Pav, Brent Ryan

Grant Type: 
Dissertation Fieldwork Grant
Insitutional Affiliation: 
Michigan, Ann Arbor, U. of
Status: 
Completed Grant
Approve Date: 
October 17, 2008
Project Title: 
Pav, Brent Ryan, U. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI - To aid research on 'Social Relationships and Gestural Communication in Wild Chimpanzees,' supervised by Dr. John C. Mitani

BRENT RYAN PAV, then a student at the University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, was awarded funding in October 2008, to aid research on 'Social Relationships and Gestural Communication in Wild Chimpanzees,' supervised by Dr. John C. Mitani. Several theories exist about how, when, and why language evolved. One prominent theory suggests that the use of gestures played an important role in the evolution of language. Despite this hypothesis, few data exist regarding how our closest living relatives, chimpanzees, use gestures in their natural social and environmental settings. This project attempts to fill this gap in knowledge through a systematic study of wild chimpanzee gestural communication. Specifically, the kinds of gestures used by wild chimpanzees were documented, who used them, with whom, how frequently, and the responses that they elicited. A key component of this research is to test hypotheses designed to examine the effects of social relationships on gesturing behavior. Fieldwork was conducted at Ngogo, Kibale National Park, Uganda, where an unusually large community of chimpanzees resides. Focal animal sampling and ad libitum behavioral observations were used to obtain the requisite data. Results derived from this research provide some of the very first information about gestural communication by wild chimpanzees and furnish a basis for evaluating the gestural hypothesis of language origins.

Grant Year: 
2008
Award Amount: 
$15,460

Doughty, Kristin Conner

Grant Type: 
Dissertation Fieldwork Grant
Insitutional Affiliation: 
Pennsylvania, U. of
Status: 
Completed Grant
Approve Date: 
May 4, 2007
Project Title: 
Doughty, Kristin Conner, U. of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia PA - To aid research on 'The Past and Collective Belonging in Post-Genocide Rwanda,' supervised by Dr. Sandra T. Barnes

KRISTIN C. DOUGHTY, then a student at the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, was awarded a grant in May 2007 to aid research on 'The Past and Collective Belonging in Post-Genocide Rwanda,' supervised by Dr. Sandra T. Barnes. The grantee spent twelve months researching how Rwandans, whose lives are shaped by the conditions imposed by national and international law, use the past to rebuild their social worlds in the wake of political violence. Focusing in fieldsites in the South Province and in the capital of Kigali, she conducted participant observation with four legal forums: community-based trials of genocide suspects called gacaca; community mediation sessions; a Legal Aid Clinic; and the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda. This research data was supplemented with interviews and participant observation in daily life to identify how legal institutions are embedded in social life. Overall, data suggest that law is a powerful social force in contemporary Rwanda, shaping people's ordinary lives and social interactions, and therefore influencing how people rebuild their lives in the wake of decades of political violence. Data further suggest that the violent political past continues to permeate and influence present-day disputes, and that people use legal forums as a space in which to negotiate their understandings of the past as they aim to resolve disputes. These legal processes, in turn, mediate people's social interactions by constraining and enabling certain forms of compromise and resolution.

Grant Year: 
2007
Award Amount: 
$6,800

Thufail, Fadjar I.

Grant Type: 
Dissertation Fieldwork Grant
Insitutional Affiliation: 
Wisconsin, Madison, U. of
Status: 
Completed Grant
Approve Date: 
July 12, 2001
Project Title: 
Thufail, Fadjar I., U. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI - To aid research on 'Confusion, Conversion, and Riot: Religious Anxiety and Mass Violence in Urban Indonesia, 1998,' supervised by Dr. Kenneth M. George

FADJAR I. THUFAIL, while a student at the University of Wisconsin in Madison, Wisconsin, was awarded funding in July 2001 to aid research on religious anxiety and mass violence in urban Indonesia in 1998, under the supervision of Dr. Kenneth M. George. Three central questions guided the field research: What conditions and forces prompted people to get involved in-or avoid-the Indonesian riots of May 1998 that led to President Suharto's resignation? How did perpetrators, victims, and witnesses differently understand these riots in light of contemporary political crises, talk about conversion to Christianity, and past events of anti-Chinese violence? And in what ways did the verbal and visual signs evoked during the rioting and in subsequent public discourse reflect the certainties and uncertainties of religious, ethnic, racial, and national identity? Thufail also devoted attention to representations of the riot and its political contestation. Some preliminary findings: Most respondents denied that the riots were religiously motivated. The absence of religious issues suggested that among certain groups of narrators, changes had taken place in the narrative appropriation of violence. Moreover, different state agents produced their own narratives. The official Fact Finding Team's narrative served as the higher-order narrative that shaped other narratives. Besides state agents, media institutions also shaped the ways in which people told their stories of the riots. As a consequence, the strong institutional agenda found in the riot narratives had overwhelmed most attempts to represent the narratives as stories of experience.

