Cutright, Robyn E., U. of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA - To aid research on 'Cuisine and Empire: A Domestic View of Chimu Expansion from the Jequetepeque Valley, Peru, 'supervised by Dr. Marc P. Bermann
ROBYN E. CUTRIGHT,then a student at University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, was awarded a grant in May 2005 to aid research on 'Cuisine and Empire: A Domestic View of Chimu Expansion from the Jequetepeque Valley, Peru,' supervised by Dr. Marc P. Bermann. Archaeological field excavations were carried out at Pedregal, a Late Intermediate Period (AD 1000-1460) village in the Jequetepeque Valley, Peru. The excavations targeted the domestic occupation of the site in order to reconstruct the range of domestic activities at the site and identify the ways in which domestic and culinary practice may have shifted during the valley's conquest by the Chimú state in AD 1350. Materials recovered during excavation and examined during subsequent laboratory analysis suggest that the site's residents were heavily engaged in agricultural production, as well as animal husbandry, textile production, and the processing and preparation of food. Though the site's occupational sequence was more complex than originally believed, dramatic changes do not seem to have occurred during the Late Intermediate Period. Instead, continuity at the domestic level may have characterized the Chimú conquest of the valley.
Shi, Lihong, Tulane U., New Orleans, LA - To aid research on 'Embracing a Singleton-Daughter: An Emerging Transition of Reproductive Choice in Rural Northeast China,' supervised by Dr. Shanshan Du
LIHONG SHI, then a student at Tulane University, New Orleans, Louisiana, was awarded funding in April 2006 to aid research on 'Embracing a Singleton-Daughter: An Emerging Transition of Reproductive Choice in Rural Northeast China,' supervised by Dr. Shanshan Du. This dissertation field research was conducted in a rural community and the surrounding areas in Liaoning in northeast China from August 2006 to August 2007. The grantee explored an emerging transition of reproductive choice in rural northeast China where a substantial number of peasant couples have chosen to have a singleton-daughter (only one child, a daughter), rather than take advantage of the modified birth-control policy that allows them a second child if their first birth has produced a girl. Based on intensive interviews, surveys, participant observation, and archival research, the grantee examined the scope and the socio-cultural underpinnings of the emerging transition of reproductive choice. The field research reveals that an emerging transition of peasant couples embracing a singleton-daughter is taking place in rural Northeast China. This transformation of reproductive preference is closely associated with a gendered shift of old-age support, a weakened dedication to the patrilineage, and women's empowerment in making decisions concerning their own reproduction.
Hein, Emily Carter, U. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI - To aid research on 'Out of the Archive: Coptic Language Ideologies in Berlin, Germany,' supervised by Dr. Judith T. Irvine
EMILY JANE HEIN, then a student at University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, received funding in November 2005 to aid research on 'Out of the Archive: Coptic Language Ideologies in Berlin, Germany,' supervised by Dr. Judith T. Irvine. This project examined the role of the sacred language of Coptic in creating an imagined community for Copts in Berlin, Germany. It explored ideas about Coptic and its relationship to social phenomena (known as language ideologies) as they emerge in textual practices between the Coptic Orthodox Christian community and the academic Coptology community in Germany. Using the techniques of participant observation, interviews, and recording spontaneous conversation, the grantee focused on the three sites where these communities are becoming interconnected: the church, the university, and the monastery. Research findings indicate that it is the act of speaking in structured ways -- independent of particular codes such as Coptic -- that is a defining element of imagined community for Copts in the diaspora. This focus on the pragmatics of language may undermine projects of Coptic language maintenance or revival, but facilitates the creation of the Christian ecumene as a larger religious diaspora in which Copts claim membership. The research findings confirm the importance of focusing on the role of religion, and particularly religious language, in creating new transnational communities.
McConnachie, Kirsten, Queen's U., Belfast, UK - To aid research on 'Governing Exiles: Competing Sites of Law, Justice, and Memory in a Karen Refugee Camp,' supervised by Dr. Kieran McEvoy
KIRSTEN McCONNACHIE, then a student at Queen's University, Belfast, United Kingdom, was awarded a grant in May 2008, to aid research on 'Governing Exiles: Competing Sites of Law, Justice, and Memory in a Karen Refugee Camp,' supervised by Dr. Kieran McEvoy. Refugee camps are often described as sites of 'warehousing', absent jurisdictional oversight and political participation. Such descriptions assume passivity and dependence, though in reality refugees display considerable agency in shaping their lives and society. This research profiles refugee agency by documenting systems of governance within a refugee camp on the Thai-Burma border, focusing on the administration of justice. The refugee camp is not a legal vacuum but a densely pluralistic jurisdictional site where multiple actors claim a role in governance including the Royal Thai Government, refugee committees, military groupings, religious leaders and international humanitarian agencies. Importantly, refugees themselves play an active role in camp management. This research examines the practice of refugee justice workers, and the intersection between these structures and other authorities, including non-governmental organizations seeking to enhance access to justice for refugees on the Thai-Burma border. Theoretical frameworks of legal pluralism, governance and sovereignty are used to analyse the distinct society which exists inside the camp boundaries, its norms and beliefs and the institutional and individual messages which contribute to their construction.
