Pritzker, Sonya Elizabeth, U. of California, Los Angeles, CA - To aid research on 'Language Socialization and Ideologies of Translation in U.S. Chinese Medical Education,' supervised by Dr. Elinor Ruth Ochs
SONYA PRITZKER, then a student at University of California, Los Angeles, California, was awarded a grant in May 2007 to aid research on 'Language Socialization and Ideologies of Translation in U.S. Chinese Medical Education,' supervised by Dr. Elinor Ochs. This research looks at the role of language in the process by which English-speaking students in the U.S. learn to practice Chinese medicine, including acupuncture and herbal medicine. The research further places such learning in the broader socio-political and economic context of translation in Chinese medicine. Data consists of over ten months of classroom ethnography and person-centered interviews with students and teachers at a school of Chinese medicine in southern California, as well as interviews with translators and publishers of Chinese medical educational texts in the U.S. and China. Research findings demonstrate the daily enactment of a complex transnational linguistic, medical, and socio-cultural phenomenon impacting the way Chinese medicine is learned and practiced in an American context. Major themes emerging from the data point to the strong relationship between personal experiences of the self and linguistic choices in terms of translation and representation. The goal of the research is to build a further bridge between socio-cultural, psycho-cultural, and linguistic anthropology by showing the relationship between embodied personal experience and language in the highly contested, political economy of translation in U.S. Chinese medical education.
Gluck, Zoltan Kendrick, City U. of New York, Graduate Center, New York, NY - To aid research on 'Security and State Transformation: An Anthropology of Kenya's War on Terror (1998-2016),' supervised by Dr. Setha Low
Preliminary abstract: My project is a study of Kenya's 'war on terror,' examining how security practices and counterterrorism are affecting urban space and state power. In recent years Kenya has experienced a number of terrorist attacks that have profoundly impacted the country, placing security at the center of national politics and transforming the very institutions of state security. Through historic and ethnographic analysis of the effects of the 'war on terror' on urban spaces, state practices and institutions, I analyze the broader security-led transformation of Kenyan society. My project studies such processes through: (1) historical research on the evolution of Kenya's response to terrorism since the 1998 US Embassy bombings; (2) the legal and institutional reforms of the Kenyan security sector (3) the impacts of security practices and counterterrorism policing in the Nairobi neighborhood of Eastleigh.
Wellman, Rose Edith, U. of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA - To aid research on 'Blood, Food, and Sociality in Iran,' supervised by Dr. Susan McKinnon
ROSE EDITH WELLMAN, then a student at the University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia, was awarded funding in May 2010, to aid research on 'Blood, Food, and Sociality in Iran,' supervised by Dr. Susan McKinnon. This research investigates kinship and nation-making in post-revolutionary Iran. Drawing on ten months of ethnographic research in a small Iranian town and two months of popular media and archival research, it explores how Iranian kinship is created through the dynamic interaction of inheritable substances such as blood, acts of feeding and cooking, and Shi'i Islamic blessing -- here described as 'kindred Islamic spirit.' In addition, this research suggests that an understanding of Iranian kinship is critical to comprehending Iranian ideas about national sociality, which is similarly organized by the interaction of inheritable substance (e.g., martyr's blood), public and pious food sharing, and Islamic blessing. The researcher further addresses the hierarchical relationship of blood and food and the unique ability of each to channel blessing and shape moral kin and citizens. This research builds on recent theoretical and ethnographic work on the interrelationship between kinship and nation, and it provides a much-needed portrait of contemporary post-Revolutionary Iranian sociality.
Lamb, Celine C., U. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY - To aid research on 'Constructing Community and Complexity: Hinterland Interactions at the Ancient Maya Settlement of Crescencio, Mexico,' supervised by Dr. Scott R. Hutson
Preliminary abstract: This project assesses the complexity produced in the ancient Maya rural settlement of Crescencio during its occupation from the Late Preclassic to the Late Classic (BC300-AD1000), focusing on socioeconomic interactions among households. Drawing on theories of practice, this project will evaluate the degrees to which community cohesion and inequality existed in this settlement, and how these simultaneously constituted household material practices. To do so, pedestrian survey, spatial analysis of settlement patterns, and test pitting at nine architectural compounds will be used to address household physical integration and distinction over time. Broad-scale horizontal excavations at three of these structures will address how architecture, material possessions, and socioeconomic activities such as feasting and crafting (re)produced and constrained relations of sameness and difference. Ceramic attribute analysis will pay particular attention to how consumption underlined discursive and non-discursive expressions of affiliation and distinction. Studying the diverse relationships hinterland residents engaged in within and beyond their community reconciles agent- and institution-centered perspectives on social complexity and change. This also addresses mechanisms of social integration in societies without the techniques of governance of modern states. Finally, by focusing on how rural and commoner populations mobilize their relationships and identities to strategically negotiate their positions within larger social contexts, this project has the potential to broaden the contemporary.
