Arenas, Ivan, U. of California, Berkeley, CA - To aid research on 'Oaxaca at the Crossroads: Space, Future, and the Modern Mexican Imagination', supervised by Dr. Alexei Yurchak
IVAN ARENAS, then a student at University of California, Berkeley, California, received funding in May 2007 to aid research on 'Oaxaca at the Crossroads: Space, Future, and the Modern Mexican Imagination,' supervised by Dr. Alexi Yurchak. Oaxaca made headlines in 2006 as repression of a teacher's strike rapidly became a broader social movement. The Popular Assembly of the Peoples of Oaxaca (APPO) took over radio stations to broadcast their political messages and used barricades to block streets and take over the city's historic center. Protesters drew on local histories of the past that are grounded in the spaces of the city to articulate a vision of a radically different future. As the APPO's self-conscious project for socio-political transformation demonstrates, narratives and imaginations of the past are anchored in the spaces of the present and help to construct national and individual identities and imagined futures. Here, in 18 months of fieldwork, the grantee undertook an analysis of institutions dealing with cultural heritage, engaged political street artists who use the walls of the city as their canvas, and investigated the responses and perceptions to these groups by the heterogeneous individuals that claim this city as their home. The research combined participant observation, interviews, archival research, photographic and audio-visual documentation, as well as an analysis of contemporary Oaxacan media to research the ways in which subjects and futures are formed in and through an encounter with the city's material environment.
Pile, James S., Princeton U., Princeton, NJ - To aid research on 'Beyond the Clan: Fighting Networks of the Layapo-Enga,' supervised by Dr. Rena Lederman
JAMES S. PILE, while a student at Princeton University in Princeton, New Jersey, was awarded a grant in June 2003 to aid research on fighting networks among the Layapo-Enga of Papua New Guinea (PNG), under the supervision of Dr. Rena Lederman. From June 2003 to May 2004, Pile conducted research in the Lai Valley of Enga Province and elsewhere in PNG, including fieldwork with the Ambulyini clan, interviews with bigmen, war leaders, and gunfighters from tribes and clans throughout Enga Province, and archival research in Wabag, Mount Hagen, and Port Moresby. The work with the Ambulyini clan produced a detailed case study of two gun wars, enabling Pile to document and analyze the mechanisms through which war was declared, the internal politics that shaped the way war was prosecuted, and how the decision to end war was arrived at and put into effect. The interviews and archival research resulted in a regional account of feud relations and patterns of warfare alliance and enmity from contact to the present; a history of how factory-made shotguns and rifles, locally manufactured firearms, and, most recently, assault rifles had been incorporated into tribal fighting; and an analysis of the consequences of gun wars for social, economic, and cultural institutions. Finally, Pile documented how ambitious young men in the Lai Valley innovated on the most archaic traditions in the novel contexts of gun wars to gain control over assault rifles, create new relationships with other gunfighters, and effectively challenge the clan- and tribe-based moral and political foundations of Enga warfare.
Engelke, Christopher Robert, U. of California, Los Angeles, CA - To aid research on 'The Design and Use of Augmentative Alternative Communications Technologies,' supervised by Dr. Paul V. Kroskrity
CHRISTOPHER ENGELKE, then a student at University of California, Los Angeles, California, received funding in October 2010 to aid research on 'The Design and Use of Augmentative: Alternative Communications Technologies,' supervised by Dr. Paul V. Kroskrity. Current figures suggest that over 2 million Americans have a disability that compromises their speech intelligibility, requiring them to use a special form of assistive technology called augmentative alternative communications (AAC) devices in order to literally and figuratively have 'a voice.' This study examines the phenomena of embodiment, empathy, and intersubjectivity that manifest around the design and use of these augmentative communications devices by examining the ways in which individuals' embodied and ideological familiarities with the world are revealed in their engagements with these specialized communications technologies. By investigating the ways that able-bodied designers approach the task of developing AAC technologies, this study uncovers relationships between one's physical abilities, normative prescriptions for action, and the forms and limits of understanding others whose bodily abilities may be radically different from one's own. Moreover, by examining the ways that AAC users take up the features of their devices in everyday interactions, this study reveals the unique ways in which this technology is incorporated into bodily understandings of the 'self' and its location in the world.
