Lin, Emily Xi, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA - To aid research on 'Disability's Star-Children: Autism and the Remaking of Urban China's Moral Order,' supervised by Dr. Stefan Helmreich
Preliminary abstract: This project examines how autism has emerged in contemporary China after 1978, moving from being a disorder with no indigenous counterpart, to a disorder, translated as guduzheng or zibizheng, now fairly ubiquitous in urban China. Through my fieldwork with the help of psychiatrists, nongovernmental organizations, parents and other professional caregivers, Beijing, Handan and Shenzhen, I hope to test out my hypothesis that the a 'moral crisis' is a necessity condition for the successful uptake of a foreign disorder. Beyond the comparative value it holds for the social analysis of autism cross-culturally, my study also intervene in anthropological concerns with human kind-making, the influence of culture on psychopathology, and the use of disease classifications in the production of citizen and nation-state.
Bloch, Lindsay Carolyn, U. of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC - To aid research on 'Utilitarian Coarse Earthenware Production and Acquisition in the Colonial and Early Federal Chesapeake Region,' supervised by Dr. Anna Sophia Agbe-Davies
Preliminary abstract: Lead glazed coarse earthenware, often called redware, is one of the most frequently recovered historic artifacts in North America. Yet, due to its perceived homogeneity, it has been largely ignored as an interpretive tool in historical archaeology. This artifact was produced across the Atlantic world, in factories and on farms, by craftspeople of many different backgrounds. Omnipresent in the home, coarse earthenware has the potential to explain a great deal about crafts, and the social and economic relationships of producers and consumers in colonial and early Federal America. In the Chesapeake states of Maryland and Virginia in particular, historical models stress the dominance of trans-Atlantic trade over local level economic processes. My research works to recover material evidence of the relationships operating at local, regional, and global levels that were built and maintained through the production and trade of coarse earthenwares in the Chesapeake. I use chemical characterization as a method for attributing this pottery found in domestic contexts back to local, intercolonial, or trans-Atlantic pottery production zones, making it possible to visualize past exchange patterns. Given the lack of distinctive visual characteristics, elemental analysis offers a quantitative method for distinguishing coarse earthenwares based on underlying variation in clay sources.While addressing practical questions surrounding the origins of these wares, the proposed collections-based project also foregrounds the significance of this quotidian artifact to the history of the Chesapeake and early America more broadly.
Quincey, Jennifer Anne, Washington U., St. Louis, MO - To aid research on 'Welsh Language Revitalization: Normative Signals and Adult Linguistic Socialization,' supervised by Dr. John Richard Bowen
JENNIFER QUINCEY, a student at Washington University in St. Louis, Missouri, received funding in April 2006 to support research on 'Welsh Language Revitalization: Normative Signals and Adult Linguistic Socialization', supervised by Dr. John Bowen. A surge in interest in Welsh language education has followed the recent, dramatic reversal in the status of the Welsh language. This research centers on a contested, emergent variety of Welsh unique to Welsh for Adults (WfA) classrooms. Designed to be linguistically and ideologically 'neutral', this variety's existence has exposed and created conflicting conceptions of linguistic legitimacy at a critical juncture in the project of Welsh language revitalization. Based on participant observation in advanced WfA classes and in a WfA teacher-training course, this research focused on the ways in which adult learners construct unique definitions of legitimacy; the process by which prospective WfA teachers, a key source of normative signals that adult learners encounter, are trained to transmit this language variety; and the effects of learners' language behavior on the wider Welsh language community, ranging from the level of individual interaction to the emergence of an alternative model of citizenship and belonging in post-devolution Britain.
