Maher, Sean K., U. of Cambridge, Cambridge, United Kingdom - To aid research on 'Traplines and Tar Sands: An Ethnographic Study of Intersecting Economies in a Sub-Arctic Indigenous Community,' supervised by Dr. Michael T. Bravo
SEAN K. MAHER, while a student at the University of Cambridge in Cambridge, England, received funding in December 2001 to aid ethnographic research on intersecting economies in a subarctic indigenous community in Canada, under the supervision of Dr. Michael T. Bravo. Aboriginal peoples across the Canadian arctic and subarctic have become increasingly integrated into the economic fabric of Canadian society, with concomitant transformations of social values and economic activities. Through field research at Fort Chipewyan, Canada, Maher explored the conceptual and empirical categories that organized, structured, and assigned meaning to economic activities in a 'mixed' indigenous economy. The objective was to uncover conceptual and empirical categories relevant to understanding the mixed economy as a socioeconomic system, as well as the conceptual categories constructed by members of the subarctic community to organize and mediate the intersections of economic systems and their attendant values. Maher's findings suggested that an understanding of contemporary socioeconomic change in indigenous communities can be usefully approached by exploring how those changes are themselves transformed through localized processes of social reproduction and resistance. In particular, the notion of labor-as it is constructed in discursive narratives and practiced in quotidian activities-provides a theoretically and methodologically useful lens through which to examine not only patterns of economy in contemporary northern indigenous communities but also the important links between patterns of economy and the construction of local indigenous histories and identities in former hunting and gathering societies.
Boltokova, Daria, U. of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada - To aid research on 'Betwixt and Between: Studying Processes of Language Hybridization among Sakha Youth,' supervised by Dr. Patrick Moore
Preliminary abstract: In my research, I am theorizing processes of language hybridization through an ethnographic study of generational differences in the linguistic practices of Sakha people residing in Russia's far northeast. Most accounts of linguistic hybridity in anthropology frame hybrid language use in terms of 'code-switching' and 'code-mixing' on the assumption that speakers remain fluent in the languages they combine. Less considered are the cumulative effects of prolonged switching and mixing on fluency itself, particularly across generations. I ask: When and how do processes of hybridization like mixing and switching lead to the emergence of novel hybrid language practices? To answer this question, first, I explore the social and political factors driving processes of language hybridization among Sakha youth and, second, document the growth of Sakha-Russian hybrid language forms in practice. For scholars studying the Sakha people, this research provides a more accurate picture of contemporary Sakha language practices. For anthropologists more generally, this research offers a more refined conceptual toolkit for theorizing processes of language hybridization in multilingual communities, both elsewhere in Russia and around the world.
Romer, Louis P. M., New York U., New York, NY - To aid research on 'Producing Sovereign Publics in Non-sovereign Places: An Ethnography of Papiamentu-speaking Publics in Curaçao and Bonaire,' supervised by Dr. Bambi B. Schieffelin
Preliminary abstract: While ostensibly decolonized in October 2010, calls for sovereignty in Curaçao and Bonaire now resounding with even greater force. My project is an ethnography study of the linguistic and cultural practices that produce the publics that these demands for sovereignty emanate from. I use cultural and linguistic approaches to examine how the exigencies of contesting discourses that cast Papiamentu speakers as incapable of self-governance reshape Curaçaoan and Bonairean ideas of what it means to be a civil, self-governing person. What are speakers doing to contest ideologies that disregard Papiamentu-speaking publics as uncivil, and therefore cast Papiamentu speakers as not (yet) capable of self-rule? This ethnographic and linguistic study of sovereignty in two non-sovereign places, Curaçao and Bonaire, will contribute to anthropological studies that seek to rethink the possibilities for self-determination available in a globalized, ostensibly postcolonial world.
