Nadell, Jason Alexander, Durham U., Durham, UK - To aid research on "Skeletal Development with Reference to Ontogeny and Plasticity: A Cross-sectional Study of Primate Limbs," supervised by Dr. Kristin F. Kovarovic
Preliminary abstract: Elements of the primate upper and lower limb are understood to adapt their structure to the locomotor needs of the individual. However, research surrounding primate skeletal adaptation is limited while only a small handful of studies have considered the influence that behavior and growth place on bone structure in tandem (Ruff et al., 2013). This project will investigate the structural variation of long bones among several primate taxa that exhibit distinctly different mobility patterns.
D'Avella, Nicholas John, U. of California, Davis, CA - To aid research on 'From Banks to Bricks: Architecture, Finance, and Neighborhood Life in Buenos Aires, Argentina,' supervised by Dr. Donald L. Donham
NICHOLAS J. D'AVELLA, then a student of University of California, Davis, California, received a grant in October 2008 to aid research on 'From Banks to Bricks: Architecture, Finance, and Neighborhood Life in Buenos Aires, Argentina,' supervised by Dr. Donald L. Donham. Between January 2009 and April 2010, the grantee conducted research aimed at understanding how architects and neighborhood residents work to utilize, resist, or redirect the effects of new real estate investment practices that are remaking the material landscape of Buenos Aires. Fieldwork in the Architecture school at the University of Buenos Aires consisted of: interviews with practicing architects and real estate developers; observation of professional real estate seminars and interviews with associated market experts; interviews with several small investors who were purchasing or considering the purchase of real estate as investments; and observation and in-depth interviews with the members of various neighborhood groups working to change the city's building code or influence state regulations in their respective neighborhoods. Research findings indicate a series of disjunctures between various conceptions of what a building should be. Each group of actors had their own culturally distinct way of relating to buildings, and these differing cultures surrounding the same objects generated conflicts over the form that urban construction should take. By studying these various ways of thinking about and relating to buildings, this project attempts to better illustrate the forces which contribute to the formation of the urban environment.
Shoaff Schroder, Jennifer L., U. of Illinois, Urbana, IL - To aid research on 'Mobility and Containment of Haitian Women in the Dominican Republic,' supervised by Dr. Arlene Torres
JENNIFER SHOAFF SCHRODER, while a student at University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign in Urbana, Illinois, received funding in August 2005 to aid research on Haitian women's strategies of mobility in the Dominican Republic and the ensuing experience of containment that such travel engenders, under the supervision of Dr. Arlene Torres. The grantee conducted twelve months of multi-sited ethnographic research in the northwest border region and the capital with Haitian migrant women who reside in 'bateys' and travel regularly to markets to buy and sell in the informal economy for their subsistence and livelihood. The research focused on the palpable ways in which their 'undocumented' status translated into their daily experiences of racial and gender discrimination, violence, surveillance, and socioeconomic marginalization both within and beyond their communities. Research methods included participant observation in communities, markets and the travel routes in between, the collection of life history narratives, interviews with community members and marketeers, participant observation and interviews with NGOs working with Haitians in the country, and archival research of the associated literature. Preliminary findings underscore how a Dominican state-sponsored production of Haitian 'illegality' creates both material and symbolic borders through which women must navigate in order to negotiate their interpersonal encounters, freedom of mobility, and everyday sense of security and belonging. The socioeconomic networks created by Haitian market women provide subtle spaces of resistance to their gendered 'invisibility' within dominant representations of migrant identities, as well as to their institutionalized exclusion from the social, economic, and cultural resources of the state.
Henne, Adam Peters, U. of Georgia, Athens, GA - To aid research on 'The Social Life of Wood: Nature, Knowledge, and Commodity Fetishism in Chilean Forest Certification,' supervised by Dr. Peter Brosius
ADAM PETERS HENNE, then a student at the University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia, received a grant in April 2006, to aid research on 'The Social Life of Wood: Nature, Knowledge, and Commodity Fetishism in Chilean Forest Certification,' supervised by Dr. Peter Brosius. The Forest Stewardship Council provides the green seal of approval for 'good wood,' indicating a wood product that the conscientious consumer can feel good about buying. Like Fair Trade or organic food, FSC certification depends on a market premium on sustainably produced wood to push producers toward more sustainable practices. This dependency implies global connections between Northern consumers, Chilean producers, and the physical landscape of Chile itself. The value-based standards that attempt to constrain those global connections are the product of political contests not visible in the wood products at the end of the commodity chain. This project attempts to make these politics visible by documenting the process by which standards for good forestry are negotiated and defined. Standards and certification are particularly good objects for cultural study because they bring together in one site so many fields of contestation: techno-science and international trade; indigenous and environmental movements; consumers and ethical practice. By studying how the FSC and its knowledge practices work together to produce new subjectivities while re-inscribing existing structures of inequality, this project aims to raise some valuable questions about the role of forest certification and other ethical trade initiatives in creating sustainable, survivable global futures.