Fukuda, Chisato, U. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI - To aid research on 'Breathing Uncertainty: Risk, Exposure and the Politics of Air Pollution Controls in Mongolia's Capital City,' supervised by Dr. Claire Wendland
Preliminary abstract: In 2012, the World Health Organization ranked Ulaanbaatar the second most-air polluted city in the world. Epidemiologists attribute one in ten deaths to air pollution in this city of 1.5 million people. Unlike other Asian capitals like New Delhi and Beijing where industrial power plants and vehicles are the primary culprits, the largest single source of air pollution in Ulaanbaatar is the widespread use of coal-burning domestic stoves among residents of urban slums. Mongolia became a national partner of the Global Alliance for Clean Cookstoves, a public-private initiative with aims to create a global market for energy-efficient stoves in the name of global health. How do urban residents develop and deploy knowledge about risk in interaction with air pollution controls? This project will ethnographically examine how local scientists, state officials, private company managers and slum dwellers engage with the stove-replacement program in Ulaanbaatar. This ethnographic study will 1) enhance medical anthropology literature on global health by analyzing how stove technologies render public health a household responsibility; 2) expand social science literature on risk by investigating how quantification facilitates expert and lay citizen understandings of risk; 3) contribute to the anthropology of urban infrastructure by highlighting the production of the citizen-consumer.
Villagra, Analia, City U. of New York, Queens College, Flushing, NY - To aid research on 'Cadê o Mico? (Where is the Tamarin?): Locating Monkeys in the Politics of Land and Conservation in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil,' supervised by Dr. John Francis Collin
ANALIA VILLAGRA, then a student at City University of New York, Queens College, Flushing, New York, was awarded funding in October 2009, to aid research on 'Cadê o Mico? (Where is the Tamarin?): Locating Monkeys in the Politics of Land and Conservation in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil,' supervised by Dr. John Francis Collin. The project sought to explore the intersection between land rights and conservation politics in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest region of southeastern Brazil. Inspired by classic work in ecological anthropology and recent studies of scientific practice, the research is interested in how people understand and emplace themselves in a world configured as natural, as well as with how these understandings impact global politics today. More specifically, the project analyzes how a burgeoning concern with conservation alters contemporary struggles over rights to land and land use. The investigation is organized around the efforts to save the Golden Lion Tamarin (GLT), a monkey species endemic to the state of Rio de Janeiro.
Klopp, Emily Bernice, Northwestern U., Chicago, IL - To aid research on 'Primate Sexual Dimorphism and Display: Intraspecific Scaling of Craniofacial Features in Male Cercopithecoids,' supervised by Dr. Brian T. Shea
EMILY KLOPP, then a student at Northwestern University, Chicago, Illinois, received funding in October 2006 to aid research on 'Primate Sexual Dimorphism and Display: Intraspecific Scaling of Craniofacial Features in Male Cercopithecoids,' supervised by Dr. Brian T. Shea. The project provides a first and very important test of the theoretical predictions of recent sexual selection models in the socially complex higher primates. The hypothesis predicts that the canine tooth and several bony facial features exhibit intraspecific positive allometry across adult males within each of various highly dimorphic papionin species. Positive allometric scaling for adult males is functionally based in the potential role of sexually dimorphic craniofacial features in 'advertising' or signaling overall male size and fitness to both females and/or other adult male conspecifics. Initial analysis shows the null hypothesis to be supported in Macacafascicularis, Papio anubis/cynocephalus, and Hylobates lar lar but not in Cercopithecus aethiops. Additional analysis on papionin species using accurate size surrogates is forthcoming. This project departs from almost all previous studies of sexual dimorphism in papionins and other primates by focusing solely on male variance and scaling within species, and by testing a specific hypothesized functional explanation for an allometric trajectory.
Klopp, Emily B. 2012. Craniodental Features in Male Mandrillus May Signal Size and Fitness: An Allometric Approach. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 147(4):593-603.
Atmavilas, Yamini N., Emory U., Atlanta, GA - To aid research on 'Negotiating Economics, Global and Moral: A Cross-Generational Study of Women and Households in Export Manufacturing, Bangalore, India,' supervised by Dr. Carla S. Freeman
Pante, Michael Christopher, Rutgers U., New Brunswick, NJ - To aid 'A Taphonomic Investigation of Vertebrate Fossil Assemblages from Beds III and IV, Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania,' supervised by Dr. Robert J. Blumenschine
MICHAEL C. PANTE, then a student at Rutgers University, New Brunswick, New Jersey, was awarded funding in May 2007 to aid research on 'A Tophanomic Investigation of Vertebrate Fossil Assemblages from Beds III and IV, Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania,' supervised by Dr. Robert J. Blumenschine. This doctoral project is a comparative and experimental study of fossils from Beds III and IV (1.15-.6 ma), Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania. The goals met were: 1) to carry out experiments designed to address the hydraulic transport of bone fragments created by hominins and carnivores during carcass consumption; and 2) to curate and conduct the first analysis of the Bed III and IV fossil assemblages. Flume experimentation was used to produce a database of over 1800 observations aimed at identifying variables that are associated with the hydraulic transport of individual bone fragments. Initial analyses show that animal size and the dimensions of bone fragments affect the hydraulic potential of specimens. In addition to flume experiments over 100,000 fossils and artifacts stored since the 1960s and 70s were curated and organized. Vertebrate fossils from two sites WK and JK 2 were studied in detail to determine the processes responsible for the modification, transport and deposition of the assemblages. Preliminary analyses based on the incidences of butchery marks and tooth marks indicate both hominins and carnivores contributed to the accumulation of the assemblages. This data will be used to assess the evolution of human carnivory through comparisons with the older FLK 22 site.
