Starzmann, Maria Theresia, State U. of New York, Binghamton, NY - To aid research on 'Embodied Knowledge and Community Practice: Stone Tool Production at FistiKi Höyük,' supervised by Dr. Reinhard W. Bernbeck
MARIA STARZMANN, then a student at State University of New York, Binghamton, New York, was awarded a grant in April 2008 to aid research on 'Embodied Knowledge and Community Practice: Stone Tool Production at Fistikli Höyük,' supervised by Dr. Reinhard W. Bernbeck. Based on an intensive study of close to 14,000 lithic artifacts, it was the goal of this research project to analyze the technological organization of stone tool production at the 6thmillennium BCE site of Fistikli Höyük in southeastern Turkey. Funding supported the research phase when detailed data on individual pieces of lithic manufacturing debris and tools were recorded in order to document the technological practices involved in Halaf lithic production. Going beyond the established categories of formal artifact typologies, both metric and non-metric attributes (type of retouch, usewear, termination, etc.) have been recorded. The evaluation of these data involves analyses of debitage as well as tool standardization and possible forms of spatial segregation within the site and across occupational phases. Similar technological practices -- indicated by artifact standardization and spatial associations -- are understood as the result of shared embodied practices of craft production constitutive of 'communities of practice.' Results thus far indicate an expedient lithic technology with a high level of technological variety. After completion of this project, research results shall be shared with the wider academic community as well as the local public in southeastern Turkey in the form of a small museum exhibit.
Hubbard, Edward A., Harvard U., Cambridge, MA - To aid research on 'Performing Multiple Creolities in Cape Verde: A Three-Island Ethnography,' supervised by Dr. Mary M. Steedly
EDWARD A. HUBBARD, then a student at Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts, received funding in October 2007 to aid research on 'Performing Multiple Creolities in Cape Verde: A Three-Island Ethnography,' supervised by Dr. Mary M. Steedly. The aim of this fieldwork was the collection of ethnographic data in the Cape Verde archipelago that illustrate the cultural dynamics of creolization. A 'creolized' society is a hybrid product of two or more distinct peoples who have experienced an extended period of contact and synthesis, usually marked by a history of inequality between them. Cape Verdean society is the product of the creolization of enslaved Africans and Portuguese colonizers. The researcher focused on three Cape Verdean performance modes, each one unique to its island setting: 1) a burgeoning musical movement on the island of Santiago that is said to be a 'modernization' of the African features of Cape Verdean culture; 2) a tradition on the island of São Vicente, of telling jokes whose effect is contingent upon negative stereotypes of the presumed Africanness of people from Santiago; and 3) on the island of Fogo, a nocturnal masquerade called kanizadi, that dramatizes certain fears and anxieties related to creolization. These performances and the cultural politics they dramatize are a reflection of the creole condition; one can perceive in them a definite logic of ascribed status as well as historical traces of racial hierarchy, conflict, and anxiety.
Montoya, Teresa, New York U., New York, NY - To aid research on 'Differential Sovereignties: An Anthropology of Navajo Futures,' supervised by Dr. Fred Myers
Preliminary abstract: This dissertation is an ethnographic exploration of the existential dilemmas of everyday life on the Navajo Nation as they play out across two distinct modes of 'relatedness.' Specifically, my research examines the continuities and tensions between 'political sovereignty' and the Navajo cultural ideal of 'K'e' that inform community building efforts in two Navajo communities: Pine Springs and Nahata Dziil. By investigating how both the central Navajo Nation government and local communities imagine and enact these values in projects of communal development, my work will explore a complex gradient of 'sovereignty'-- from individual desires to collective aspirations and ultimately the Navajo Nation's articulation with national and international projects of Indigeneity. What is at stake in these under-recognized community processes will advance our understanding--of Navajo and anthropologists alike--of theory and policy, politics and persons. More broadly, this work is intended to illuminate new developments in Indian Country around the increasingly polysemic and multifarious expressions of sovereignty in tribal and community politics--what I term, 'differential sovereignties.'
Collins, Benjamin Robert, McGill U., Montreal, Canada - To aid research on 'Middle Stone Age Subsistence Strategies during the late MSA at Sibudu Cave, South Africa,' supervised by Dr. Andre Costopoulos
BENJAMIN ROBERT COLLINS, then a student at McGill University, Montreal, Canada, was awarded funding in May 2010, to aid research on 'Middle Stone Age Subsistence Strategies during the late MSA at Sibudu Cave, South Africa,' supervised by Dr. Andre Costopoulos. This research project was designed to collect data for a taphonomic analysis and a re-examination of the unidentifiable portion of the faunal assemblages from the late (~48,000 years ago) and final (~38,000 years ago) Middle Stone Age layers of Sibudu Cave, South Africa. These periods present a shift in the faunal assemblages through time that are the result of changes in human subsistence patterns. Understanding the nature of this shift is the focus of this research. The recently completed fieldwork portion of this study has generated data that can now be used to assess how the interplay of social, technological, and environmental factors contributed to changes in the range and abundance of fauna available, which fauna were hunted, changes in the climate and landscape, and changing demographic pressures. It is hypothesised that all of these factors would have all contributed to the observed changes in subsistence patterns. The data that has been collected will allow for an analysis of the extent to which each factor impacted the past foragers and affected cultural change. This research will therefore contribute to understanding the behavioral variability that characterizes the late Middle Stone Age and test the notion of a transition to the Later Stone Age.
