Frekko, Susan E., U. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI - To aid research on 'Policing the Borders: Catalan Language Purism in Barcelona,' supervised by Dr. Judith T. Irvine
SUSAN E. FREKKO, while a student at the University of Michigan in Ann Arbor, Michigan, was awarded a grant in April 2002 to aid research on language purism in spoken Catalan in Barcelona, Spain, under the supervision of Dr. Judith T. Irvine. While some Catalan speakers police their own linguistic practice and avoid Castilian Spanish influences, others do not, even if they claim to espouse the ideology of Catalan purity. This discrepancy between ideology and practice raises some important theoretical questions. Why do language ideology and language practice coincide for some and not for others? If language ideology does not determine language practice, then what social function does it serve? In previous research, Frekko had acted as a participant observer in an adult Catalan language class in Barcelona and had observed Catalan language specialists at newspapers, at a television station, and in the Catalan parliament. In this phase of the project, she spent time with her classmates outside of school, in order to observe their linguistic practices in everyday life. She lived with a family that was part of the extended family of a Catalan newspaper copy editor, which allowed her to observe Catalan speech in a home and to enter the social network of a Catalan language specialist whom she had already observed on the job. This housing arrangement also brought her into social contact with several other language specialists whom she had observed in their professional capacity, thus enabling her to observe contextual differences in their linguistic purism.
Bernstein, Alissa Shira, U. of California, Berkeley, CA - To aid research on 'Making Health Reform Policy in Bolivia,' supervised by Dr. Charles Biggs
ALISSA S. BERNSTEIN, then a student at University of California, Berkeley, California, received funding in October 2011 to aid research on 'Making Health Reform Policy in Bolivia,' supervised by Dr. Charles Biggs. Recent studies in the medical anthropology of global health have noted a shift away from a public health model focused on local communities towards the globalization and privatization of healthcare. In Latin America, major moves have been made in the area of health reform that explicitly react to health privatization. Health policy being developed in Bolivia seeks not only to socialize the country's strained health care system, but also to incorporate indigenous models of health into public health policy, while still negotiating reliance on remnants of health privatization of the previous 'neoliberal' government. While scholars in the anthropology of public policy have generally viewed the making and implementation of health policies as distinct phases, this research in Bolivia suggests that these processes are closely intertwined in the form of a circuit. This project suggests that the policy making process in Bolivia involved a uniquely collaborative approach to the planning, making, revising, and implementation of the policy, and pays attention to what debates, revisions, and attempts at conciliation of different ideas amongst actors in the process were involved in negotiating both local ideas and global health shifts in the process. The research also argues that health policy in Bolivia did not emerge as a singular, static document but rather proliferated both in its process of design and as it circulated, taking different forms in order to fit within different communities and sectors of the Bolivian health care system. This study thus looks not just at the impacts of a policy in practice, but also how specific practices that are important to governing are formed and debated at times of political reform. This project will advance understandings of the contingent processes of the making and circulation of health policy, and will contribute to scholarship in the anthropology of Latin America with an approach that turns upstream to understand how health reform policy is situated, engaged, and fraught along political and cultural lines.
Cho, Sumi, U. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI - To aid research on 'Multiculturalism, Okinawan Popular Culture and the Politics of Ethnicity in Osaka, Japan,' supervised by Dr. Jennifer E. Robertson
SUMI CHO, then a student at University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, received funding in May 2007 to aid research on 'Multiculturalism, Okinawan Popular Culture, and the Politics of Ethnicity in Osaka, Japan,' supervised by Dr. Jennifer E. Robertson. The project explored how the recent Okinawa Boom and multiculturalist trend influenced the practices of Okinawan popular music and dance in mainland Japan. For decades, Okinawan music and dance were shunned in Osaka, performed only by Okinawans, and only in private to avoid ethnic stigmatization (except for a few instances of cultural resistance against the dominant ideology of Japanese ethnic and cultural homogeneity). Now Okinawan music and dance genres are becoming increasingly an object of cultural appropriation by Japanese -- to watch, listen to, learn, and perform themselves. While such popularity among Japanese is publicly regarded as a welcome sign of recognition of Okinawan culture, some perceive Japanese appropriation of Okinawan music and dance as another form of Japan's cultural domination -- a threat to the authenticity of Okinawan music and dance, and to authenticity of Okinawan identity itself. However, the divisions between seemingly opposite aspects of Okinawan popular culture are neither clear-cut in practice, nor do they necessarily follow the ethnic lines between participants. As individuals with diverse interests intermingled through Okinawan dance and music performances, they created complex consequences to notions and practices of Okinawan music and dance, and by extension, to attitudes towards the politics of ethnicity in Japan.