Grant Year: 
2001
Award Amount: 
$19,915

Jamison, Kelda

Grant Type: 
Dissertation Fieldwork Grant
Insitutional Affiliation: 
Chicago, U. of
Status: 
Completed Grant
Approve Date: 
June 8, 2005
Project Title: 
Jamison, Kelda, U. of Chicago, Chicago, IL - To aid research on 'Hydraulic Interventions: The Making of a Technopolitical Landscape in Southeast Turkey,' supervised by Dr. Susan Gal

KELDA JAMISON, then a student at University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois, received funding in June 2005 to aid research on 'Hydraulic Interventions: The Making of a Technopolitical Landscape in Southeast Turkey,' supervised by Dr. Susan Gal. Research was conducted in Ankara, Turkey, and several cities in the southeast of the country. The research focused on the government ministry charged with coordinating the Southeastern Anatolia Project, a hydrodevelopment project of monumental scale, calling for 22 dams on the Tigris and Euphrates rivers, widespread irrigation networks, and a host of other ambitious social, economic, and engineering initiatives. During the tenure of the Wenner-Gren funded research, the researcher met with a variety of planners and technocrats who work at this ministry, conducted both formal and informal interviews, and analyzed official reports, surveys, and conference volumes, in order to analyze the ways 'society' emerges as a field of technocratic intervention. In addition to working with 'official' development planners, ethnographic research was conducted with other, non-governmental actors who are also deeply involved in 'developing' the sociopolitical landscape of the region, and for whom hydraulic intervention figures in contested ways with political transformation. Distinctions between 'technical' transformations and 'social' transformations form the battleground for debates about the legitimacy of different forms of state presence in this turbulent region. The circuits of intervention that crosscut the region expose the very real struggles and fractures that such 'development integration' process constitutes. The tenuousness of integration formed the unspoken backdrop to discussions of regional development, constituting the standard for judging success or failure. As the research continues, the researcher will further investigate the spaces of silence and erasure that lie at the heart of state intervention in this region, exploring the topics rendered visible and invisible by bureaucratic discourses of technopolitical progress.

Grant Year: 
2005
Award Amount: 
$14,689

Natarajan, Venkatesan

Grant Type: 
Dissertation Fieldwork Grant
Insitutional Affiliation: 
New York U.
Status: 
Completed Grant
Approve Date: 
October 18, 2010
Project Title: 
Natarajan, Venkatesan, New York U., New York, NY - To aid research on 'The Power of Memory: Transitional Justice and the Aftermath of Argentina's Dirty War,' supervised by Dr. Sally Engle Merry

RAM NATARAJAN, then a student at New York University, New York, New York, received funding in October 2010 to aid research on 'The Power of Memory: Transitional Justice and the Aftermath of Argentina's Dirty War,' supervised by Dr. Sally Merry. This project is a study of human rights movements, law, and military soldiers in the context of contemporary Argentine dictatorship trials, one of the most lionized, discussed, and circulated forms of judicial responses to Latin American authoritarian regimes. It is about how efforts to prosecute violence committed during the 1976-1983 Argentine military rule become implicated with and generate new forms of violence, and about how the legal construction of categories of perpetrators is so shaped by social forces that such construction is never simply about identifying who is responsible for a crime. It draws from twenty months of fieldwork with retired and convicted military men; women and men affiliated with human rights' victim groups; and employees of the Argentine state judiciary system to ask what happens to these individuals' senses of self, social relationships, and national belonging, once the Argentine executive, legislative, and judicial branches began enforcing and instituting a new understanding of the past. This research helps shed light on why closure in the aftermath of political violence becomes, in the context of Argentina, a national impossibility.