Carvalho, Susana Claudio Ribeiro Marques de, U. of Cambridge, Cambridge, United Kingdom - To aid research on 'Chimpanzee Archaeology: Seeking the Evolutionary Origins of Technology,' supervised by Dr. William Clement McGrew
SUSANA CLAUDIO RIBEIRO MARQUES DE CARVALHO, then a student at University of Cambridge, Cambridge, United Kingdom, received funding in May 2008 to aid research on 'Chimpanzee Archaeology: Seeking the Evolutionary Origins of Technology,' supervised by Dr. William C. McGrew. Primate archaeology research in Guinea focused on chimpanzee nut-cracking, using non-human primate models to elucidate variables underlying the origins of technology in early hominins. The aim of the research was to investigate, for non-human primate tool use, typological and technological variation between different chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes verus) communities with differing ecological constraints in two areas: Bossou and Diecke, Guinea, West Africa. An 'outdoor laboratory' in Bossou forest provided the opportunity for nut-cracking field experiments with locally available (Elaeis guineensis) and unavailable (Coula edulis) nuts, and introduced classical prehistoric raw materials (lava-basalt and flint) to the apes. The grantee recorded nut-cracking behavior and monitored nut-cracking sites in Bossou forest: 202 stone tools were seen to be used. Raw material sources were mapped and their availability measured along 14km of transect lines and samples quadrats. An archaeological excavation in Diecke forest revealed strata with stone artifacts, and stone tools and the debris produced during nut-cracking, as well as soil and residues, were collected. The grantee observed and recorded for the first time the chimpanzees of Diecke, and set up a research camp in the interior of this previously unstudied forest.
Carvalho, Susana, et al. 2009. Tool-composite reuse in wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes): archaeologically invisible steps in the technological evolution of early hominis? Animal Cognition 12(S1):103-114
Saboo, Kartikeya, Rutgers U., New Brunswick, NJ - To aid research on 'Financial Agency: Economic Action and Experience after the Financial Crisis,' supervised by Dr. Laura M. Ahearn
KARTIKEYA SABOO, then a student at Rutgers University, New Brunswick, New Jersey, was awarded funding in October 2011 to aid research on 'Financial Agency: Economic Action and Experience after the Financial Crisis,' supervised by Dr. Laura M. Ahearn. This project examined daily life and relationships in a class-divided neighborhood of color in the aftermath of the 2008 financial crisis. Across contiguous blocks of two municipalities, it examined indigenous concepts of financial competence, the differential impact on middle- and low-income families in the same neighborhood, and compared the meaning making exercises of older middle-income activists (class war, revolution) with younger lower-income youth (conspiracy, apocalypse). The research found that middle class families experienced decline in wealth and increased personal vulnerability because of the subprime bubble. Lower-income families, already excluded from financial participation, await the worst structural impact as austerity measures begin to have effect. The ghetto becomes more disorganized, public infrastructure declines, and middle class families of color face the prospect of precarity after a lifetime of normative participation in the economy. This turns them further away from their lower class neighbors as they try to hold on to any possible markers of status and distinction. Conducted by a South Asian male, the project examines contending models of masculinity as well as the misunderstandings, confusions and antagonisms produced by encounters across race, class, and nationality.
Gross, Victoria Gabrielle, Columbia U., New York, NY - To aid research on 'Articulating Honor, Authoring the Past: Political Statements among the Devendra Kula Velallars of Tamil Nadu,' supervised by Dr. E. Valentine Daniel
VICTORIA G. GROSS, then a student at Columbia University, New York, New York, was awarded a grant in April 2012 to aid research on 'Articulating Honor, Authoring the Past: Political Statements among the Devendra Kula Velallars of Tamil Nadu,' supervised by Dr. E. Valentine Daniel. The Devendra Kula Velallar community-a Dalit caste long subjected to violent subjugation in the Tamil region of India-is in the midst of a multivalent socio-political movement. Devendras, who are known to others as Pallars, are in the process of claiming a higher status for themselves. They articulate their claim by adopting a more aristocratic caste title, performatively asserting dominance during caste-centered functions and in everyday moments of bodily comportment, writing and distributing documents about their history, and engaging in conspicuous consumption indicative of a high class position. In opposition to most approaches to Dalit assertion, which employ the discourses of human rights and distributive justice and foreground the oppression of India's untouchables, Devendras refuse victimization. Instead they focus on their position in the distant past, which, they claim, was very high. Some even claim that the Devendras are, in fact, the descendants of the ancient kings of the Tamil region. Such claims are not voiced without opposition. The Thevar community, which used to dominate Southern Tamil Nadu, is staunchly opposed to the Devendras, and intercaste violence between the two communities is increasingly common. This study tracks both the Devendras' upward mobility and the Thevar backlash that it elicits.