Noback, Marlijn Lisanne, Eberhard Karls U., Tubingen, Germany - To aid research on 'Climate- and Diet-related Variation in Human Functional Cranial Components,' supervised by Dr. Katerina Harvati
MARLIJN NOBACK, then a student at Eberhard Karls University, Tubingen, Germany, was awarded a grant in April 2011 to aid research on 'Climate- and Diet-Related Variation in Human Functional Cranial Components,' supervised by Dr. Katerina Harvati. This study seeks to elucidate the physiological basis of craniofacial variation and the selective forces driving modern human cranial geographic diversity. Funding enabled the CT scanning of 45 individual crania from three different collections based in Paris, London, and Tübingen. These scans form part of a larger database of over 330 CT scans, representing populations from different climatic and dietary regimes. With the use of the software package AVIZO and a high performance laptop, 3D models of functional facial components are developed from the CT scans. Analyses are currently undertaken and include studies of variation and co-variation of the cranial components and their relation to diet and climate. This project will enhance understanding of the biological processes underlying the evolution of modern human anatomy, adaptation and geographic diversity.
Liebert, Melissa Ann, U. of Oregon, Eugene, OR - To aid research on 'Psychosocial Stress and Culture Change among Indigenous Amazonian Shuar: Integrating Developmental, Biological, and Cognitive Perspectives,' supervised by Dr. Lawrence S. Sugiyama
PROVIDE A GENERAL DESCRIPTION OF YOUR PROJECT IN PLAIN ENGLISH (UNFORMATTED -- WITHOUT BULLETS OR NUMBERED LISTS -- 200 WORD MAXIMUM).
Recent studies among indigenous populations suggest that psychosocial stress is an important pathway through which socioecological changes associated with market integration (MI) shape human biology. Surprisingly, however, little research has systematically investigated this topic. In particular, few studies have examined how factors associated with MI influence children's perceptions of the shifting cultural milieu and how these experiences become biologically embodied to impact stress, life history trade-offs, and health. Given that early life stress can induce enduring physiological dysregulation across multiple systems, research is greatly needed to capture the nuances of MI that affect developmental stress and long-term health.
To address these issues, this project will integrate methods from biological and cognitive anthropology with rich ethnographic data on culture change and perceptions of lifestyle success in order to elucidate how MI affects stress physiology and life history patterns among Indigenous Shuar children of Amazonian Ecuador. This study will examine these relationships among 200 children and adolescents from two communities experiencing varying degrees of MI by measuring two biomarker indices of psychosocial stress [diurnal cortisol profiles and allostatic load (including measures of cortisol, Epstein-Barr virus antibodies, C-reactive protein, and growth)], cognitive models of lifestyle success, and lifestyle data indicative of MI exposure.