Blajko, Anton Vyacheslavovich, Saint-Petersburg State U., Saint-Petersburg, Russia - To aid research on 'The Beginning of the Upper Paleolithic in the Northwestern Caucasus,' supervised by Dr. Lubov V. Golovanova
ANTON VYACHESLAVOVICH BLAJKO, then a student at St. Petersburg State University, St. Petersburg, Russia, received funding in May 2006 to aid research on 'The Begtinning of the Upper Paleolithic in the Northwestern Caucasus,' supervised by Dr. Lubov Vitalievna Golovanova. The beginning of the Upper Paleolithic is now one of the main issues of the Paleolithic research. Results of 2006 excavation in Korotkaya Cave, funded by the Wenner-Gren Foundation, allow making several conclusions: First, the early modem humans occupation of the Northwestern Caucasus is now presented more than one site known before in Mezmaiskaya Cave. In both caves, the EUP is dated more than 30.000 yr ago. Second, the EUP industry from Korotkaya Cave is similar to that from Mezmaiskaya. This data confirms that the EUP appeared in the Northwestern Caucasus as a completely formed Upper Paleolithic type industry based on blade and bladelet technology and bladelet dominated tool set. This EUP industry has no relationship with the local Middle Paleolithic like it is clearly different from typical Aurignacian. Third, the EUP industry in the Northwestern Caucasus has no analogies in Eastern Europe. In the Southern Caucasus, chronologically and typologically similar EUP assemblages are known in Dzudzuana Cave and Ortvale Klde rockshelter in Georgia. Among the EUP industries, the Levantine Ahmarian is most similar to the EUP in the Northwestern Caucasus. This allows hypothesizing about the West Asian origin of the early modern humans in the Northwestern Caucasus.
Paredes, Oona, Arizona State U., Tempe, AZ - To aid research on 'Converting Conflict: Religion and Raiding in Northeast Mindanao in the Early Colonial Period (1596-1811),' supervised by Dr. James F. Eder
OONA T. PAREDES, while a student at Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona, was awarded a grant in May 2004 to aid research on the impact of missionization on indigenous social organization in the southern Philippines during the early Spanish colonial period, supervised by Dr. James F. Eder. From July 2004 to April 2005, Paredes studied primary sources archived in manuscript, microfilm, and digitized formats, and housed in five different collections in the United States and Spain. The object of this ethnohistorical study was to understand how religious conversion in the sixteenth to nineteenth centuries, and the missionary presence in general, may have produced major changes in local warfare, settlement patterns, political interaction, and demography - and as a consequence significant transformations in ethnic identity - among non-Muslim peoples in northeast Mindanao. Data was collected from a wide range of original mission and colonial administration documents in Spanish, including: two centuries worth of notarized papers establishing the encomienda (land grant or trust) infrastructure of northeast Mindanao; petitions from local leaders (datu) negotiating vassalage with the King of Spain in exchange for military assistance; and reports of the ongoing conflicts with neighboring indigenous Muslims. Because they are routinely portrayed and treated as people who exist outside of the Philippine colonial experience - viz., meaningless to the nation's modern cultural milieu except as precolonial icons - a related aim of this study was to recognize the proper historical and cultural provenience of Mindanao's indigenous non-Muslim peoples, whose descendants now use the Cebuano term Lumad ('born from the earth') for self-reference.
Florin, Stephanie A., U. of Queensland, St. Lucia, Australia - To aid research on '50-60,000 Years of Plant and Landscape Use at Madjedbebe (Malakunanja II), Australia: An Ethnobotanical Approach,' supervised by Dr. Andrew F. Fairbairn
Preliminary abstract: My research aims to use the analysis of ancient plant remains from Madjedbebe (formerly known as Malakunanja II), Australia's oldest dated archaeological site, to test whether patterns of plant food exploitation over the last 50-60,000 years were driven by ecological cycles, as predicted by the dominant model of cultural change in Australian archaeology (Clarkson et al. 2015; Hiscock 2008; Roberts, Jones, and Smith 1990; Roberts et al. 1998). It advances the following two hypotheses, based in Human Behavioural Ecology theory: 1. During periods of low environmental productivity, such as the Last Glacial Maximum and the Marine Transgression, diet breadth and patch choice will expand to include resources with lower post-encounter return rates and less productive ecological zones, such as the sandstone escarpment and estuarine corridor; 2. In periods of high environmental productivity, diet breadth and patch choice will contract to only include plant resources with high post-encounter return rates and the most productive environments, such as forest and woodland, rainforest and freshwater vegetation. These two hypotheses will be tested against the archaeobotanical record from Madjedbebe. However, testing requires first understanding local resource availability and post-encounter return-rates. This is best developed by conducting ethnobotanical studies with the local Aboriginal community in combination with ecology, vegetation mapping and modelling of past vegetation communities. This study therefore aims to acquire such knowledge from Mirarr elders, whilst also documenting valuable ethnobotanical information for the community itself.