Van Hoose, Jonathan E., U. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM - To aid research on 'Learning Lineages as Reflected in Ceramic Production in Early Historic Northwest New Mexico,' supervised by Dr. Ann F. Ramenofsky
JONATHAN VAN HOOSE, then a student at the University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, New Mexico, received funding in December 2003 to aid research on 'Learning Lineages as Reflected in Ceramic Production in Early Historic Northwest New Mexico,' supervised by Dr. Ann F. Ramenofsky. This project studied the dynamics of interaction throughout northern New Mexico between AD 1500-1750 by examining the flow of information about ceramic technology between Navajo populations in the Dinetah and northern Rio Grande Pueblo groups. While contact between Navajos and Pueblos is certainly of long standing, the nature and intensity of these contacts is debated. This study applied a concrete methodology for examining information flow and cultural interaction based on an explicit model of the ways that different learning modes are reflected in artifacts, and using a wide range of analytical approaches to quantify technological variation closely linked to actions and choices of potters. The data collected from 32 sites are beginning to paint a picture of broad macro-regional flow of easily transmissible information about potmaking (such as surface treatment), but relative isolation and restrictedness in the flow of more detailed information that would require a more intimate learning context (such as firing behavior, coil size, and the hand motions used in finishing vessels). This suggests long-term, constant contact between Navajo and Pueblo groups, but these relationships appear to be characterized by a relatively low level of intimate, close interpersonal contact between potters from different communities. These conclusions do not support the oft-cited 'refugee hypothesis' asserting a large influx of Pueblo refugees into the Dinetah during the Pueblo Revolt period, which would have been expected to result in some merging of Navajo and Pueblo ceramic-learning lineages. Finally, possible boundaries to information flow were also noted within the Navajo tradition itself.
Kaburu, Stefano Seraph Kiambi, U.of Kent, Canterbury, United Kingdom - To aid research on Grooming Reciprocity among Wild Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) of Mahale National Park, Tanzania,' supervised by Dr. Nicholas Newton-Fisher
STEFANO KABURU, then a student at University of Kent, Canterbury, United Kingdom, was awarded a grant in October 2010 to aid research on 'Grooming Reciprocity among Wild Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) of Mahale National Park, Tanzania,' supervised by Dr. Nicholas Newton-Fisher. This project aims to investigate the strategies and the social factors behind grooming reciprocity among wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), as model species to understand how the reciprocal exchange of social acts might have evolved between unrelated individuals within human societies. Detailed data on social behaviors (e.g. grooming, agonistic coalitions, meat sharing) were collected between January and October 2011 from eight adult males and seven adult females living in the M-group chimpanzee community of Mahale National Park (Tanzania) . Preliminary results show that males reciprocate grooming both across and within bouts when grooming each other and all males were part of at least one highly reciprocal grooming male-male pair. Conversely, no evidence for reciprocal exchange of grooming was found among females. Male-male grooming sessions show a more complex pattern with a combination of unidirectional and mutual grooming compared to female-female grooming bouts. Future analysis is needed to understand whether this difference is related to particular strategies employed by males to assure grooming reciprocity. Interestingly, although females do not match grooming time when grooming other females, they seem to direct grooming towards few specific grooming partners. Further analysis will shed light on the criteria behind partner choice both in males and females.
Kaburu, Stefano, and Nicholas E. Newton-Fisher. 2013. Social Instability Raises the Stakes during Social Grooming among Wild Male Chimpanzees. Animal Behavior 86(3):510-527.
Kaburu, Stefano, Sana Inoue, and Nicholas E. Newton-Fisher. 2013. Death of the Alpha: Within-Community Lethal Violence among Chimpanzees of the Mahale Mountains National Park. American Journal of Primatology 75(8):789-797.
O'Reilly, Jessica, U. of California, Santa Cruz, CA - To aid research on 'Policy and Practice in Antarctic Specially Managed Areas,' supervised by Dr. Hugh Raffles
JESSICA O'REILLY, then a student at University of California, Santa Cruz, California, received funding in October 2005 to aid research on 'Policy and Practice in Antarctic Specially Managed Areas,' supervised by Dr. Hugh Raffles. What are the practices -- discursive or otherwise -- through which scientists and other Antarctic community members succeed at making Antarctica a model of environmentalism as well as a place of 'peace and science'? Research activities involved twelve months of fieldwork in Christchurch, New Zealand, working with an Antarctic scientific research expedition, observing conferences, meetings, and workshops, and conducting ethnographic interviews. This project is based upon an analysis of the relationships between scientists and policy makers at the McMurdo Dry Valleys Antarctic Specially Managed Area (ASMA). However, the people involved in the Dry Valleys ASMA are also intensely involved in other emerging Antarctic environmental issues. Therefore, this project examines articulations of policy and practice not only in ASMA management plans and implementation, but also in the histories of Antarctic environmental practices, competing strategies about non-native species in the Antarctic, and the ways in which Antarctic experts engage with non-experts over the science and politics of climate change. The resulting dissertation will analyze the ways in which Antarctic science and policy complicate each other and the ways in which scientists, policy makers, Antarctic lifeforms and object, data, and paperwork are arranged to influence environmental management on the continent.
Darici, Haydar, U. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI- To aid research on 'The Politics of Childhood: Mobilization of Kurdish Children in Contemporary Turkey,' supervised by Dr. Andrew Shryock
Preliminary abstract: This research examines the transformation of the category of childhood within the Kurdish community in the context of contemporary political violence in Turkey. After the Turkish state and the Kurdish movement started a process of reconciliation and negotiation for peace after 2000, the Kurdish children have assumed more radical positions by embracing acts of violence. As such, the children not only constitute a major present and future challenge to the ongoing reconciliation process, but they present alternate conceptions of childhood to the ones provided by both the Turkish state and the Kurdish movement. And the only means by which to engage the Kurdish children's violent stand is through understanding the processes that created it in the first place. By conducting ethnographic and oral history research among the politically mobilized Kurdish children, I specifically explore the social and cultural processes that generated the subversive political subjectivity of Kurdish children. At a more general level, informed by critical anthropological debates on childhood, politics, violence and memory, I explore how childhood can be approached as political subjectivity rather than a stage in the lifecycle. In summary, I argue that childhood is informed by a distinct sense of temporality and the lived experience of violence, one I empirically examine in the context of contemporary Turkey.
