Su, Anne, Stony Brook U., New York, NY - To aid research on 'The Functional Morphology of Subchondral and Trabecular Bone in the Hominid Hindfoot,' supervised by Dr. Brigitte Demes
ANNE SU, then a student at Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, New York, received a grant in October 2008, to aid research on 'The Functional Morphology of Subchondral and Trabecular Bone in the Hominid Hindfoot,' Supervised by Dr. Brigitte Demes. Previous studies of the external morphology fossil hominin hindfoot bones have revealed unique mosaics of ape-like and human-like features that have complicated locomotor reconstruction of these extinct individuals. The goal of this study was to investigate whether the internal morphology (subchondral and trabecular bone) of these skeletal elements hold a diagnostic locomotor signal that may help to further characterize the nature of this mosaicism. Micro-computed tomography (µCT) images of associated hominoid hindfoot bones were obtained and morphological properties of the subchondral cortical and trabecular bone were quantified. Preliminary analyses indicate that in the human tibiotalar joint, the greatest subchondral cortical bone thickness and radio density, and trabecular bone volume and thickness were found in regions that agree with those that are in greatest compression during the push-off phase of the gait cycle, coinciding with the time of peak load. Furthermore, the regions within the joint exhibiting these relative indicators of bone strength differ among the hominoid species. The study of how these differences relate to habitual locomotor differences is ongoing, as well as investigation into patterns of the degree and direction of trabecular anisotropy and their relation to habitual ankle posture.
Su, Anne, Ian J. Wallace, and Masato Nakatsukasa. 2013. Trabecular Bone Anisotropy and Orientation in an Early Pleistocene Hominin Talus from East Turkana, Kenya. Journal of Human Evolution 64(6):667-677.
Holowka, Nicholas Baird, State U. of New York, Stony Brook, NY - To aid research on 'Kinematics of the Chimpanzee Foot During Terrestrial and Arboreal Locomotion,' supervised by Dr. Brigitte Demes
Preliminary abstract: Chimpanzees and other apes possess highly mobile pedal joints that allow the foot to function as a grasping organ during arboreal positional behaviors, whereas humans have evolved relatively stiff feet with reduced joint mobility to enable the foot to function as a propulsive lever during bipedal locomotion. Foot joint morphology is an important determinant of the functional differences in human and ape feet. Pedal remains from early hominins indicate a fascinating mosaic of ape- and human-like features at these joints. However, a limited understanding of ape foot mechanics hampers interpretations of ape-like joint morphology in these fossils. To improve our understanding of early hominin positional behaviors, the objective of the proposed study is to collect detailed three-dimensional kinematic data of the foot joints in chimpanzees during locomotion on terrestrial and arboreal substrates. A four camera motion capture system will be used to record foot motion in two chimpanzee subjects during the following behaviors: bipedal and quadrupedal walking on a flat surface, and climbing on a vertical pole. Additionally, foot motion will be recorded in five human subjects during bipedal walking. From these recordings, three-dimensional motion will be measured at the talocrural, subtalar, transverse tarsal, cuboidometatarsal, and metatarsophalangeal joints. Chimpanzee and human foot kinematics during bipedal locomotion will be compared to investigate the functional consequences of interspecies differences in joint morphology. Chimpanzee foot kinematics during terrestrial quadrupedalism and vertical climbing will be compared to determine whether specific features of chimpanzee foot joint morphology reflect adaptations to arboreal locomotion.
Mojaddedi, Fatima, Columbia U., New York, NY - To aid research on 'The War Bubble: Kabul's Shifting Warscape and Afghan-American Community,' supervised by Dr. Rosalind Carmel Morris
Preliminary abstract: This project examines Kabul as a frontier in an international economy of war profiteering and considers how it has transformed in the interactions of space, war and transnational diaspora activity. I focus on the crucial role of the repatriated Afghan-American community in mediating Kabul's booming war economy and property market. Seeking to illustrate how diverse social actors enable and mediate urban militarization, I will trace a range of transformative local effects in key sites of socio-urban transformation in Kabul that exemplify broader processes of urban militarization and social enclaving. These discrepant spaces overlap to provide a landscape that shapes various understandings and experiences of war. Thus, my dissertation asks: How has the war reconfigured Kabul's socio-spatial and urban landscape? What role does Kabul's speculative property market and repatriated Afghan-American community play? How does segregated social space effect how local and foreign residents live in Kabul? My project builds on several broad literatures while insisting on the importance of Kabul's particular socio-cultural and economic topography; studying the ways in which Kabul's urban 'warscape' is forged by spatial relations of militarized control that hinge on overlapping social and economic relations.