Strand, Thea Randina, U. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ - To aid 'Varieties in Dialogue: A Historical and Ethnographic Study of Dialect Use and Shift in Rural Norway,' supervised by Dr. Jane H. Hill
THEA R. STRAND, then a student at University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona, received funding in May 2007 to aid research on 'Varieties in Dialogue: A Historical and Ethnographic Study of Dialect Use and Shift in Rural Norway,' supervised by Dr. Jane H. Hill. This research investigates the relationships between dialect use, language ideologies, and rural identities in the rural Norwegian valley of Valdres, as well as the direction of contemporary local dialect shift relative to the competing written norms of Bokmål and Nynorsk. During ethnographic fieldwork in 2007-2008, recordings of dialect use were collected from metalinguistic interviews, casual conversations, theater performances, and national media appearances by dialect speakers. Based on these recordings, as well as participant observation, this study combines an analysis of dominant discourses and ideologies of language with the close linguistic analysis of accent and grammatical forms associated with the Valdres dialect. Additionally, a long-term historical perspective is incorporated in order to explore the ways in which the 150-year history of language planning and struggle in Norway has contributed to the development of the contemporary linguistic situation. While previous research in Valdres has indicated long-term change in the direction of normative, regional urban speech, a central finding of this study is that dialect change today appears to be multi-directional -- both toward standard, urban Norwegian, and, simultaneously, toward new, markedly rural forms. The latter kind of change is clearly supported by local ideologies that have recently revalued rural culture, identity, and language.
Karaca, Banu, City U. of New York Graduate Center, New York, NY - To aid research on 'Claiming Modernity through Aesthetics: A Comparative Look at Germany and Turkey,' supervised by Dr. Vincent Crapanzano
BANU KARACA, while a student at the Graduate Center, City University of New York, New York, received a grant to aid research on 'Claiming Modernity through Aesthetics: A Comparative Look At Germany and Turkey', supervised by Dr. Vincent Crapanzano. This comparative study is based on fieldwork conducted in the contemporary art scenes of Berlin and Istanbul. Drawing from interviews with artists, curators, critics, gallery directors, corporate sponsors, foundation and government officials, as well as observations at contemporary arts institutions, including each city's Biennial, and the analysis of cultural policy documents this research examines how divergent conceptions of art are mediated within the art world. Furthermore, this study centers on how modernization and nation-building processes in both Germany and Turkey impact the discourses, policies and practices in their present-day art scenes. In so doing, rather than asking questions about a Turkish or German 'kind of modernity' it aims to understand respective experiences and, most importantly, probe paradoxes of modernity through the lens of the arts. Paradoxes that manifest themselves, for instance, in tensions between the civic impact accorded to art and its pliability to market forces, and between understandings of art as a universally human and also particularly national expression.
Augustine, Jonah Michael, U. of Chicago, Chicago, IL - To aid research on 'The Aesthetic Constitution of Polity: Ceramic Production and Material Politics in the Tiwanaku Valley, AD 500-1100,' supervised by Dr. Alan L. Kolata
JONAH M. AUGUSTINE, then a student at University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois, was awarded a grant in April 2011 to aid research on 'The Aesthetic Constitution of Polity: Ceramic Production and Material Politics in the Tiwanaku Valley (AD 500-1100),' supervised by Dr. Alan L. Kolata. The central problem that this project examined was the relationship between aesthetics and politics within the ancient Andean polity Tiwanaku. Focusing on various locations within the Tiwanaku Valley, the project analyzed the iconographic characteristics of ceramics, one of the central media through which Tiwanaku images were presented. The preliminary results reveal that during the early phases of the polity, there were convergences between elite and non-elite iconography in the open areas of large-scale, urban rituals. This suggests that shared aesthetic experiences mediated disparate social positions and fostered bonds between groups. Beyond the city, it was noted that characteristic 'Tiwanaku' forms (i.e. those associated with the urban rituals) were reproduced in non-canonical ways. This indicates that the subjective experience of Tiwanaku was predicated on an active and perhaps playful engagement with Tiwanaku materiality. Finally, there was a decrease in the diversity of representational forms as the Tiwanaku polity became more rigidly hierarchical during later phases. This may reflect a tactic used by emergent elites to create a unified political imaginary within the valley. From these data, it is possible to better reconstruct the deeply important aesthetic dimension of Tiwanaku politics.