Carpenter, Leah J., U. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ - To aid research on 'Ojibwe Land Acquisition Strategies,' supervised by Dr. Nancy J. Parezo
LEAH J. CARPENTER, while a student at the University of Arizona in Tucson, Arizona, received funding in December 2001 to aid historical and ethnographic research on Ojibwe land acquisition strategies, under the supervision of Dr. Nancy J. Parezo. Investigating Ojibwe perceptions regarding land and the need for Ojibwe ownership of it, Carpenter compared the landownership histories of the Grand Portage and Leech Lake Reservations in Minnesota and examined the historical and cultural factors that currently informed the decisions of the Grand Portage and Leech Lake Bands regarding land acquisition. One primary method of data collection was archival, legal, and textual research into federal Indian policies, laws, and treaties affecting indigenous landownership. In addition, formal and informal interviews with band officials and land department staff, tribal elders, and other government officials provided invaluable information about Ojibwe perceptions of the historical loss of land within reservation boundaries, about the related need for additional tribal land acquisition, about contemporary tribal cultural activities on the land, and about current and historical land acquisition efforts. The research revealed the precariousness of Indian landownership in the United States, even within the boundaries of reservations that were intended to serve as permanent tribal homelands. The historical reality of major transfers of reservation land out of Ojibwe ownership informs tribal land acquisition efforts today. Although the Grand Portage and Leech Lake Bands share a common tribal identify and similar overall histories, they have distinct land tenure histories and landownership statuses today, which has led them to different land acquisition needs and strategies.
Schwoerer, Tobias, U. of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland - To aid research on 'Processes of Pacification in the Eastern Highlands of Papua New Guinea,' supervised by Dr. Jurg Helbling
TOBIAS SCHWOERER, then a student at University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland, received funding in November 2005 to aid research on 'Processes of Pacification in the Eastern Highlands of Papua New Guinea,' supervised by Dr. Jurg Helbling. This research analyzed the processes leading to the elimination of traditional warfare in the Eastern Highlands of Papua New Guinea under Australian colonial rule. Fieldwork was undertaken in four communities among three different ethno-linguistic groups in the Okapa and Obura-Wonenara districts, exploring variations in political dynamics, methods of conflict settlement and patterns of warfare between the communities, and evaluating group-specific social, political and cultural norms that shaped different responses to pacification. Through oral history interviews with eyewitnesses of the colonial period, it became clear that the forms, conduits and results of intercultural interactions between the inhabitants of the four communities and representatives of the colonial administration were central elements in the process, so were informal judicial institutions and their role in either successfully preventing inter-group violence in one area or failing in the other. Modalities and intensity of warfare, styles of political leadership as well as traditional methods of peace settlement all had a significant impact on the trajectory of pacification. Fieldwork was supplemented by archival research in the National Archives of Papua New Guinea and Australia, as well as through interviews with retired colonial officers to further contextualize data from the field. This study illuminates the 'indigenous articulations' of colonial history - the perspective of indigenous witnesses and participants who experienced the transition from traditional warfare to colonial peace and (in some communities at least) back to 'tribal fighting' today.
Haanstad, Eric J., U. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI - To aid research on 'Global Policing Enacted: An Ethnographic Analysis of International Law Enforcement in Thailand,' supervised by Dr. Katherine A. Bowie
ERIC J. HAANSTAD, then a student at University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin, received funding in December 2002 to aid research on 'Global Policing Enacted: An Ethnographic Analysis of International Law Enforcement in Thailand,' supervised by Dr. Katherine A. Bowie. Research pursued an ethnographic examination of the Thai police. To provide historical contextualization for the project, the grantee used archival sources to gather police histories, Thai-language works on police-related topics, and interviews with retired Thai police officers. This portion of the research is expected to result in the flrst extensive English language history of the Thai police. Using an 'incident-based' methodology, fieldwork focused on three major police social-order campaigns: a three-month drug suppression campaign, a three-month 'War on Dark Influence,' and the massive security preparations for the Asian Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) meetings in Bangkok. These campaigns culminated in a national public spectacle in December declaring a 'drug- free Thailand.' Ethnographic data was drawn from a wide variety of sources including more than a hundred interviews (with Thai police officers, DEA agents, taxi drivers, hospital administrators and the director of the Thai Forensic Science Institute); Thai TV news coverage of coundess police raids; anti-drug music recordings of classically-trained police singers; and issues of 'Top Cop' magazines with glossy centerfolds of SWAT teams and automatic weaponry. Using this data, research shows how social control is part of a local cultural-historical context and how the police are key performers/ symbols in the construction of order by the state.