Cesario, Christa Dawn, U. of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA - To aid research on 'The Politics of Socially Engaged Archaeology,' supervised by Dr. Deborah Thomas
CHRISTA DAWN CESARIO, then a student at University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, was awarded funding in April 2008 to aid research on 'The Politics of Socially Engaged Archaeology,' supervised by Dr. Deborah Thomas. This project sought to answer the question 'How do the globally circulating aims and intentions of socially engaged archaeology become situated locally in Yucatán, Mexico?' During the tenure of the grant, the research on the production of knowledge and identity was expanded to include other groups also focused on heritage management and outreach to Maya communities, on the level of culture and language, while maintaining a focus on engagement and the assumptions and epistemological notions inherent therein, identity construction, the production of knowledge, and the politics of cultural production. These organizations included a community theater group located in Oxkutzcab, Yucatán; a Mexican NGO focused on language education in Tizimín, Yucatán; and a Yucatec Maya-run NGO based in San Francisco, California that works with the Yucatecan immigrant community. Throughout this work she maintained an interest in how the targets of these projects - Maya communities - negotiated their way in the world, the avenues open to them, the paths they chose to take, and how they grounded themselves on a day-to-day basis. The widening of her project scope permits comparisons across multiple social and epistemological communities, enhancing the ability of her research to contribute to anthropological theory building.
Shabel, Alan B., U. of Berkeley, Berkeley, CA - To aid research on 'Ecology of the Robust Australopithecines: Testing the Wetland Model with Dental Microwear and Isotope Analysis,' supervised by Dr. Anthony D. Barnosky
ALAN B. SHABEL, then a student at University of California, Berkeley, California, received funding in October 2005 to aid research on 'Ecology of the Robust Astralopithecines: Testing the Wetland Model with Dental Microwear and Isotope Analysis,' supervised by Dr. Anthony D. Barnosky. The habitat and dietary preferences of the robust australopithecines (Paranthropus) have been a central concern of paleoanthropologists for over 5O years. No fewer than eight paleoecological reconstructions of Paranthropus have been advanced, including the new durophage-ecotone model. The durophage-ecotone model is based on a morphological analogy between Paranthropus, on the one hand, and consumers of hard-shelled food objects (HSOs) from wetland ecosystems on the other. A unique suite of craniodental features is common to both Paranthropus and the wetland HSO consumers, including an overall massive skull, wide zygomatic arches, prominent sagittal crest, robust dentary, high ascending ramus, expanded postcanine dentition, reduced anterior dentition, and 'puffy' dental cusps. A preliminary analysis of microwear features on the chewing surfaces of robust hominin teeth from South Africa is consistent with a diet of wetland HSOs for Paranthropus in that region. An extensive analysis of trace elements (Sr, Ba, Ca) and carbon isotopes in the tissues of African vertebrates and invertebrates is also consistent with a wetland-based diet for Paranthropus. The new durophage-ecotone model fits the totality of evidence better than any other reconstruction, and the new model provides an ecological mechanism for the coexistence of Paranthropus and Homo in the Plio-Pleistocene of Africa.
Hamberger, Klaus, EHESS, Paris, France - To aid research on 'Kinship as Space,' supervised by Dr. Michael Houseman
KLAUS HAMBERGER, then a student at EHESS, Paris, France, was awarded funding in March 2005 to aid research on 'Kinship as Space,' supervised by Dr. Michael Houseman. Fieldwork has been conducted in the village of Afagnan-Gbleta, Prefecture of Afagnan, Maritime Region, Republic of Togo. Its aim was to collect evidence for the empirical assessment of systematic correlations between kinship and spatial patterns among the Ewe-speaking Watchi of South-East Togo. The evidence collected includes a household census, house and village plans, agricultural and market maps, and a genealogical network. These data have been completed by several interview series with clan representatives, vodu priests, and professional groups, and also and by participant observation (including the participation in rituals). Preliminary research results appear to corroborate the perspective in which the research project was undertaken: the identification of a unified model of residence and marriage alliance based on the hypotheses of a general tendency in both male and female kin groups to be localized. Watsi kinship structure includes bilinear descent groups and parallel sex-affiliation to religious groups, combined with spatial segregation (houses vs convents) and vertically parallel cross-cousin marriage. These features are also known from non-African societies and confirm the view that the model needs not to be restricted to the cultural areas for which it has originally been developed.
