colombia', supervised by Dr. Laura Marie Rival
SAMUEL A. THOMAS, then a student at University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom, received funding in November 2006 to aid research on ''Knowing Difference:' Healing, History, and the Other in Afro-Indigenous Relations in the Pacific Lowlands, Colombia,' supervised by Dr. Laura Rival. How can we understand the diversity of cultural expression in a world where relations between human populations are, and have always been, a defining feature of their existence? How can difference between social groupings be conceived in a manner that overcomes the limitations of the self-referential frames of race, culture, and ethnicity? The research has addressed this concern through an analysis of the relational context of Black and Indigenous (Epérãrã-Síapidãarã) communities in the headwaters of Río Saijá in the Pacific Lowlands of Colombia. In the course of investigation, themes such as the local economy, healing practice, colonial experience implicating Catholic faith, and the marginality of these communities in terms of multicultural politics of the nation and the transnational coca economy have emerged to portray a fertile tension between simultaneous forces of similarity and difference. With a principal focus on healing, the manner in which this knowledge has been articulated through history -- and the way in which this history is drawn upon in the act of healing -- points towards a consideration of orders of knowledge that, in the process of their constitution, are revealing of both the unity of humankind and the particularity of socio-cultural expression.
Kaburu, Stefano Seraph Kiambi, U.of Kent, Canterbury, United Kingdom - To aid research on Grooming Reciprocity among Wild Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) of Mahale National Park, Tanzania,' supervised by Dr. Nicholas Newton-Fisher
STEFANO KABURU, then a student at University of Kent, Canterbury, United Kingdom, was awarded a grant in October 2010 to aid research on 'Grooming Reciprocity among Wild Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) of Mahale National Park, Tanzania,' supervised by Dr. Nicholas Newton-Fisher. This project aims to investigate the strategies and the social factors behind grooming reciprocity among wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), as model species to understand how the reciprocal exchange of social acts might have evolved between unrelated individuals within human societies. Detailed data on social behaviors (e.g. grooming, agonistic coalitions, meat sharing) were collected between January and October 2011 from eight adult males and seven adult females living in the M-group chimpanzee community of Mahale National Park (Tanzania) . Preliminary results show that males reciprocate grooming both across and within bouts when grooming each other and all males were part of at least one highly reciprocal grooming male-male pair. Conversely, no evidence for reciprocal exchange of grooming was found among females. Male-male grooming sessions show a more complex pattern with a combination of unidirectional and mutual grooming compared to female-female grooming bouts. Future analysis is needed to understand whether this difference is related to particular strategies employed by males to assure grooming reciprocity. Interestingly, although females do not match grooming time when grooming other females, they seem to direct grooming towards few specific grooming partners. Further analysis will shed light on the criteria behind partner choice both in males and females.
Kaburu, Stefano, and Nicholas E. Newton-Fisher. 2013. Social Instability Raises the Stakes during Social Grooming among Wild Male Chimpanzees. Animal Behavior 86(3):510-527.
Kaburu, Stefano, Sana Inoue, and Nicholas E. Newton-Fisher. 2013. Death of the Alpha: Within-Community Lethal Violence among Chimpanzees of the Mahale Mountains National Park. American Journal of Primatology 75(8):789-797.
Nida, Worku, U. of California, Los Angeles, CA - To aid research on 'Entrepreneurship Development in Ethiopia: A Case Study of Gurage Entrepreneurs,' supervised by Dr. Sondra Hale
WORKU NIDA, while a student at University of California, Los Angeles, California, was awarded a grant in May 2002 to aid research on 'Entrepreneurship Development in Ethiopia: A Case Study of Gurage Entrepreneurs,' supervised by Dr. Sondra Hale. This study is based on a 21-month period of extensive ethnographic and archival research on the development of Gurage entrepreneurship in Ethiopia, carried out from August 2002 to the present, of which the first year of field research was supported by the Wenner-Gren Foundation (August 2002-August 2003). The study explores how and why the one-time sedentary agriculturalist Gurages became the preeminent entrepreneurs of Ethiopia, and how entrepreneurship became Gurage within the context of an emergent nation-state historically. The Gurage redefined their identities, Gurageness and Ethiopian nationhood in terms of their entrepreneurial success, hard work, ethics, and high mobility, practices that have significant impacts on the national ethnic landscapes, division of labor and the kinds of peoples these interactive processes created in modern Ethiopia. It narrates an historical story that links Gurageness to the development of a nation-state and different (sub) sectors of capitalism/global politics, and portrays a picture of Gurage entrepreneurs creating socially expedient versions of Gurageness in a dance between national power-holders' discourses and that of their 'fund of resources' in Gurage society. It intends to show that dialectic in kinship, gender, constitution of different versions of Gurage ethnicity, and Ethiopian nationhood at large. The research (re)conceptualizes (Gurage) entrepreneurialism as a kind of 'social movement,' as a process in and through which people (re)fashion identities, and self-other configurations. Although grounded in local experiences of Gurage entrepreneurs in Ethiopia, this study constitutes an ethnography of modernity that speaks to the larger issues of social change, including differential entrepreneurial success, culture, structure, agency, nation-building, and identity.