Starzmann, Maria Theresia, State U. of New York, Binghamton, NY - To aid research on 'Embodied Knowledge and Community Practice: Stone Tool Production at FistiKi Höyük,' supervised by Dr. Reinhard W. Bernbeck
MARIA STARZMANN, then a student at State University of New York, Binghamton, New York, was awarded a grant in April 2008 to aid research on 'Embodied Knowledge and Community Practice: Stone Tool Production at Fistikli Höyük,' supervised by Dr. Reinhard W. Bernbeck. Based on an intensive study of close to 14,000 lithic artifacts, it was the goal of this research project to analyze the technological organization of stone tool production at the 6thmillennium BCE site of Fistikli Höyük in southeastern Turkey. Funding supported the research phase when detailed data on individual pieces of lithic manufacturing debris and tools were recorded in order to document the technological practices involved in Halaf lithic production. Going beyond the established categories of formal artifact typologies, both metric and non-metric attributes (type of retouch, usewear, termination, etc.) have been recorded. The evaluation of these data involves analyses of debitage as well as tool standardization and possible forms of spatial segregation within the site and across occupational phases. Similar technological practices -- indicated by artifact standardization and spatial associations -- are understood as the result of shared embodied practices of craft production constitutive of 'communities of practice.' Results thus far indicate an expedient lithic technology with a high level of technological variety. After completion of this project, research results shall be shared with the wider academic community as well as the local public in southeastern Turkey in the form of a small museum exhibit.
Dudgeon, Matthew R., Emory U., Atlanta, GA - To aid research on 'Birth after Death: K'iche '-Mayan Men's Influences on Maternal-Infant Health after Guatemalan Civil War,' supervised by Dr. Carol M. Worthman
MATTHEW R. DUDGEON, then a student at Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia, received funding in December 2001 to aid research on 'Birth after Death: K'iche '-Mayan Men's Influences on Maternal-Infant Health after Guatemalan Civil War,' supervised by Dr. Carol M. Worthman. This dissertation research conducted 12 months of fieldwork in a K'iche' Mayan- speaking Community of Populations in Resistance in the Ixil region of Guatemala on reproduction and reproductive health problems. The research investigated men's roles in maternal and child health, as well as men's reproductive health problems. Moreover, the research examined the impact of the Guatemalan civil war on patterns of reproduction in the community, which was heavily impacted by counterinsurgent violence. Research consisted of a combination of reproductive and family health surveys, nutrition surveys, anthropometric data, and life history and illness narratives with both men and women, focusing on narratives of reproductive experience and loss. Participant observation was conducted both within the community with a land collective and with groups of midwives and religious specialists, as well as outside the community in the regional ministry of health and with regional non-governmental organizations working in health care.
Allison, Jill D., Memorial U., St. John's, Canada - To aid research on '(In) Fertile Ground: Contradictory Conceptions in Assisted Reproduction in Ireland,' supervised by Dr. Robin G. Whitaker
JILL D. ALLISON, then a student at Memorial University, St. John's, Canada, was awarded a grant in January 2005 to aid research on '(In) Fertile Ground: Contradictory Conceptions in Assisted Reproduction in Ireland,' supervised by Dr. Robin G. Whitaker. This research examined the social challenges and paradoxes that surround infertility and its treatment in relation to rapid and recent social and economic change in the Republic of Ireland. Recent changes include economic growth, new economic and political links with the European Union, and declining public confidence in social power of the Roman Catholic Church within Ireland. Less overt factors in the infertility experience emerge from debates around the traditional definition of family and its significance to Irish political identity, the long-standing issue of abortion politics, and the meaning of the constitutionally protected 'right to life of the unborn' in relation to increasingly available assisted reproduction technologies (ART) in Ireland. Based on in-depth interviews with people who have experienced difficulty conceiving, the researcher explored the way they contend with moral and ethical challenges posed by technological innovations in infertility treatment, how they make decisions between medical or social options that may or may not be available, and the impact of infertility itself in a climate of changing social values. In spite of continuing emphasis on the traditional family as the site of social, moral, and political stability in Ireland, the research suggests that women dealing with infertility are challenging the institutionally and discursively constituted meanings of motherhood, conception, and fertility that have been the cornerstones of their subjective identities.
Klaus, Haagen D., Ohio State U., Columbus, OH - To aid 'Consequences of Contact in the Andes: A Holistic Bioarchaeological Case Study of Colonial Peru, ' supervised by Dr. Clark S. Larsen
HAAGEN D. KLAUS, then a student at Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio, was awarded a grant in May 2005 to aid research on 'Consequences of Contact in the Andes: A Holistic Bioarchaeological Case Study of Colonial Peru,' supervised by Dr. Clark S. Larsen. Contact between Native Americans and Europeans beginning in 16th century AD represented the most complex and violent biological and cultural interchange in history. This research initiated the bioarchaeological study of Central Andean contact as the first empirical, dynamic, humanized, and contextualized study of Colonial Peru. With the excavation and analysis of human remains from the Colonial Chapel of San Pedro de Morrope, Lambayeque valley, north coast Peru, three hypotheses were tested: 1.) health of the indigenous Mochica peoples declined following contact; 2.) historically inferred postcontact depopulation resulted in significantly lowered Mochica genetic diversity; and 3.) the Mochica adopted Christian burial rites that replaced traditional rituals.
