Sufrin, Carolyn Beth, U. of California, San Francisco, CA - To aid research on 'Negotiating 'Serious Medical Needs:' Medical Care, Carcerality, and Health Rights in a U.S. Women's Jail,' supervised by Dr. Vincanne Adams
CAROLYN B. SUFRIN, then a student at University of California, San Francisco, California, received funding in April 2012 to aid research on 'Negotiating 'Serious Medical Needs:' Medical Care, Carcerality, and Health Rights in a U.S. Women's Jail,' supervised by Dr. Vincanne Adams. This study investigated the everyday contours of care in an urban women's jail in northern California. At a time when structures of inequality are perpetuated by a retracted public safety net and an expanded incarceration system, it is notable that prisoners have a constitutional right to receive medical care. To explore the realities of this health care mandate, ethnographic fieldwork was conducted in a jail clinic, housing units, and surrounding community, with supplemental insights gained from the ethnographer's own experience as a practicing physician at the fieldsite. Unexpected relationships of care arose between incarcerated women, medical staff, and deputies; harsh discipline and compassionate care were inextricably linked in these forms of care. Reproduction was a key site where the deficiencies of public services and their substitution with incarceration were made visible. As pregnant women were nurtured and punished in the carceral environment, jail became a tragically desired and comforting place for some of them to inhabit. Their childbirth and motherhood were marked by further institutionalization, cycling through drug treatment programs and back to jail, making sites of care and confinement indistinguishable. Particularly for marginalized, reproducing women, jail has become an integral part of society's social and medical safety net.
Horne, Brian Arthur, U. of Chicago, Chicago, IL - To aid research on ''Save Our Souls': Russian Bards and the Sound of State Transformation,' supervised by Dr. Susan Gal
BRIAN A. HORNE, then a student at University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois, received funding in April 2008 to aid research on ''Save Our Souls:' Russian Bards and the Sound of State Transformation,' supervised by Dr. Susan Gal. This research project examines how Russian bardic song (bardovskaia pesnia), a formerly censored and unofficial cultural phenomenon of the late Soviet period, figures in the expression and contestation of different political histories and anxieties about changing sociopolitical conditions in Moscow. By examining the private commoditization, public memorialization and official valorization of bardic music today in public and private institutional sites of bardic music performance and commemoration, this research illuminates the often subtle ways in which personal and institutional positions about generational, social and political change are negotiated, experienced and reinscribed at the level of music, aesthetics, and affect. As formerly contraband music that circulated through underground exchange networks during the Soviet era, this genre now serves as a touchstone for interpersonal and national political understandings and arguments about the nature of the relationship between the Russian present, past and future, and broader discourses about the state and fate of Russia.
Montague, Michael James, New York U., New York, NY - To aid 'A Genetic Study of the Color Vision Polymorphism in Wild Squirrel Monkeys (Saimiri sciureus),' supervised by Dr. Anthony Francis Di Fiore
MICHAEL J. MONTAGUE, then a student at New York University, New York, New York, received an award in April 2008 to aid 'A Genetic Study of the Color Vision Polymorphism in Wild Squirrel Monkeys (Saimiri sciureus),' supervised by Dr. Anthony Di Fiore. Unlike African and Asian primates, South American primates do not routinely possess trichromatic color vision. The genetic mechanisms that underlie the vision of these primates allow some females to possess trichromatic vision, while other females (and all males) cannot visually differentiate red from green. Individuals from a population of wild squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus) in lowland Amazonian Ecuador were categorized according to visual type following a period of sample collection and behavioral observation. This research utilized the application of molecular techniques to extract genetic material from a total of 242 samples. Subsequent genetic screening allowed the assignment of 62 different individuals to either trichromacy or dichromacy, and preliminary analyses of the genetic results, combined with behavioral observations, demonstrated that the mean rate of insect foraging by known dichromatic females was significantly higher than that of known trichromatic females. Specifically, dichromatic females consumed grasshoppers, katydids, ants, cicadas and spiders at a higher rate compared with trichromatic females. These results indicate that alternative foraging strategies among the visual classes within the female sex are, in fact, discernible, which in turn, suggest that dichromatic vision, or color-'blindness', may provide female squirrel monkeys with distinct foraging skills, especially in terms of detecting and capturing camouflaged prey.