Styles, Megan Anne, U. of Washington, Seattle, WA - To aid research on 'Global Production in a Contested Local Landscape: The Conflict Surrounding Cut Flower Farming in Kenya,' supervised by Dr. Kalyanakrishnan Sivaramakrishnan
MEGAN A. STYLES, then a student at University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, received funding in October 2006 to aid research on 'Global Production in a Contested Local Landscape: The Conflict Surrounding Cut Flower Farming in Kenya,' supervised byDr. Kalyanakrishnan Sivaramakrishnan. Cut flower exports play a critical role in the Kenyan economy. Roses, carnations, and other familiar flower varieties are now the nation's second largest foreign exchange earner, and an estimated 50,000 workers and their dependents rely on jobs within the industry. However, the success of floriculture is often tempered by allegations of environmental degradation at sites of production. The vast majority of Kenyan flowers are grown along the shores of Lake Naivasha, a critical freshwater body located in the Rift Valley that provides a lifeline for local communities and habitat for an impressive number of species. Because of the sensitive and contested nature of the landscape surrounding Lake Naivasha, the potential environmental effects of floriculture are particularly controversial in this locale. This project explores the ways that people living and working in the vicinity of Lake Naivasha view the environmental effects of floriculture and the strategies that they use to address these perceived effects. Although consumer (or buyer-driven) activism has played a vital role in reforming labor conditions and environmental practices in the flower industry, local actors are also a driving force in developing regulatory pathways and conceptualizing new forms of environmental governance in the lake area.
Hollis-Brown, Lisa A., U. of California, Davis, CA - To aid research on 'Individual Differences in the Antipredator Behavior of Captive Rhesus Monkeys,' supervised by Dr. Richard G. Coss
LISA A. HOLLIS-BROWN, then a student at the University of California, Davis, California, received funding in December 2002 to aid research on 'Individual Differences in the Antipredator Behavior of Captive Rhesus Monkeys,' supervised by Dr. Richard G. Coss. A first step toward determining the adaptiveness of individual differences is to find predictors of such differences. This research investigated the individual variation in the responses of captive rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) to models of a leopard (Panthera pardus) and a python (Python molurus). In particular, this study examined whether or not individual differences were consistent across contexts, and if maternal status, age, or social behaviors were predictors of these differences. A preliminary study showed that the leopard and python models were effective in eliciting antipredator behaviors from the captive monkeys. In a second study, females with or without infants did not respond differently to the leopard. An exploratory analysis of these subjects showed that sociable and subordinate behaviors were correlated with responses to the leopard. In a third study, a principal components analysis of directly observed social behaviors revealed the components Excitable, Sociable, and Inactive. These components predicted some of the female monkeys' responses to the python model, but not to the leopard model. Individuals were mostly consistent in their behaviors toward the two types of models. The consistency of individuals' behaviors toward different types of threats indicates that an inherent characteristic of individuals mediates individual variation in antipredator behavior. These studies also provide some evidence that social behaviors, but not maternal status or age, are linked to individual differences in the antipredator behaviors of primates.
Moffett, Elizabeth Ann, U. of Missouri, Columbia, MO - To aid research on 'Effect of Cephalopelvic Proportions on Anthropoid Pelvic Morphology and Integration,' supervised by Dr. Carol V. Ward
Preliminary abstract: Although birth selection is thought to be one of the most important pressures shaping the pelvis, it remains unclear if and how obstetric selection produces consistent changes in pelvic form among primates with rigorous birth demands in comparison to species with relatively easy labors. This is a significant problem, as there is a discrepancy between the hypothesized importance of birth in shaping the pelvis and what we know about the effects of obstetric demand on pelvic morphology. What are the patterns of dimorphism in the shapes and sized of the birth canal within primate species, and do these patterns correspond to obstetric demand? What patterns of dimorphism in the birth canal, if any, are shared by species with large cephalopelvic proportions? How do patterns of dimorphism in the birth canal correspond to patterns of dimorphism in the non-obstetric pelvis? How does obstetric demand shape integration patterns in the primate pelvis? These gaps significantly hinder the interpretations we can make about functional pelvic morphology in extant and extinct primates, including hominins. This study aims to explore the effects of birth-related selection on the morphology of the primate bony pelvis using three dimensional landmark coordinate data from the birth canal and non-obstetric pelvis within both obstetrically constrained and obstetrically unconstrained anthropoid species. Enhanced understanding of the effects of obstetric demand on pelvic form will provide valuable contributions to several theoretical areas, including the evolution of large cephalopelvic proportions among hominins and other primates, and form-function relationships in the anthropoid pelvis.