Schwoerer, Tobias, U. of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland - To aid research on 'Processes of Pacification in the Eastern Highlands of Papua New Guinea,' supervised by Dr. Jurg Helbling
TOBIAS SCHWOERER, then a student at University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland, received funding in November 2005 to aid research on 'Processes of Pacification in the Eastern Highlands of Papua New Guinea,' supervised by Dr. Jurg Helbling. This research analyzed the processes leading to the elimination of traditional warfare in the Eastern Highlands of Papua New Guinea under Australian colonial rule. Fieldwork was undertaken in four communities among three different ethno-linguistic groups in the Okapa and Obura-Wonenara districts, exploring variations in political dynamics, methods of conflict settlement and patterns of warfare between the communities, and evaluating group-specific social, political and cultural norms that shaped different responses to pacification. Through oral history interviews with eyewitnesses of the colonial period, it became clear that the forms, conduits and results of intercultural interactions between the inhabitants of the four communities and representatives of the colonial administration were central elements in the process, so were informal judicial institutions and their role in either successfully preventing inter-group violence in one area or failing in the other. Modalities and intensity of warfare, styles of political leadership as well as traditional methods of peace settlement all had a significant impact on the trajectory of pacification. Fieldwork was supplemented by archival research in the National Archives of Papua New Guinea and Australia, as well as through interviews with retired colonial officers to further contextualize data from the field. This study illuminates the 'indigenous articulations' of colonial history - the perspective of indigenous witnesses and participants who experienced the transition from traditional warfare to colonial peace and (in some communities at least) back to 'tribal fighting' today.
Harris, Shana Lisa, U. of California, San Francisco, CA - To aid research on 'Out of Harm's Way: HIV, Human Rights, and the Practice of Harm Reduction in Argentina,' supervised by Dr. Judith C. Barker
SHANA HARRIS, then a student at University of California, San Francisco, California, received funding in May 2007 to aid research on 'Out of Harm's Way: HIV, Human Rights, and the Practice of Harm Reduction in Argentina,' supervised by Dr. Judith C. Barker. Argentina has had one of the highest rates of drug use-related HIV/AIDS prevalence in Latin America since the mid-1990s. After witnessing the failure of the government's drug abstinence-based interventions in curbing the epidemic, local civil society organizations began promoting interventions based on the principles of harm reduction. This dissertation examines how the harm reduction model traveled to and spread within Argentina by ethnographically tracing how it has been taken up and put into practice over the last decade by civil society organizations in the cities of Buenos Aires and Rosario. It focuses on how harm reductionists address not only the physical harms associated with drug use, but also those harms created by punitive, prohibitionist policies and widespread discrimination. Specifically, Argentine harm reductionists utilize the notions of 'vulnerability' and 'exclusion' to facilitate drug users' access to health and social services and to promote and protect users' human and civil rights. Drawing on the country's history of human rights abuses and economic instability, harm reductionists work to advance the idea of drug users as 'right bearers' in order to hold the state accountable for users' health and welfare and to shift the subjectivity of users from 'delinquents' to 'citizens.'
Marko, Ferenc, David, Central European U., Budapest, Hungary - To aid research on 'Red Tape Theater: The Creation of Citizens and Sovereignty in South Sudan,' supervised by Dr. Dan Rabinowitz
FERENC MARKO, then a graduate student at Central European University, Budapest, Hungary, was awarded funding in October 2012 to aid research on 'Red Tape Theater: The Creation of Citizens and Sovereignty in South Sudan,' supervised by Dr Dan Rabinowitz. This research investigated the bureaucratization of the state and the creation of the institution of citizenship in South Sudan. By focusing on the process of the documentation of the South Sudanese citizenry, the research asked: how is citizenship imagined, improvised, and performed? Furthermore, as the majority of the citizenship-applicants hold no reliable documentary evidence to prove their cases, the meaning of evidence was critically scrutinized as well. To answer the initial questions, the grantee carried out ethnographic fieldwork at the central citizenship office for eleven months, focusing on the daily bureaucratic practice. The ethnography of the citizenship office was supplemented by interviews with successful and unsuccessful applicants as well as with people involved in the application-process, such as professional fixers and forgers, 'traditional' chiefs, civil society activists, and church leaders. The study will contribute to the ethnography of South Sudan and Central Africa generally, and will develop our theoretical understanding of bureaucracy and citizenship.