Gettler, Lee Thomas, Northwestern U., Evanston, IL - To aid research on 'Longitudinal Perspectives on Paternal Socioendocrinology in the Philippines,' supervised by Dr. Christopher Kuzawa
LEE T. GETTLER, then a student at Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois, was awarded funding in May 2010 to aid research on 'Longitudinal Perspectives on Paternal Socioendocriniology in the Philippines,' supervised by Dr. Christopher Kuzawa. Much prior research has been conducted on the neuroendocrine underpinnings of maternal care, but much less is known about paternal socioendocrinology, particularly among human males. This research is the first to demonstrate that fatherhood causally decreases testosterone in human males. The finding that fathers involved in high levels of childcare have lower testosterone also adds to the growing body of evidence suggesting that suppression of testosterone by fatherhood is potentially mediated through paternal care. Finally, these data represent one of the few evaluations of human paternal prolactin, especially in the context of short-term, father-child interaction. Prolactin is likely an important hormone influencing expression of paternal care behaviors in men, but it has been given substantially less attention in studies of male socioendocrinology, relative to, for example, testosterone. The findings that first-time fathers and those who feel support by their wives show greater declines in prolactin when interacting with their children provide important insights on the plasticity of human male physiology as men move through different life history stages and priorities shift. In total, this research presents multiple lines of evidence that behavior/personality influence biology and vice versa, reflecting the mutually-regulatory, interactive relationship between behavior and biology.
Gettler, Lee T., Sonny S. Agustin, and Christopher W. Kuzawa. 2010. Testosterone, Physical Activity, and Somatic Outcomes Among Filipino Males. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 142(4):590-599.
Gettler, Lee T., Thomas W. McDade, Sonny S. Agustin, and Christopher W. Kuzawa. 2011. Short-Term Changes in Fathers' Hormones during Father-Child Play: Impacts of Paternal Attitudes and Experience. Hormones and Behavior 60(5):599-606.
Gettler, Lee T., Thomas W. McDade, Alan B. Feranil, and Christopher W. Kuzawa. 2011. Longitudinal Evidence that Fatherhood Decreases Testosterone in Human Males. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science, USA 108(39):16194-16199.
Gettler, Lee T., Thomas W. McDade, Alan B. Feranil, and Christopher W. Kuzawa. 2012. Prolactin, Fatherhood, and Reproductive Behavior in Human Males. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 148(3):362-370.
Gettler, Lee T., James J. McKenna, Thomas W. McDade, et al. 2012. Does Cosleeping Contribute to Lower Testosterone Levels in Fathers? Evidence from the Philippines. PLOS One 7(9):1-11,
Wroblewski, Michael, U. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ - To aid research on 'Subject Shifting and Style Sampling: The Creation and Sanctioning of Voice in Amazonian Ecuador,' supervised by Dr. Jane H. Hill
MICHAEL WROBLEWSKI, then a student at University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona, received funding in April 2008 to aid research on 'Subject Shifting and Style Sampling: The Creation and Sanctioning of Voice in Amazonian Ecuador,' supervised by Dr. Jane H. Hill. Increased interethnic contact, language revitalization and standardization projects have introduced controversial new forms of expression for indigenous Kichwas living and working in the urbanizing Amazonian region of Tena, Ecuador. The objectification of Amazonian Kichwa language and culture have heightened the public visibility of Tena Kichwas, who are engaged in a struggle to overcome a historically disadvantaged position that is further complicated by new social divisions, shifting definitions of identity, and divergent ideologies of language socialization. This dissertation examines the creative linguistic strategies Tena Kichwas utilize to form unique voices, contest historical ethnic categories, and stake a claim in national Ecuadorian culture. In-depth interviews, recorded speech performances, and media texts gathered through ethnographic fieldwork in Tena reveal complex, multilingual sign-making processes at work. This dissertation combines an ethnographic approach to local social relations, politics, language ideologies, and metalinguistic behavior with systematic analysis of salient linguistic variables and linked social categories. It operationalizes theories of language objectification and ideologization, bringing the experiential processes of language change to the foreground. It is an attempt to illustrate a complex matrix of social forces that act on language, forces often dismissed as below the threshold of perception and analysis.