Yehia, Elena Walid, U. of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC - To aid research on 'Sectarian Difference Beyond Sectarianism: The Mediating Labors of 'Alternative' Media in Beirut,' supervised by Dr. Arturo Escobar
ELENA WALID YEHIA, then a student at the University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, was awarded funding in October 2009, to aid research on 'Sectarian Difference Beyond Sectarianism: The Mediating Labors of 'Alternative' Media in Beirut,' supervised by Dr. Arturo Escobar. This fieldwork research explored ethnographically the alternative forms through which difference, especially sectarian difference, is being articulated in Lebanon today by the journalists of the daily Al-Akhbar opposition newspaper. The topic is of particular relevance in Lebanon, and today across the region, as sectarian differences are increasingly mobilized in hegemonic, oppressive, and antagonistic ways. Following the historic uprisings that sparked in Tunisia, this research expanded to examine how the Lebanese 'Campaign to Bring Down the Sectarian Regime' was formulating and framing its objectives, in addition to examining the daily practices through which its participants seek to achieve these goals. The research findings to date point that the alternatives investigated are emergent, quite multiple, non-coherent (if not plain contradictory sometimes). and are unfolding in relational and situated ways, whether within the newspaper or in its surrounding fervent social and geo-political context. While they are significantly shaped by the wider constraints within which they operate, this research also noted that their seeming ambiguities is actually also contributing towards making these sites fertile grounds for encounters, transgressions, and new possibilities for cultivating alternative subjectivities and imaginaries that strive to enact other ways of engaging across sectarian, political, and other forms of difference.
Lofink, Hayley Elizabeth, U. of Oxford, Oxford, UK - To aid research on 'Underweight, Overweight, and Obesity in British Bangladeshi Adolescents, in East London,' supervised by Dr. Stanley J. Ulijaszek
HAYLEY ELIZABETH LOFINK, then a student at University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom, was awarded funding in October 2006 to aid research on 'Underweight, Overweight, and Obesity in British Bangladeshi Adolescents in East London,' supervised by Dr. Stanley J. Ulijaszek. Research on the health behavior of low-income, ethnic minorities has assumed that the poor are uneducated, and that if delivered the necessary knowledge, behavior will change. If poor nutrition and low levels of activity are attributed solely to individual-level decision making, it is unlikely that broader social and structural influences will be acknowledged. This research employed a biocultural framework to examine socio-cultural and political-economic factors influencing dietary and activity patterns and resulting underweight, overweight and obesity among British Bangladeshi adolescents (aged 11-14 years old) from low-income families in East London. Quantitative (anthropometry and survey data) and qualitative (semi-structured interviews and participant observation) methods were integrated to develop a nuanced understanding of adolescent weight, dietary and activity patterns, and the local level and larger scale processes influencing those patterns. Quantitative analysis will include multinomial logistic regression and other techniques to test the relative importance of a range of factors affecting weight status. Narrative analysis will be used to explain statistical results in order to move beyond a mere documentation of a relationship between poverty and obesity, and offer explanations of how local and broader level factors influence health inequalities in this context.
Bogart, Stephanie Lynn, Iowa State U., Ames, IA - To aid research on 'Insectivory and Savanna Apes: Tool Use and Diet of Fongoli Chimpanzees,' supervised by Dr. Jill Daphne Pruetz
STEPHANIE LYNN BOGART, then a student at Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa, was awarded a grant in April 2006 to aid research on 'Insectivory and Savanna Apes: Tool Use and Diet of Fongoli Chimpanzees,' supervised by Dr. Jill Daphne Pruetz. This research examined the ecology and behavior of Fongoli chimpanzees in southeastern Senegal from August 2006 to August 2008. Ecological data are essential to gain knowledge of the types of habitat at Fongoli, the availability of food resources, and the underlying ecological context of tool use and foraging. Fongoli is a mosaic habitat composed of grassland (47%), plateau (21%), woodland (16%), bamboo (10%), field (4%), forest ecotone (1%), and gallery forest (<1%) with a total rainfall of 674mm during this study. The only closed habitats available for chimpanzees within their 63km2 range are forest ecotone and gallery forest. Feeding trees are denser in these closed habitats; however, the Fongoli chimpanzees do not seem to lack fruit resources. Fongoli does not contain colobus monkeys, known to be the major prey species at other chimpanzee sites. The Fongoli chimpanzees consume termites all year, which is uncommon. This study explores the insectivorous diet and its potential as a nutritive resource for the Fongoli chimpanzees. Approximately 900 hours of behavioral data were collected in conjunction with 15 hours of video. Data obtained from observations and ecology will provide a qualitative and quantitative understanding of Fongoli's environment and its impact on the chimpanzees.
Bogart, Stephanie L., and Jill D. Pruetz. 2011. Insectivory of Savanna Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus) at Fongoli, Senegal. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 145(1):11-20.
Bogart, S.L., J.D. Preutz, L.K. Ormiston, J.L. Russell, A. Meguerditchian, and W.D. Hopkins. 2012. Termite Fishing Laterality in the Fongoli Savanna Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus): Further Evidence of a Left Hand Preference. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 149(4):591-598.