Makram-Ebeid, Dina Waguih, London School of Economics, London, United Kingdom - To aid research on 'Steel Lives Under Neo-liberalism: Everyday Politics of Labour in Helwan, Egypt,' supervised by Dr. Jonathan P. Parry
DINA W. MAKRAM-EBEID, then a student at London School of Economics, London, United Kingdom, was awarded a grant in April 2009 to aid research on 'Steel Lives Under Neo-liberalism: Everyday Politics of Labor in Helwan, Egypt,' supervised by Dr. Jonathan P. Parry. This grant supported the second half of a research project focusing on steel workers in one of Egypt's oldest public-owned plants in Helwan governorate. The researcher conducted ethnographic fieldwork on two shop-floors inside the steel plant and among workers' community in the neighboring 'Company Town.' The ethnographic investigation highlighted how workers and their households incorporate the drastic changes in industrial policies, which occurred over the past two decades, into their everyday lives. The research findings suggest that the new work conditions in the plant and living conditions in the Company Town are creating new relations among various groups of workers and between workers and management. These new relations, for example, between young workers employed casually and old workers with stable contracts; production and maintenance workers, and workers and engineers, in turn, influence the work culture of the plant and the values that are (re-) produced among the community of workers. This research thus, encourages linking the analysis of wider changes in community relations and values to the shifting conditions of work worldwide.
Borea Labarthe, Giuliana, New York U., New York, NY - To aid research on 'Recasting the Contemporary: A New Art Scene for the New Lima,' supervised by Dr. Fred Myers
Preliminary abstract: A new vibrant scene for contemporary Peruvian art has emerged in Lima and internationally over the last ten years. The Lima's long existing image, as a predominantly white descendant city with a strong colonial heritage, is changing, yet not without frictions. My project explores Lima's emergent art scene in articulation with the city's new political economy; the recognition of Amazonian and Andean art; and the connections to international art spheres. I ask how the local and transnational strategic practices of artists, curators, art dealers, collectors, and other stakeholders are shaping the art scene in Lima, at the time that they engage in repositioning Lima as a modernizing city. My study draws particular attention to the role played by a new generation of elites in the promotion of art. It also focuses on new curatorial discourses, and opens up questions about public cultural policies regarding the arts. My twelve-month ethnographic research is situated in Lima, and incorporates analysis of art events in Buenos Aires, Miami and New York. My project contributes to expand scholarship on art fields; networks of power, and the making of creative cities in the global world. Finally, my study will illuminate broader discussions of Latin American art.
Rosenbaum, Susanna, New York U., New York, NY - To aid research on 'Domestic Economics: Immigrant Women, Middle-Class Employers, and Household Work,' supervised by Dr. Faye D. Ginsburg
SUSANNA ROSENBAUM, while a student at New York University in New York, New York, received funding in June 2002 to aid research on immigrant women, middle-class employers, and household work in Los Angeles, California, under the supervision of Dr. Faye D. Ginsburg. During a year of fieldwork, Rosenbaum examined the ways in which both employers and employees experienced domestic service in order to provide a more complete picture of this institution as it affected the lives of all parties. She asked how broader processes of globalization had affected both immigrants and non-immigrants in Los Angeles and how they had compelled both groups to redefine notions of household, family, motherhood, work, personal fulfillment, and femininity. These once immutable concepts had become sources of anxiety through economic transformations, generational changes, the experience of migration, and domestic service. Rosenbaum approached employers and employees separately by attending meetings of their organizations, spending time with members in their homes, and meeting additional people through members' social networks. Among employees, she began with a housecleaners' cooperative and an association seeking to organize domestic workers. On the employer side, she started with a networking organization for working women and a local affiliate of a national mothers' group. By conducting participant observation, tracking social networks, conducting interviews, and taking life histories, Rosenbaum analyzed how both employers and employees grappled with uncertainties and reworked previous concepts through daily practice and narrative.
Gibbings, Sheri Lynn, U. of Toronto, ON, Canada - To aid research on 'Building a Street, Building a Nation: Architecture, Urban Space, and National Belonging on Malioboro Street in Yogyakarta, Indonesia,' supervised by Dr. Tania Murray Li
SHERI GIBBINGS, then a student at University of Toronto, Ontario, Canada, received funding in October 2006 to investigate 'Building a Street, Building a Nation: Architecture, Urban Space and National Belonging on Malioboro Street in Yogyakarta, Indonesia,' supervised by Dr. Tania Li. This research examines street vendors and their relationship to the state in three sites of conflict, which are differently invested with meaning. Research activities included participant observation, interviews, and archival research among street vendors, their organizations, as well with government officials. Ethnographic fieldwork was carried out for sixteen months between 2006 and 2008. Findings reveal that the street vendors, on one hand, stand for failed modernity but on the other hand, they comment upon and critique the fantasy of modernity and development that pervades city planning. Street vendors have also become increasingly a site of government concern, which has made them the object of an increasing number of projects to control, discipline, and monitor their activities. Findings indicate that street vendors are involved in a larger set of contestations: political battles over urban planning; debates over modernity; and the struggle to solidify budding radical politics.