Pante, Michael C. 2013. The Larger Mammal Fossil Assemblage from JK2, Bed III, Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania: Implications for the Feeding Behavior of Homo erectus. Journal of Humanj Evolution 64(1):68-82.
Eisenberg, Daniel Thomas Abraham, Northwestern U., Evanston, IL - To aid research on 'Ecological Predictors of Telomere Lengths: A Longitudinal and Cross-population Analysis of Human Biological Diversity,' supervised by Dr. Christopher W. Kuzawa
DAN EISENBERG, then a student at Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois, received a grant in May 2010 to research on 'Ecological Predictors of Telomere Lengths: a Longitudinal and Cross-Population Analysis of Human Biological Diversity,' supervised by Dr. Christopher Kuzawa . Telomeres are DNA sequences at chromosome ends that shorten with age and are required for proper cell division. Telomere shortening is associated with diminished cell proliferation capacity, which is believed to be a cause of senescence. Given the importance of cell proliferation to blood telomere length (BTL), it has been hypothesized that BTL reflects previous immune system activation and indicates current immune function. Thus BTL could provide a new biomarker of life history allocations and of developmental exposures to infection. Contrary to the shortening of BTL that occurs with age, previous studies have shown that children of older fathers have longer telomeres. By analyzing BTL data from the Philippines, Eisenberg and colleagues showed for the first time that this happens across at least two generations: older fathers not only have offspring with longer telomeres, but their sons also have offspring with longer telomeres. Analyses of how early life infection and growth predicts later BTL are ongoing.
Eisenberg, Dan. 2012. Delayed Paternal Age of Reproduction in Humans is Associated with Longer Telomeres across Two Generations of Descendants. PNAS Early Edition (published online).
Szenassy, Edit, Charles U., Prague, Czech Republic - To aid research on 'Governing Romani Women's Bodies: Between Everyday Reproductive Decisions and Population Politics in Slovakia,' supervised by Dr. Jaroslav Skupnik
EDIT SZENASSY, then a student at Charles University, Prague, Czech Republic, was awarded a grant in October 2009, to aid research on 'Governing Romani Women's Bodies: Between Everyday Reproductive Decisions and Population Politics in Slovakia,' supervised by Dr. Jaroslav Skupnik. High fetility rates of Romani/Gypsy women are portrayed by some public actors in Slovakia as a burden on society or welfare system. Facing diverse forms of discrimination and violence including impeded access to healthcare, Romani women's wombs have historically been of grave concern to state power, and continue being regarded as a 'time bomb' bound to explode as presently Romani births outnumber those of the Slovak majority. Between 1977 and 1991, special benefits were granted in return for Romani women's voluntary sterilization, however, recent scandals indicate that many of the operations during this period were neither voluntary, nor performed with due consent. The results of this fieldwork research indicate that the coerced sterilization of Romani women continued into the mid-2000s. This project examined Romani women's reproductive decision-making and its tensions with Slovak population politics. Its central focus was an ethnographic research based on participant observation into current reproductive practices among Romani women in a poor segregated Roma slum in East Slovakia. It explored the intricate positions women, their kinship networks, health professionals, and authorities take, with the aim of revealing and understanding their potentially conflicting interests. The ethnographer was situated in a politically and ethically loaded field, as she attempted to analyze the ramifications intertwining the state, nationalism, and the politics and poetics of reproduction.