Chang, Abdul Haque, U. of Texas, Austin, TX - To aid research on ''Voices of Fishermen of the Indus Delta in National Water Governance and Environmental Narratives',' supervised by Dr. Kamran Asdar Ali
Preliminary abstract: This study will focus on how since Pakistan's independence in 194, irrigation systems, dam building, and water management in the Upper Punjab area have affected the lives of the Indus Delta's fishing community. Through an ethnographic study of three sites--Doulat Dablo, Keti Bandar, and Rehri Goth in the southern province of Sindh--I seek to document how the Delta population and the landscape has changed due to the implementation of the existing water management practices. Hence, this research will closely examine how state-sponsored projects initiated for 'the greater good' have ended up in sidelining the Delta fisher-folk community who have historically depended on the Indus water for their sustenance and livelihoods.
Shannon, Jennifer, Cornell U., Ithaca, NY - To aid 'Colloaborative Exhibit Making at the National Museum of the American Indian: An Ethnography of 'Our Lives',' supervised by Dr. Annelise Riles
JENNIFER SHANNON, then a student at Cornell University, Ithaca, New York, was awarded a grant in November 2004 to aid 'Colloaborative Exhibit Making at the National Museum of the American Indian: An Ethnography of 'Our Lives',' supervised by Dr. Annelise Riles. This project focused on exhibit making as a form of collaborative knowledge production that occurs both in the museum and in the Native American communities featured in the Our Lives inaugural exhibition about contemporary Native identities at the National Museum of the American Indian (NMAI). Taking seriously NMAI references to Native community members as 'co-curators,' this research project was a multi-sited ethnography of 'experts' (whether museum, design, or cultural). For comparative purposes, field work was conducted for six months each in three of ten communities involved in the making of the Our Lives exhibition: the museum professionals in Washington, DC; the Kalinago people in the Carib Territory on Dominica Island in the Caribbean; and, the American Indian community in Chicago, Illinois. Each community of expertise is a location where Native identity, the museum, and collaborative practice are approached and enacted differently. This research, then, brought into view how theoretical orientations to representation and identity are put into practice, and how anthropological discourse and methods circulate in these collaborative contexts.
Hammond, Ashley Suzanne, U. of Missouri, Columbia, MO - To aid research on 'Fossil Evidence for Hip Joint Mobility and the Evolution of Suspensory Locomotor Abilities in Hominoids,' supervised by Dr. Carol V. Ward
Preliminary abstract: Suspensory behaviors figure prominently in virtually all hypotheses related to the origins of bipedalism and great ape locomotor behaviors. However, the locomotion of fossil hominoids is poorly understood, primarily because fossil apes generally display combinations of post-cranial morphologies unlike those of living apes, highlighting the need for systems-based approaches. A mobile hip joint capable of high femoral abduction is a frequently cited indicator of suspensory abilities, as it is considered a necessary adaptation for negotiating below-branch environments. The proposed project seeks to quantify variation in hip abduction in both in vivo and skeletal samples of anthropoid primates in order to more fully understand the functional implications of combined femoral and pelvic morphology. The use of both in vivo and skeletal samples is an essential and innovative component of this project, as measurements taken on living primates will be used to validate the accuracy of 3D virtual models for reconstructing ranges of femoral motion. These 3D digital models will, for the first time, provide an informed context with which to understand the significance of Miocene hip joint morphology. This enhanced understanding of Miocene ape locomotor abilities will provide valuable contributions to a number of important theoretical issues.
Hammond, Ashley S., J. Michael Plavcan, and Carol V. Ward. 2013. Precision and Accuracy of Acetabular Size Measures in Fragmentary Hominin Pelves Obtained Using Sphere-Fitting Techniques. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 150(4):565-578.
Mancina, Peter Anthony, Vanderbilt U., Nashville, TN - To aid research on 'Sanctuary-power: Sanctuary City Governance and Undocumented Migrant Political Action in San Francisco, California,' supervised by Dr. Edward F. Fischer
PETER A. MANCINA, then a student at Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee, was awarded a grant in April 2011 to aid research on 'Sanctuary-Power: Sanctuary City Governance and Undocumented Migrant Political Action in San Francisco, California,' supervised by Dr. Edward F. Fischer. The grantee conducted archival research and ethnographic fieldwork over a two-year period to understand how San Francisco's 'sanctuary-city' policies and procedures are created, implemented, ethically imbued with new meaning, and contested and reformed. Research included working for nine months in San Francisco's City Hall in the office of District Supervisor David Campos to assist 'all residents regardless of immigration status' with their city government-related needs. It also consisted of ethnographic research conducted for a year and a half with a local coalition of immigrant advocates called the San Francisco Immigrant Rights Defense Committee, assisting them in their campaign to pass the 'Due Process for All Ordinance.' This sanctuary-city law approved by the San Francisco Board of Supervisors renders the 'Secure Communities' program (a federal immigrant detention and deportation program) inoperable in San Francisco jails and in Juvenile Hall. Finally, for seven months the grantee accompanied undocumented Tzeltal-Maya day laborers in their daily lives and assisted them in obtaining services from city government agencies. Findings indicate that institutional sanctuary serves a vital municipal governmental function that allows local services to operate efficiently and effectively, all the while inadvertently rendering more persistent the unequal power dynamic between undocumented immigrants and citizens.
