Hu, Di, U. of California, Berkeley, CA - To aid research on 'Daily Life, Domestic Labor Organization, and Identity at the Textile Workshop Community of Pomacocha, Peru,' supervised by Dr. Christine Ann Hastorf
DI HU, then a student at University of California, Berkeley, California, received funding in October 2010 to aid research on 'Daily Life, Domestic Labor Organization, and Identity at the Textile Workshop Community of Pomacocha, Peru,' supervised by Dr. Christine A. Hastorf. Through a historical and archaeological investigation of a Late Horizon 'mitimae' (Inka retainer) site and a major Spanish colonial era 'obraje' (textile workshop) in Pomacocha, this project asks whether there was a decline in the importance of Inka and pre-Inka forms of identification and social cohesion. To trace the relationship between imposed forms of labor organization and domestic (i.e. non-imposed) forms of labor organization from the Inka through the Spanish colonial eras, excavations were carried out in three sectors of the Pomacocha: the mitimae settlement, the obraje, and the historic residential area. Preliminary analysis of organization of domestic space, archival, ceramic, faunal, lithic, and botanical data suggests that there was more spatial prescription of domestic tasks through time. This suggests that the extreme division of labor of the obraje may have influenced the organization of domestic space in the historic-period community. Increasing spatial prescription of domestic tasks continues to the present day and may have accelerated after the overthrow of the obraje turned hacienda in 1962. While Inka and pre-Inka period forms of identification and social cohesion may have declined in the colonial and post-colonial period, other social divisions organized around labor and class became more salient in the community.
Morehart, Christopher T., Northwestern U., Evanston, IL - To aid research on 'Agricultural Landscapes and Political Economy at Xaltocan, Mexico,' supervised by Dr. Elizabeth M. Brumfiel
CHRISTOPHER T. MOREHART, then a student at Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois, received funding in May 2007 to aid research on 'Agricultural Landscapes and Political Economy at Xaltocan, Mexico,' supervised by Dr. Elizabeth M. Brumfiel. Understanding the intersection between farming households, the state, and intermediate social relationships is central to the anthropological and archaeological study of agriculture. This project examined these issues by examining the creation, persistence, and decline of chinampa agriculture at Xaltocan, Mexico. Drawing on multiple data sources, this work articulated chinampa farming with the configurations of political, economic, social, demographic, and ecological factors that shaped the trajectory of this landscape. Xaltocan was a kingdom that developed in the Early and Middle Postclassic periods in central Mexico. By the Late Postclassic period, however, Xaltocan was conquered and its status as an independent political center had collapsed. Archaeological data indicate that intensive agriculture was contemporaneous with the political independence of Xaltocan. When Xaltocan's political system collapsed, however, chinampa farming was abandoned. This pattern does not indicate unequivocally that the state controlled agriculture but does suggest that farmers and their cooperative relationships were conditioned by its political stability. Investigations at a shrine in the farming system, by contrast, revealed ritual continuity despite dramatic social, political, and cultural change. This shrine helps reveal how ritual was integrated into changing historical circumstances as well as how people may have re-interpreted the pre-existing landscape.
Morehart, Christopher T. 2012. What if the Aztec Empire Never Existed? The Prerequisites of Empire and the Politics of Plausible Alternative Histories. American Anthropologist 114(2):267-281.
Morehart, Christopher T., Abigail Meza Peñaloza, Carlos Serrano Sánchez, et al. 2012. Human Sacrifice during the Epiclassic Period in the Northern Basin of Mexico. Latin American Antiquity 23(4):426-448.
Chen, Junjie, U. of Illinois, Urbana, IL - To aid research on 'When the State Claims the Intimate: Population Control and Constructions of Rural Identity in China,' supervised by Dr. Alma Gottlieb
JUNJIE CHEN, then a student at University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois, received funding in June 2004 to aid research on 'When the State Claims the Intimate: Population Control and Constructions of Rural Identity in China,' supervised by Dr. Alma Gottlieb. This dissertation fieldwork project explores how a prolonged series of discursive constructions of peasants as 'backward' subjects by the Chinese government has served to legitimize the state's sustained intrusion into the seemingly private event of reproduction in rural China, and in turn how rural residents respond to and interpret this intrusion. The fieldwork was conducted in and around a multi-ethnic Manchu-Han village in northeastern China from July 2004 to August 2005. Data was collected mainly through intensive interviews, participant observation, and household surveys. Reading villagers' subjective experiences of reproduction against the state's hegemonic claims in shaping rural lives, this project aims to chart how rural citizens think about, talk about, and manage their fertility strategies and habits in the face of the state's continuing claims on their most intimate practices. In so doing, this project further explores complex situations and predicaments that both Manchu and Han peasants have faced, and continue to face, due to the state's sustained intrusion into the private event of reproduction at the intersection of gender, class, ethnicity, and urban-rural spaces over the past three decades.