Larcombe, Linda A., U. of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Canada - To aid research on 'Native North American Resistance and Susceptibility to Infectious Disease: An Anthropological Approach,' supervised by Dr. Robert D. Hoppa
LINDA A. LARCOMBE, then a student at the University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Canada, received funding in January 2004 to aid research on 'Native North American Resistance and Susceptibility to Infectious Disease: An Anthropological Approach,' supervised by Dr. Robert D. Hoppa. This research explored a functional and evolutionary interpretation of the observed differences between the cytokine SNPs frequencies maintained by the Aboriginal and Caucasian populations. The analysis of human resistance and susceptibility to infectious disease must consider that the response to infectious diseases is a biological, social, and evolutionary process. As such, the integration of research from archaeology, molecular anthropology, and immunogenetics, provided the longitudinal perspective required for exploring a population's adaptation to their environment. A novel method was developed to examine the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the cytokine promoter region of nuclear DNA isolated from human skeletal remains from Manitoba, Canada. Cytokines are proteins that are key regulators of the human immune response to infectious diseases and this research successfully typed for the first time, cytokine SNPs in ancient human remains dating to as early as 4000 years B.P. The novel approach that was developed to examine SNPs in ancient human remains will enable a more complex understanding of disease etiology and may provide novel insights into the genetic basis for patterns of differential population susceptibility and/or resistance to infectious agents.
Ayuandina, Sherria Puteri, Washington U., St. Louis, MO - To aid research on 'Restoring Virginity: Hymenoplasty, Value Negotiations, and Sexual Knowledge among Migrant Muslim Women in the Netherlands,' supervised by Dr. John R. Bowen
Preliminary abstract: In many societies, unmarried women must negotiate the tension between premarital sexual desires and social expectations to maintain virginity before marriage (Eich 2010, Buskens 1999, Parla 2001). With recent developments in medical technology and the rise of opportunities for premarital sexual behavior, young women who believe that they no longer possess an intact hymen can now undergo hymenoplasty surgery, which alters the hymen ring to minimize the aperture. While hymenoplasty draws its significance from socially-constructed values of virginity, there is a lack of ethnographic exploration of the phenomenon. Studies on hymenoplasty to date have been primarily conducted by medical researchers who focus on the surgical procedure and doctors' ethical dilemmas. They often assume that the desire for this surgery is evidence of women's oppression. Most ignore the social motivations of the female patients, the intergenerational networks among women of migrant background, and the 'migrant-native' dynamics between the patient and the doctors (Bhugra 1998, Parla 2001). I will investigate the complicated and contradictory social aspects of hymenoplasty as experienced and negotiated by Muslim women patients from migrant background in the Netherlands. The surgery will provide a site to observe the negotiation of sexual values surrounding female virginity between the young women and other members of the community of her background, between the patients, the family, and the doctors, as well as among the doctors themselves, and thereby explore the negotiation of values and of control of sexuality in a pluralistic setting.
Polson, Michael Robert, City U. of New York, New York, NY - To aid research on 'The Shifting Governance of Marijuana in Northern California: Medicalization, Illegality, and Practices of Citizenship,' supervised by Dr. Leith Mullings
MICHAEL R. POLSON, then a student at City University of New York Graduate Center, New York, New York, was awarded funding in October 2010 to aid research on 'The Shifting Governance of Marijuana in Northern California: Medicalization, Illegality, and Practices of Citizenship,' supervised by Dr. Leith Mullings. This project analyzed the elaboration and negotiation of social relations and practices in the emerging medical and underground marijuana markets of northern California. It sought to understand the inter-relationship of policy production, activism, economic activity, and everyday practices of those related to marijuana in order to decipher the broader regional transformations in the political economy of marijuana. During fieldwork, substantial shifts occurred as the federal government intervened in the medical marijuana distribution system, thus altering marijuana's institutional composition, commodity chain flow, medical significance, il/legal status, and governance. Because the political terrain continues to change, this project focused on the dynamics of these changes, particularly on several key and enduring phenomena, including: tensions over modes of distribution; the significance of marijuana land transactions and agricultural practices; intermeshing of medical and 'recreational' marijuana markets; differing modes of governance; and biomedical vs. medicinal-herbal understandings of marijuana. The summation of these factors creates a picture of a regional economy in transformation with widespread implications for the War on Drugs, understandings of the relation between plants, medicine and the body, and the power of law and emergent modes of governance and political activism.