These hypotheses were tested via a broadly conceived and methodologically diverse approach, examining interlinked human skeletal and dental biological phenomena: demography, skeletal infection, developmental stress, physical activity, violent trauma, and inherited dental traits. Data were drawn from 1,142 individuals spanning the late pre-Hispanic and Colonial Lambayeque Valley (AD 900-1750). Reconstruction of burial practices and indigenous culture were based on corresponding archaeological documentation of mortuary patterns and ethnohistoric documents. Initial findings support the first two hypotheses, with unprecedented negative declines in childhood and adult health marked by elevated prevalence of periosteal infection, enamel hypoplasias, growth stunting, and degenerative joint disease. A dietary shift away from marine foods is indicated by decreased oral health and lowered prevalence of porotic hyperostosis lesions (linked to anemia caused by marine parasitism) as more starchy carbohydrates were consumed. Low variability of inherited dental traits likely reflects catastrophic postcontact depopulation. However, reproduction of precontact burial rituals indicates native culture was not exterminated. The Mochica remained an embodied, agency-driven group who forged their traditions with that of the colonizers into a hybrid Euro-Andean culture, encoding symbolisms expressing indigenous identity, social memory, and symbolic resistance. This first study of Colonial Peru contributes to in-depth perspectives of consequences of social conditions on human health, European colonization of the Americas, and social interpretation of mortuary rituals in revealing how a profound turning point global history indelibly impacted the peoples of the Andes.
Klaus, Haagan. 2008. Paleopathology during the Postcontact Adaptive Transition: A View from the Colonial North Coast of Peru. Paleopathology Newsletter(143):12-28.
Klaus, Haagen D., and Manuel E. Tam. 2009. Contact in the Andes: Bioarchaeology of Systemic Stress in Colonial Mórrope, Peru. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 138(3):356-368.
Klaus, Haagen D., Clark Spencer Larsen, and Manuel E. Tam. 2009 Economic Intensification and Degenerative Joint Disease: Life and Labor on the Postcontact North Coast of Peru. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 139(2):204-221.
Schwartz, Saul Goodman, Princeton U., Princeton, NJ - To aid research on 'Linguistics as a Vocation: Professional Legitimacy in Endangered Language Documentation,' supervised by Dr. Rena Lederman
SAUL GOODMAN SCHWARTZ, then a student at Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey, was awarded funding in April 2011 to aid research on 'Linguistics as a Vocation: Professional Legitimacy in Endangered Language Documentation,' supervised by Dr. Rena Lederman. In a time of unprecedented language loss on a global scale, endangered language documentation promotes the scientific and moral value of languages and the cultures they encode as essential elements of human diversity. Language documentation is both a research paradigm in linguistics and part of a broader social movement to preserve endangered languages. Ethnographic research on documentation demonstrates that language ideologies (beliefs and feelings about language) mediate social organization and knowledge production in this subfield of linguistics through complex processes of ideological feedback. Language ideologies organize practitioners and audiences from various backgrounds into networks of collaboration and evaluation. However, these networks of expertise in turn produce new linguistic and social knowledge that can transform the ideologies, identities, and solidarities of their members and constituencies. Central to language documentation ideologies are complementary and conflicting conceptions of time and technology, which also animate socially strategic discourses about motivation and expertise in particular practitioner-audience interactions. These findings are based on participant observation fieldwork with a Siouan language documentation and revitalization project, participation in linguistics conferences and summer programs, interviews with practitioners involved in Siouan documentation, and archival research on the history of Siouan linguistics.