Cabrera Cortes, Mercedes O., Arizona State U., Tempe, AZ - To aid research on 'Craft Production in the Periphery of Teotihuacan, Mexico,' supervised by Dr. George L. Cowgill
MERCEDES O. CABRERA CORTES, then a student at Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona, was awarded a grant in August 2004, to aid research on 'Craft Production in the Periphery of Teotihuacan, Mexico,' supervised by Dr. George L. Cowgill. Between October 7, 2004, and August 31, 2006, archaeological investigations including surface survey (mapping, and surface materials collection), excavations (100 m²), and subsequent artifact analysis were carried out at Site 520, Teotihuacan, Mexico, to collect data bearing on socio-economic interaction between the inhabitants of semi-rural hinterland settlements and Classic Period Teotihuacan. Site 520 is a Teotihuacan Period ceramic production workshop located in the city's semi-rural periphery, a short distance outside of the ancient prehispanic city of Teotihuacan (150 BC-AD 600). This project investigates the degree to which and in what ways the inhabitants of Site 520 were integrated economically and socially with the urban capital. Field and laboratory work confirmed that peoples from this site were engaged in ceramic production at a scale that would have surpassed local domestic demands-ceramic products made at Site 520 most likely were consumed by inhabitants of the ancient urban center. While the analysis of artifacts has not yet been completed, preliminary evidence suggests that occupants of Site 520 , settlers living outside he margins of the city, used ceramic production as an inroad into the core economic activities of urban Teotihuacan. Funerary patterns and portable artifacts (e.g., figurines, ceramic vessels, and obsidian tools) indicate that the inhabitants of this settlement were to some extent socially and culturally integrated with peoples living within the city, and had access to some of the same imported goods as people living in the urban center. Architectural remains, on the other hand, strongly contrast with the residential forms most typical of urban Teotihuacan.
Rogers, Juliette R., Brown U., Providence, RI - To aid research on 'The Politics and Power of Food: Norman Cheese, French Identity, and the Creation of 'Europeans',' supervised by Dr. David I. Kertzer
JULIETTE R. ROGERS, then a student at Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island, received funding in May 2004 to aid research on 'The Politics and Power of Food: Norman Cheese, French Identity, and the Creation of 'Europeans',' supervised by Dr. David I. Kertzer. Research was conducted between September 2004 and August 2005, based in Normandy, France. The objectives were to understand the functioning of political influence of a nationally recognized regional industry in the evolving European context, and to assess the extent to which European Union policy bore on the regional, national, or European self-identification of actors in that industry. Fieldwork consisted of participant observation and interviews with people active in the cheese industry of the region (which produces name-controlled AOC Livarot, Camembert de Normandie, and Pont-l'Eveque cheeses) including dairy farmers, cheesemakers, agricultural consultants, government inspectors and functionaries, elected officials, agricultural and cheese unions, and personally invested private citizens. Extending the enquiry to ascertain French and European levels of influence, officials and dairy industry employees in Paris and Brussels contributed new perspectives on motives for policy and regulatory change and how they are translated from one level to the next. Unsurprisingly, the concerns, stakes, goals, and restraints changed at each step of policy (and cheese) production, revealing the complexity of agricultural, health, and cultural policy as it passes from the local to regional, national, European, and international scales. Important issues to emerge from fieldwork include the politics and economics of name-controlled foods at all levels, internal French conflicts between widely cited cultural habits and 'mentalities' and their decline in actual practice, access to political and regulatory information and how that relates to the exercise of power, and the tension between cultural ideals and commercial realities.
Gomes, Cristina M., Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, Leipzig, Germany - To aid research on 'The Dynamics of Social Exchanges in Wild Chimpanzees of the Tai Forest, Cote d'Ivoire,' supervised by Dr. Christophe Boesch
CRISTINA M. GOMES, then a student at Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, Leipzig, Germany, was awarded a grant in June 2004 to aid research on 'The Dynamics of Social Exchanges in Wild Chimpanzees of the Tai Forest, Cote d'Ivoire,' supervised by Dr. Christophe Boesch. This project investigates the dynamics of social exchanges in female and male wild chimpanzees of the Taï National Park (Côte d'Ivoire), by considering grooming, aggression, aggressive support, food sharing and copulations as commodities that can be traded between individuals in a biological market. Data on these and other social interactions were collected in the South Community of the Tai Chimpanzee Project, between July 2004 and February 2006. Information collected was used to construct giver and receiver matrices to test hypotheses of general and direct reciprocity. Preliminary analysis showed that chimpanzees in the Taï Forest did not follow a general rule of directing grooming more frequently towards those with whom they associated the most or those of the same rank or age class. However, both female and male chimpanzees gave more grooming to those individuals from whom they received more grooming in return. This finding supports the hypothesis that wild chimpanzees exchange social acts such as grooming for grooming, suggesting that such exchanges could be part of a more complex biological market, where other commodities are exchanged. Further analysis will be done to investigate if other social acts such as food sharing, copulation and support are exchanged between and within sexes and if these are affected by market pressures.