Sherwood, Chet C., Columbia U., New York, NY - To aid research on 'Neural Mechanisms of Primate Communication: A Comparative Study of Facial and Hypoglossal Nuclei,' supervised by Dr. Ralph L. Holloway
CHET C. SHERWOOD, while a student at Columbia University in New York, New York, received funding in July 2001 to aid research on neural mechanisms of primate communication, under the supervision of Dr. Ralph L. Holloway. Many of primate species' diverse communication strategies entail skilled motor control of orofacial muscles for the production of facial expressions, vocalizations, and, in humans, speech. Sherwood investigated possible neural substrates of species-specific modes of communication by using comparative, quantitative histological methods to study the brain regions centrally involved in orofacial motor control: the trigeminal motor nucleus, the facial nucleus, the hypoglossal nucleus of the brain stem, and the primary motor cortex. Analyses of allometric scaling and phylogenetic independent contrasts were used to test for anatomical specializations of the orofacial motor nuclei. Results showed that several of their structural features, including nucleus volume, neuron number, and neuropil space, were highly correlated with medulla and brain volume. There was little evidence that interspecific variation in the cytoarchitectural organization of these motor nuclei reflected specialization for facial expression or human speech. In contrast, the microstructure of the primary motor cortex exhibited several phylogenetic differences. Compared with the primary motor cortexes of the Old World monkeys examined, those of great apes and humans were characterized by increased thickness of superficial cortical layers, decreased neuron packing density, and increased proportions of subsets of pyramidal neurons enriched in neurofilament protein and certain inhibitory interneuron subtypes. These modifications of the primary motor cortex may underlie the enhanced mobility and voluntary control of orofacial muscles in the facial expressions of great apes and humans.
Sherwood, Chet, P. Hof, R. Holloway, K. Semendeferi, P. Gannon, H. Frahm, and K. Zilles. 2005. Evolution of the Brainstem Orofacial Motor System in Primates: a Comparative Study of Trigeminal, Facial, and Hypoglossal Nuclei. Journal of Human Evolution 48:45-84.
Sherwood, Chet C., Mary Ann Raghanti, and Jeffrey J. Wenstrup. 2005. Is Humanlike Cytoarchitectural Asymmetry Present in another Species with Complex Social Vocalization? A Stereologic Analysis of Mustached Bat Auditory Cortex. Brain Research 1045:164-174.
Sherwood, Chet C. 2005. Comparative Anatomy of the Facial Motor Nucleus in Mammals, With an Analysis of Neuron Numbers in Primates. The Anatomical Record 287(A):1067-1079.
Sherwood, Chet C., and Kimberly Phillips. 2005. Primary Motor Cortex Asymmetry is Correlated with Handedness in Capuchin Monkeys (Cebus paella). Behavioral Neuroscience 119(6):1701-1704.
Sherwood, Chet C., and Patrick R. Hof. 2005. Morphomolecular Neuronal Penotypes in the Neocortex Reflect Phylogenetic Relationships among Certain Mammalian Orders. The Anatomical Record 287(A):1153-1163.
Sherwood, Chet. C., et al. 2006. Evolution of Increased Glia-Meuron Ratios in the Human Frontal Cortex. PNAS
2006, Vol. 103, No. 37.
Sherwood, Chet C., Mary Ann Raghanti, Cheryl D. Stimpson, et al. 2007. Scaling of Inhibitory Interneurons in Areas V1 and V2 of Anthropoid Primates as Revealed by Calcium-Binding Protein Immunohistochemistry. Brain, Behavior and
Sherwood, Chet, Kimberley Phillips and Alayna Lilak. 2007. Corpus Collosum Morphology in Capuchin Monkeys Is Influenced by Sex and Handedness. PloS ONE 2(8): 1-7.
Sherwood, Chet, Elizabeth Wahl, Joseph Erwin, et al. 2007. Histological Asymmetries of Primary Motor Cortex Predict Handedness in Chimpanzees (Pan Troglodytes). The Journal of Comparartive Neurology 503:
Phillips, Kimberly and Chet Sherwood. 2007 Cerebral Petalias and Their Relationship to Handedness in Capuchin Monkeys (Cebus Apella). Neuropsychologia 45 (2007): 2398-2401.