Ebbitt, Alicia Beth, Indiana U., Bloomington, IN - To aid research on 'Students, Teachers, and Community Leaders Negotiating National and Local Heritage Idealogies in Belize,' supervised by Dr. Bradley Levinson
ALICIA BETH EBBITT McGILL, then a student at Indiana University, Bloomington, Indiana, was awarded funding in April 2008 to aid research on 'Students, Teachers, and Community Leaders Negotiating National and Local Heritage Idealogies in Belized,' supervised by Dr. Bradley Levinson. The researcher's two main research objectives were: 1) to understand how Belizean students and teachers construct ideas about cultural heritage, archaeology, and local history, while exploring the effects of national heritage education initiatives and archaeological research on these ideas; and 2) to learn how teachers and other community leaders manipulate heritage and ideas about heritage to fulfill community needs and combat inequalities and hegemonic national ideology that privileges certain histories, while evaluating whether archaeological research offers teachers additional tools to respond to national heritage education. The researcher utilized interviews, participant observation, and concept maps and worked with primary school students and teachers, community members, and. other social actors. Preliminary findings demonstrate how teachers and students deal with the complex web of issues related to history, culture, and heritage and also reveal the ways knowledge construction about these issues (and history and cultural education) intersect with broader national and global concerns related to citizenship, racial and ethnic politics, and economic development.
Castor, Nicole M., U. of Chicago, Chicago, IL - To aid research on 'Invoking the Spirit: Religion and the Politics of Nationhood in Trinidad,' supervised by Dr. Andrew H. Apter
NICOLE CASTOR, then a student at University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois, was awarded a grant in November 2002 to aid research on 'Invoking the Spirit: Religion and the Politics of Nationhood in Trinidad,' supervised by Dr. Andrew H. Apter. The project analyzed public culture, the performance of identity, and the role of race and diversity in relation to national identity in contemporary Trinidad through three consecutive years of field-based research on Afro-Trinidadian public ritual and festival events. Through case studies that followed festivals and rituals through an annual cycle of public culture, over a period from November 2002 to August 2005, Castor studied Orisha public ritual, Carnival fetes, and Emancipation celebrations as an investigation of the dynamics between culture, ritual, nation building and the construction of identity. Performative moments within festivals and rituals revealed complexities of race and ethnicity, destabilizing fixed notions of the Afro-Trinidadian. She also conducted numerous interviews, documented speeches, public ceremonies, and rituals through audio-visual media. This project generated an 'alternative' model of the public sphere that explores how the cultural production of identities takes place in public spaces, and how festival and ritual moments contribute to the building of the nation. In particular, Castor's research shows how in Trinidad race and class are mutually defining, lived, and embodied categories that are frequently performed, contested, and redefined.
Saha Roy, Sayantan, U. of Chicago, Chicago, IL - To aid research on 'Legal Lives in the Postcolony: Human Rights, Humanitarianism and Rule of Law in India,' supervised by Dr. Kaushik S. Rajan
Preliminary abstract: This project is situated at the intersection of law and the politics of 'life' in the context of postcolonial India. It deals specifically with the promise of the Indian constitution to protect the 'life' of the subject as enshrined in Article 21. What is this thing called 'life' that the law promises to protect? The ambiguity inherent in the concept of life leads to a paradoxical situation whereby a fundamental legal promise is being made to protect something that is ambiguous. This leads to the central question of the project, how has the postcolonial Indian state negotiated with this problem of life in the domain of law. This I propose to interrogate ethnographically across three distinctive figures which have come to embody this tension between life and law in one way or another viz. the hunger striker, the fetus and the public. Ethnographically located in the cities of Imphal, New Delhi and Calcutta, this project will try to understand how practices, institutions and affects underlying this legal concern with life operates as a questioning power, provoking anxieties and ambiguities but simultaneously strengthening the power of the state.