Bovensiepen, Judith, London School of Economics, London, UK - To aid research on 'Tracing Fragmented Paths: Memories of Violence in the Reconstruction of East Timor,' supervised by Dr. Matthew Engelke
JUDITH BOVENSIEPEN, then a student at London School of Economics, London, United Kingdom, received funding in November 2005 to aid research on 'Tracing Fragmented Paths: Memories o Violence in the Reconstruction of East Timor,' supervised by Dr. Matthew Engelke. The research project consists of an ethnographic study of a remote mountain village in the central highlands of East Timor and is based on fieldwork that was carried out between November 2005 and August 2007. It is the first long-term anthropological study in this region and one of the first to be carried out in East Timor since independence. The primary focus is on the way local people have made sense of and have situated themselves towards various colonial intrusions (Portuguese colonialism and the Indonesian occupation) and the dramatic political changes at the national level, such as the recent internal conflict. The main goal of the research is an exploration of the interface between personal memories and collective representations and historical narratives. Historical memories and spiritual forces are considered to be embodied in physical objects and the study examines how the threat of losing these objects represents both a local mechanism of power and people's fear of further loss and exploitation.
Rost, Stephanie, Stony Brook U., Stony Brook, NY - To aid research on 'Irrigation and Political Centralization in the Ur III Period: The Case of the Province of Umma (Iraq),' supervised by Dr. Elizabeth C. Stone
STEPHANIE ROST, then a student at Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, New York, received a grant in October 2011 to aid research on 'Irrigation and Political Centralization in the Ur III Period: The Case of the Province of Umma (South Iraq),' supervised by Dr. Elizabeth C. Stone. The field work undertaken at the Oriental Institute (University of Chicago) entailed the collection and analysis of the core data set of the dissertation project consisting of administrative records on the management of ancient irrigation systems. The dissertation examines the degree of state involvement in irrigation management in the Umma province of the Ur III state (2100-2004 BC). The study of the Sumerian Irrigation Terminology was instrumental in understanding Ur III irrigation management as it allowed for a clear distinction between irrigation and water management. Water management in southern Iraq consists of carefully balancing the great fluctuation between low and high water levels of the twin river Euphrates and Tigris. The preliminary results show that state's involvement was concentrated on water management by heavily financing water level control devices. While these devices were designed to provide irrigation water, their main function consisted of keeping water levels stable for prolonged river transportation and flood control. This finding is confirmed by the preliminary results on the degree of states involvement in managing irrigation systems. State sponsored work was concentrated on the key points (i.e. primary, secondary level and flow dividers) while the tertiary and field level seemed to have been managed locally.
Gilbert, Hannah Nora, McGill U., Montreal, Canada - To aid research on 'From Laboratory to Clinic: An Ethnographic Examination of HIV Therapeutic Knowledge and Practice in Senegal,' supervised by Dr. Vinh-Kim Nguyen
HANNAH NORA GILBERT, then a student at McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada, was awarded funding in October 2006 to aid research on 'From Laboratory to Clinic: An Ethnographic Examination of HIV Therapeutic Knowledge and Practice in Senegal,' supervised by Dr. Vinh-Kim Nguyen. This research project is an ethnographic account of the process of HIV knowledge production in West Africa. Fieldwork was carried out in Dakar, Senegal over a period of fifteen months at a locally run laboratory and its partnering clinics. Senegal was selected because of the laboratory's international reputation, and the nation's position as a 'success story' in HIV prevention and care. The project explores the practices and politics behind Senegal's successful position, and asks how this role both encourages and restricts the possibilities for scientific study. It explores contemporary debates about HIV surveillance in order to study the politics of HIV rates and the relationship between international fundin