Hare, Elizabeth Maree, U. of California, Santa Cruz, CA - To aid research on 'Haunting the Future: Tracing the Production of Climate Forecast Models,' supervised by Dr. Andrew S. Mathews
Preliminary abstract: This project aims to further understanding of climate science through an ethnographic investigation of the development of a regional forecast model. I will conduct one year of fieldwork among an interdisciplinary network of climate scientists who are working to strengthen the validity of simulation models using high-resolution paleoecological data. This fieldwork will allow me to follow the process of developing a model, including both the material practices and the experiential and embodied knowledge that are necessary for successfully translating a landscape into computer code. This research will be attentive to political concerns as a part of the knowledge making process, rather than assume they are corruptive. The resulting ethnography will strengthen the claims of mainstream climate science by showing how it works to produce robust information through the interface of scientific objects, models, and political concern.
Marshall, Maureen Elizabeth, U. of Chicago, Chicago, IL - To aid research on 'Political Subjects: Movement, Mobility, and Emplacement in Late Bronze Age (1500-1250 BC) Societies in Armenia,' supervised by Dr. Adam Thomas Smith
MAUREEN E. MARSHALL, then a student at University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois, was awarded funding in October 2010 to aid research on 'Political Subjects: Movement, Mobility, and Emplacement in the Late Bronze Age (1500-1200 BC) Societies in Armenia, ' supervised by Dr. Adam T. Smith. In traditional models of the emergence of early complex polities, centralized political authority is understood to have developed slowly from an agrarian subsistence base predicated upon a stable settled population that provides the necessary intensive labor. Yet, Bronze Age societies in the South Caucasus seem to have experienced a different process. The dissertation research project thus examined the residential movements and geographic origins of subjects within early complex polities in the LBA South Caucasus through a combination of stable isotope analyses including strontium (87Sr/86Sr), trace element concentrations, carbon and oxygen (?13C and ?18O) carbonates, and carbon and nitrogen (?13C and ?15N) collagen. These analyses provide information on three types of movement: namely post-mortem movement, residential mobility, and movement in relation to dietary regimes. Such a combined approach to movement will provide a detailed basis for discussing how subjects experienced the socio-political landscape as extremely local (buried in the same place that they lived), as differentiated in death (moved to certain areas for burial), or as more open (moved residential locations during their lives). The research thus contributes to anthropological theories of early complex polities, political subjects, and mobility, by focusing on individual subject's practices and experiences of movement and emplacement.
Brandisauskas, Donatas, Aberdeen U., Aberdeen, UK - To aid research on 'Beliefs and Practices among Hunters and Gatherers in the Zabaikalja Region, Russia,' supervised by Dr. David G. Anderson
DONATAS BRANDISAUSKAS, then a student at Aberdeen University, Aberdeen, Scotland, received funding in January 2005 to aid research on 'Beliefs and Practices among Hunters and Gatherers in the Zabaikalja Region, Russia,' supervised by Dr. David G. Anderson. Ethnographic research was conducted among Orochen-Evenki hunters' and reindeer herders' communities from January to December 2005 in the northern part of Chita district and Buriatiia Republic in Eastern Siberia (Russia). The research explored how Orochen relationship between cosmology and environment has changed because of external stresses such as the establishment of the Soviet! Post-Soviet policies. It focused on the everyday activities and discourses of indigenous Siberians as they hunt, herd reindeer, and fish to explore the concept of 'odiun.' (master, ruler) which is crucial to understanding the way in which the indigenous relate to places. 'Odiun' is a 'root metaphor' for the social power configuration of the world in Orochen realities that is also found widely throughout Siberian natives. 'Odiun' can designate spiritual entities like the masters of mountains, lakes, or rivers and it can be explained as a 'ruler' or a 'host' of a particular place, referring to any sentient being. Research discovered that 'masterhood' can be used as analytical concept to tie together many disparate concepts such as cosmological knowledge, power, perception of landscape and animals, and recent political discourses. It can serve as excellent explanatory concept crucial to many Asian societies.