Grant Year: 
2010
Award Amount: 
$4,870

Cook, Ian Michael

Grant Type: 
Dissertation Fieldwork Grant
Insitutional Affiliation: 
Central European U.
Status: 
Completed Grant
Approve Date: 
October 16, 2012
Project Title: 
Cook, Ian Michael, Central European U., Budapest, Hungary - To aid research on 'The City as a River: A Rhythmanalysis of Mangalore,' supervised by Dr. Daniel Monterescu

IAN M. COOK, then a student at Central European University, Budapest, Hungary, received a grant in October 2012 to aid research on 'The City as a River: A Rhythmanalysis of Mangalore,' supervised by Dr. Daniel Monterescu. This project proposes a novel approach to the anthropology of time and space through a relational inquiry into the practical rhythms of urban life -- rhythms that mediate and constitute realities in urban India. The research folds class and power into urban spaces and times by embedding the inquiry in everyday life. India's ongoing rapid urbanization, in part linked to the economic liberalization begun in the mid-1980s, is producing a multitude of overlapping rhythms that open up both possibilities and constraints for urban dwellers across the country. The proposed research examines how the river-like rhythms 'dress' a city's inhabitants and, in doing so, increase and diminish opportunities to exercise 'urban agency.' The research argues that the (in)ability to harness the city's rhythms, which leads to greater and lesser degrees of urban-agency, rests upon certain combinations of repetition and difference. Research was conducted amongst moving vendors, auto rickshaw drivers, and housing agents. These groups are a means through which to understand the city more generally -- though necessarily partially -- from the bottom up; to explore how their many different rhythms combine and contrast with the wider rhythms of the city.

Grant Year: 
2012
Award Amount: 
$10,375

Solomon, Daniel Allen

Grant Type: 
Dissertation Fieldwork Grant
Insitutional Affiliation: 
California, Santa Cruz, U. of
Status: 
Completed Grant
Approve Date: 
October 17, 2008
Project Title: 
Solomon, Daniel Allen, U. of California, Santa Cruz, CA - To aid research on 'Coexistence and Conflict: Associative Techniques of Humans and Rhesus Macaques in Northern India,' supervised by Dr. Susan Friend Harding

DANIEL A. SOLOMON, then a student at University of California, Santa Cruz, California, received a grant in October 2008 to aid research on 'Coexistence and Conflict: Associative Techniques of Humans and Rhesus Macaques in Northern India,' supervised by Dr. Susan Harding. This research focused on the often problematic relationships between humans and rhesus macaques in and around 'monkey temples' in Delhi and Shimla, India. The project had two focuses: first, the ways in which humans and rhesus monkeys associated with one another in everyday contexts; and second, how monkeys were talked about in media and political narratives about problems like monkey attacks and crop destruction. Urban macaques make their livings on handouts from devotees of the monkey-like god Hanuman and on the edible refuse left behind by dense urban crowds and patchy waste-handling infrastructure. So as monkey management programs have begun to take off in earnest, questions around waste management and the distribution of public resources have been highlighted. Debates about what to do with problematic monkeys have often taken the form of a critique of Indian modernization and government competence in general, but these debates have also provided spaces for re-evaluating governmental and religious protections afforded to animals vis-à-vis the travails of underserved classes of people. These particular issues offer urban Indians spaces for experimenting with different techniques for mitigating the most adverse effects of coexistence between social species, and for re-imagining the ethics of social protections and resource distribution.

Grant Year: 
2008
Award Amount: 
$16,835

Hefner, Claire-Marie

Grant Type: 
Dissertation Fieldwork Grant
Insitutional Affiliation: 
Emory U.
Status: 
Completed Grant
Approve Date: 
April 8, 2011
Project Title: 
Hefner, Claire-Marie, Emory U., Atlanta, GA - To aid research on 'Shaping Muslim Subjectivities: Gender, Piety, and Modernity in Indonesian Islamic Boarding Schools,' supervised by Dr. Michael Gates Peletz