Guiry, Eric J., U. of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada - To aid resarch on 'Domesticate Animals in Colonial Trade Networks: Stable Isotopic Perspectives on Historical Human-animal Relations,' supervised by Dr. Michael P. Richards
Preliminary abstract: The objective of this research is to use stable isotope analyses to reconstruct the social and geographic lives of key domesticate species -- cattle and pigs -- and their products (e.g. barreled salt meat) in the context of globalizing historical trade networks. Despite the powerful economic, social, and symbolic role of livestock in colonial projects around the globe, relatively little of what is known about them is based on direct archaeological evidence. My research will utilize stable carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur isotope analyses of archaeological cattle and pig remains (bones and teeth) to reconstruct dietary and mobility aspects of the husbandry, transportation, and consumption of these animals. Focusing on 17th-19th C. colonial centers of livestock production and consumption in Ireland and Canada, respectively, as well as inter-colonial transportation (shipwreck sites) my research will take a 'cultural biography of things' approach to understand how the value and perception of animals and their products changed with movement within and between local and global socioeconomic contexts in Old and New World population centers. This multi-site approach will also examine how human-animal relations and ontologies (on a subject-object continuum) are influenced by different scales of social, temporal, and environmental intimacy.
Yonucu, Deniz, Cornell U., Ithaca, NY - To aid research on 'Transforming Space and Citizens: Neoliberal Urban Governance and the Re-Formation of the State in Turkey,' supervised by Dr. P. Steven Sangren
DENIZ YONUCU, then a student at Cornell University, Ithaca, New York, received funding in May 2010 to aid research on 'Transforming Space and Citizens: Neoliberal Urban Governance and the Re-Formation of the State in Turkey,' supervised by Dr. P. Steven Sangren. The research has concentrated on the processes that led to the emergence of state of exception policies in some working-class neighborhoods of Istanbul during the 1990s. The first phase research was based on an ethnographic study conducted in a working class neighborhood of Istanbul. The second phase of the research was concentrated on the examination of the human rights abuse documents of the 1990s. The dissertation will argue that in addition to the officially declared state of exception policies in the Kurdish region of Turkey, the residents of the mostly Alevi populated, leftist identified neighborhoods have, also, been subjected to state of exception policies during the 1990s. The dissertation will analyze the effects of these policies on the marginalized working classes. It will also investigate the ways in which these policies which, sometimes express themselves in the most brutal forms of violence, inform the political subjectivities of the leftist identified working-class people in Istanbul.
London, Douglas Stuart, Arizona State U., Tempe, AZ - To aid research on 'Hunter-Gatherers and Dietary Double-Edged Swords: Food as Medicine among the Waorani Foragers of Amazonian Ecuador,' supervised by Dr. Takeyuki Tsuda
DOUGAS S. LONDON, then a student at Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona, was awarded a grant in October 2009, to aid research on 'Hunter-Gatherers and Dietary Double-Edged Swords: Food as Medicine among the Waorani Foragers of Amazonian Ecuador,' supervised by Dr. Takeyuki Tsuda. The study used an evolutionary health model to compare and evaluate the relationship between food systems and health across two Ecuadorian Amazon indigenous groups: the last true Waorani hunter-gatherer group in Ecuador, and the other a remote neighboring Kichwa indigenous community practicing subsistence agriculture in the same rain forest. Ancient ethnic food systems such as those of the Waorani forager population may not only be nutritionally but also pharmaceutically beneficial because of high dietary intake of varied plant defense secondary chemical compounds. An agricultural diet reducing these dietary plant defense antibodies below levels typical in human evolutionary history may leave humans vulnerable to diseases that were controlled through a foraging diet. Data included medical examinations, lab tests, anthropometric measurements, public health data, dietary surveys, food system surveys, and participant observation of the foods systems. There was an absence of many infectious diseases in the Waorani forager population common to the Kichwa and other neighboring isolated Amazonian indigenous subsistence agriculture populations. For instance, in the forager group there were no signs of infection in serious wounds (third-degree burns and spear wounds) and the foragers had a one degree Fahrenhei