Rubin, Jonah S., U. of Chicago, Chicago, IL - To aid research on 'Re-membering the Spanish Civil War: Thanatopolitics and the Making of Modern Citizens in Spain,' supervised by Dr. Jean Comaroff
JONAH S. RUBIN, then a student at University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois, received a grant in May 2010 to aid research on 'Re-Membering the Spanish Civil War: Thanatopolitics and the Making of Modern Citizens in Spain,' supervised by Dr. Jean Comaroff. This research project consisted of a multi-sited ethnographic study of the Spanish historical memory movements, a loose conglomeration of NGOs, academics, and individuals dedicated to locating, exhuming, and honoring Republican and civilian victims of the Spanish Civil War. It sought to answer: What is meant by the term 'historical memory' as it is deployed on the ground? How do the memory movements go about the work of re-membering and honoring the dead? What is the place of the dead in the formation of a liberal-democratic polity? Answering these questions required research at diverse sites where the work of re-membering the dead takes place. These included exhumations and reburials of victims, weekly protests demanding government action on behalf of the disappeared, NGO offices dedicated to investigating the fate of the deceased, formal and inform education programs, state archives, and a wide variety of ceremonies, public lectures, and conferences organized by the movements. Ultimately, this research seeks to empirically demonstrate that, even in the context of regime change, the crimes of past regimes continue to effect the nation in complex, but discernable ways. While remembering the dead is certainly not a straightforward matter of reconstructing the past, it is through this work that ideals of citizenship and democracy are worked out.
Glotzer, Louis Daniel, U. of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA - To aid research on 'Diffeomorphic Analysis of Human Prenatal Neuroanatomy: A Quantitative Assessment of Morphogenetic Patterns in the Developing Neocortex,' supervised by Dr. Theodore Schurr
LOUIS D. GLATZER, then a student at University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, was awarded funding in November 2006 to aid resarch on 'Diffeomorphic Anlysis of Human Prenatal Neuroanatomy: A Wuantitative Assessment of Morphogenetic Patterns in the Developing Neocortex,' supervised by Dr. Theodore Schurr. The aim of this project is to investigate the spatio-temporal pattern of cell proliferation (morphogenesis) that partitions the human neocortex, pre-natally, into what is understood post-natally, as functionally distinct cortical divisions. A developmental delineation of these units is central for understanding how the neocortex was transformed evolutionarily, and how evolved cognitive-behavioral adaptations are mapped-out in its architecture. This project develops an innovative digital, histology-based, 4-dimensional model that reveals, visually and mathematically, the morphogenesis of the embryonic brain. 40 serially sectioned embryonic specimens were acquired at high resolution from the National Museum of Health and Medicine. Specimens have been reconstructed, computationally, in three dimensions. Custom image registration algorithms have been used to detect and mathematically characterize morphogenesis between specimens at different stages of development, and to graphically recover the assumed developmental trajectory between disjointed different stage specimens. A demonstration of this approach, with preliminary results for both quantification and interpolation, was presented at the 2007 American Association of Physical Anthropology Meeting. Final analysis of the data is currently underway and will be published in due time.
Yukleyen, Ahmet, Boston U., Boston, MA - To aid research on 'Sources of Tolerance and Radicalism among Islamic Organizations in Europe,' supervised by Dr. Jenny B. White
AHMET YUKLEYEN, while a student at Boston University in Boston, Massachusetts, received an award in June 2003 to aid research on Islamic organizations in Europe, under the supervision of Dr. Jenny B. White. Transnational Islamic organizations in western Europe do not simply transplant religious extremism from their countries of origin. Rather, they play an intermediary role, negotiating between the social and religious needs of Muslims and the socioeconomic, legal, and political context of Europe. The diverse forms of religiosity institutionalized by Turkish-Islamic organizations permited a comparative analysis of this intermediary role. Yukleyen looked at the internal dynamics-religious authority, primary field of activism, and boundary maintenance-of three such organizations: Milli Gorus, representing political Islamism; Suleymanli, a branch of the Naqshibandiyya Sufi order; and the Nur movement, a piety-oriented da'wa (missionary) movement. Religious authority involved individuals, positions, and actions that represented collective identity and preserved group cohesion by controlling and disciplining members and dropouts-that is, through boundary making. Each group's field of activism-politics, education, or religious instruction-promoted the type of knowledge embodied by the religious authorities and distributed through boundary making. Redefinitions of religious concepts such as hijrah, jihad, and neighborly relations created a Muslim sense of belonging to the European home. Overall, a comparative analysis of the internal dynamics of transnational Islamic organizations yielded a fuller understanding of their roles in the production and dissemination of Islamic knowledge and practice in western Europe.