Polson, Michael. 2013. Land and Law in Marijuana Country: Clean Capital, Dirty Money, and the Drug War's Rentier Nexus. PoLAR: Political and Legal Anthropology Review. 36(2):215-230.
Faudree, Paja, U. of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA - To aid research on 'The Double-Edged Pen: Indigenous Language Literatures and Ethnic Identity among Mazatecs of Oaxaca, Mexico,' supervised by Dr. Gregory P. Urban
PAJA FAUDREE, then a student at University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, was awarded a grant in December 2001 to aid research on 'the Double-Edged Pen: Indigenous language Literatures and Ethnic Identity among Mazatecs of Oaxaca, Mexico,' supervised by Dr. Gregory P. Urban. In the interest of understanding why some social movements succeed where others fail, this study examined a particular type of cultural revitalization movement from southern Mexico. Centered on the creation and circulation of texts written in indigenous languages, such revitalization projects seek to reverse the effects of colonialism and nationalism on indigenous peoples and their languages. While such projects aimed at creating written indigenous literatures are extremely widespread, the vast majority have not gained grassroots appeal and remain of interest primarily to indigenous elites. By contrast, the project unfolding in the community studied here constitutes a popular success. A broad range of speakers of Mazatec (the local indigenous language) now writes poems, stories, and especially songs in their language. Musicians from across the region compete in the annual Day of the Dead Song Contest and in the cassette tape industry the contest has generated; even more local people use and, ultimately, perform these texts. In considering the case's relatively unusual success, this study explored the culturally specific ways that literacy and writing in Mazatec were introduced, thereby coupling them to quintessentially local, ethnically marked practices and values, especially those expressing homage to the dead through the vehicle of song.
Verinis, James Peter, Binghamton U., Binghamton, NY - To aid research on 'New Immigrant Farmers and the Globalization of the Greek Countryside,' supervised by Dr. Thomas M. Wilson
JAMES PETER VERINIS, then a student at Binghamton University, Binghamton, New York, was granted funding in October 2009, to aid research on 'New Immigrant Farmers and the Globalization of the Greek Countryside,' supervised by Dr. Thomas M. Wilson. Though Greek agriculture has served as the picture of rural underdevelopment in Europe, rural Greece is undergoing significant transformations. Immigrants play a diversity of socio-economic roles in farming communities experiencing a new global migratory context. They help define what agricultural [dis]incentives, environmental stewardship, social fabric, and territorial occupation mean in the countryside. With locals they co-manage tensions stemming from European rural development programs and global commodity markets. Scholarship largely reifies the conclusion that immigrants are merely transient, exploited laborers. In conjunction with macroeconomic analyses of rural 'stagnation,' such characterizations misrepresent current realities and undermine alternative potential forms of rural development in Greece. Fieldwork in rural villages in Laconia Prefecture of the Peloponnese, primarily in communities of olive growers, has served to undermine such misrepresentations. Participatory farming amongst Greek and non-Greek agriculturalists, in conjunction with related forms of ethnographic data gathered from various stakeholders, sheds light on a context allowing for immigrant integration and rural development as well as for xenophobia and 'resistance' to global capitalism. Contemporary globalized countrysides along the borders of Europe beg such fieldwork in order to evaluate current and potential paths based on new conceptual frameworks set by their new range of residents.