CLAIRE-MARIE HEFNER, then a student at Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia, received funding in April 2011 to aid research on 'Shaping Muslim Subjectivities: Gender, Piety, and Modernity in Indonesian Islamic Boarding Schools,' supervised by Dr. Michael G. Peletz. How do young Indonesian Muslim school girls learn and engage with what it means to be a proper, pious, and educated woman? How do differences in understandings of proper Muslim femininity reflect broader variations in Indonesian associations, educational traditions, and social values? These are the broad questions that frame this comparative study of two Islamic boarding schools for girls in Yogyakarta, Indonesia. The focus of the investigation is two prominent Islamic boarding schools (pesantren): Pesantren Krapyak Ali Maksum and Madrasah Mu'allimaat Muhammadiyah. Each school is run, respectively, by one of the two largest Muslim social welfare organizations in the world: the 'traditionalist' Nahdlatul Ulama (NU) and the 'modernist' Muhammadiyah. These two schools were selected because of their national reputations and because of the critical role they play in molding future NU and Muhammadiyah female kaders (cadres). At a time when many scholars suggest that the distinctions between NU and Muhammadiyah are no longer relevant, this study questions that assertion through the optics of developments in Indonesian Islamic education, evaluating what it means for these young women to be members of these organizations. As private institutions with strong academic reputations, Mu'allimaat and Krapyak also cater to the needs and desires of the new Indonesian Muslim middle-class. Through ethnographic observations, a multivariate student survey, over 100 interviews, and media analysis, this study examines girls' engagement with 'gendered' aspects of curricula, extracurricular practices, and informal socialization within and outside of school.

Grant Year: 
2011
Award Amount: 
$20,000

McLay, Eric Boyd

Grant Type: 
Dissertation Fieldwork Grant
Insitutional Affiliation: 
Victoria, U. of
Status: 
Active Grant
Approve Date: 
October 16, 2012
Project Title: 
McLay, Eric Boyd, U. of Victoria, Victoria, Canada - To aid research on 'Ancestral Landscapes on the Northwest Coast: Inland Shell Middens, Memory Work and Coast Salish Narratives,' supervised by Dr. Quentin Mackie

Preliminary abstract: This PhD dissertation proposes to explore social memory and the depositional practices associated with 'inland shell middens' in the Gulf of Georgia region, British Columbia, Canada. Discovered atop mountain hilltops and valleys distant from modern shorelines, inland shell middens defy ethnographic expectations and normative ecological models of hunter-gatherer foraging behaviors based on efficiency and least-cost economic principles. These investigations will examine whether the depositional practices associated with inland shell middens may represent evidence for new strategies of ritual practice beginning in the Marpole Phase (2550 to 1000 calBP), where past Coast Salish peoples gathered, feasted and ritually-deposited foods and other offerings to commemorate and commune with ancestors and non-human beings on the landscape. Survey, remote sensing and small-scale excavations will explore site chronologies, stratigraphic contexts, features and genealogies of practices associated with the deposition of foods and materials. To move beyond the deeply-plumbed Northwest Coast ethnographic literature to interpret the archaeological past, this research will draw upon dialogues with descendant Coast Salish communities today about how their cultural beliefs, values, experiences and daily practices associated with the ancestral dead and non-human beings powerfully shape Coast Salish understandings of their own settlement history.

Grant Year: 
2012
Award Amount: 
$24,975

Caine, Allison Enfield

Grant Type: 
Dissertation Fieldwork Grant
Insitutional Affiliation: 
Michigan, Ann Arbor, U. of
Status: 
Active Grant
Approve Date: 
October 10, 2014
Project Title: 
Caine, Allison Enfield, U. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI - To aid research on 'Shifting Grasslands: Herders and Socio-environmental Transformations in the Cordillera Vilcanota, Peru,' supervised by Dr. Bruce Mannheim

Preliminary abstract: This research examines how high-altitude camelid pastoralists observe, evaluate, and respond to socioenvironmental transformations in the Cordillera Vilcanota of south-central Peru. Recent changes to the Andean puna environment are unprecedented in both their rapidity and severity due to global climate change, and Andean pastoralists and their flocks traverse a progressively shifting terrain marked by vacillations in agricultural calendars and ecological zones, increases in human and livestock disease, and the loss of sacred landscape features. This research examines how changes to the landscape and shifting seasons are interpreted and addressed through the socio-environmental and spatial practices of animal husbandry, and articulated through idioms of relatedness and social obligation between humans and non-humans alike. In doing so, it takes seriously notions of socionatural relatedness in the Andes, and seeks to identify the processes of identification and objectification through which individuals locate themselves in relational ecologies that confound a dichotomy of nature and culture. It aims to demonstrate how environmental transformations are not a-priori natural events but socially constituted states, that are recognized, evaluated, and addressed in diverse and subtle ways, involving reflective interaction between humans and a multitude of other life forms with which they share their daily lives.

Grant Year: 
2014
Award Amount: 
$11,115
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