Machicek, Michelle Lynn, U. of Sheffield, Sheffield, UK - To aid research on 'Elucidating Complexity in Mobile-Pastoralist Societies: A Study in Subsistence Strategies, Environmental Adaptation and Social Practice,' supervised by Dr. Andrew T. Chamberlain
MICHELLE LYNN MACHICEK, then a student at University of Sheffield, Sheffield, United Kingdom, was awarded funding in October 2009 to aid research on 'Elucidating Complexity in Mobile-Pastoralist Societies: A Study in Subsistence Strategies, Environmental Adaptation and Social Practice,' supervised by Dr. Andrew T. Chamberlain. In the distant past until the present day, communities practicing various forms of mobile-pastoralism have come to characterize the vast steppe lands of Inner Asia. However, the details and complexities of this occurrence remain poorly understood. This research utilized data -- analyzed and recorded from samples of human skeletal material -- to address variation and similarities in dietary regimes of discrete communities inhabiting this region. The samples utilized for this research are derived from archaeological contexts, ranging in date from ca. 2500 BCE to CE 1300. Evidence relating to dietary regimes was obtained through a comprehensive study of stable carbon and nitrogen isotopic analyses of human and faunal bone collagen. Further evidence was obtained from a detailed recording of dental pathological conditions and dental wear patterns. Dietary change and continuity over time was addressed through a program of radiocarbon dating in correlation with the results from the stable isotope and dental analyses. The results of this project have shed light on the degree of variation in dietary regimes of mobile-pastoralist groups which inhabited distinct ecological zones throughout the study region from differing time periods. The results have provided a measure for assessing dietary regimes of these groups with more informed and contextualized interpretations.
Blake, Elizabeth C., U. of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK - To aid research on 'Stone Tools as Portable Sound-Producing Objects in Upper Palaeolithic Contexts,' supervised by Dr. Ian Cross
ELIZABETH C. BLAKE, then a student at University of Cambridge, Cambridge, United Kingdom, was awarded funding in October 2007 to aid research on 'Stone Tools as Portable Sound-Producing Objects in Upper Paleolithic Contexts,' supervised by Dr. Ian Cross. Sounding stones, or lithophones, are instruments known to have been used in many societies. Until recently, however, there have been no diagnostic criteria for identifying lithophones archaeologically. Building upon previous work, the current project has further developed use-wear guidelines for lithophone identification. The criteria were formed through extensive use-wear and acoustic experiments. Subsequently, these criteria were applied to stone tools from a number of French Upper Palaeolithic sites (c. 40-10ky BP) that retain evidence for art or other forms of symbolic behaviour. Lithics studied included the stone tool assemblage from the site of Grotte d'Isturitz, which was found in association with some of the earliest known bone pipes dated to approximately 36ky BP. This project also involved the exceptional Solutrean laurel leaf implements from the site of Volgu and a cache of five Magdalenian long blades from the Grotte de Labastide, found in a cave wall niche amid a significant amount of 'art.' In the case of the finely crafted Solutrean lithics and Magdalenian long blades, standard 'functional' interpretations do not adequately explain the reasons behind their existence and depositional context. It is quite possible that their creation and use could have had a social significance unbounded by modern conceptions of what a stone 'tool' can be used for. The data collected through this phase of research has validated aspects of the experimentally established use-wear criteria and also indicated future areas for criteria expansion.
Robertson, Mary Denise, U. of Chicago, Chicago, IL - To aid research on 'Marketing 'Race': Investigating Racial Identities and Cultural Expertise in South African Marketing Research,' supervised by Dr. William Mazarella
Preliminary abstract: In post-apartheid South Africa, the figure of 'the Black consumer' has become the focal point for key tensions surrounding 'race' and identity. While marketers and advertisers are under increasing pressure to tap the spending power of Blacks, what it means to be both 'Black' and a consumer is contested, both within the industry and in broader society. While some see the rise of Black spending power as a marker of political freedom (Posel 2010), others see it as evidence of cultural loss, with the Black elite being accused of having lost their identity and of being 'coconuts' -- brown on the outside, but white on the inside (Matlwa 2007). At the same time, racial identity itself is being commodified. Following fierce criticism of the way White advertisers had gone about representing 'Black culture' in their ads in the early years of post-apartheid South Africa (Kuzwayo 2000), Black South Africans -- both rich and poor -- are entering the previously white-dominated marketing research industry, valued for their cultural expertise in 'being Black'. How do those in the marketing research industry, occupying diverse positions within the South African social landscape, negotiate the relationship between racial identity and consumption in their day to day interactions and in the knowledge they produce? This project will investigate this question by conducting ethnographic research of two marketing research companies, each of which position themselves as specialists in researching the 'emerging Black market' -- the term used by the industry to gloss Black South Africans conceptualized as potential consumers.
Gardner, Andrew M., U. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ - To aid research on 'Cities of Strangers: Transnational Labor and 'De-Nationalization' in the Persian Gulf,' supervised by Dr. Michael Bonine
ANDREW M. GARDNER, while a student at the University of Arizona in Tucson, Arizona, received funding in December 2002 to aid research on transnational labor and 'de-nationalization' in the Persian Gulf, under the supervision of Dr. Michael Bonine. Gardner explored the relationship between host and laborer in contemporary Bahrain, which, like the other petroleum-rich nations of the Arabian Gulf, hosts a large and diverse workforce from around the globe. Gardner focused on the largest and oldest of those laboring contingents, the Indian population. Using ethnographic methods, he examined the diversity of the Indian population, the social institutions that reiterated Indian identity in the foreign context, and the kinds of strategies utilized by Indians and other foreigners to deal with the hardships of life in the region. As a case study, the project was designed to contribute to the collective knowledge of transnational migration flows outside western Europe and North America.
Gardner, Andrew M. 2008. Strategic Transnationalism: The Indian Diasporic Elite in Contemporary Bahrain. City & Society 20(1):54-78
Wobber, Victoria Elizabeth, Harvard U., Cambridge, MA - To aid research on 'Cognitive Development in Chimpanzees and Bonobos: Novel Perspectives on the Evolution of Human Cognition,' supervised by Dr. Richard W. Wrangham
VICTORIA E. WOBBER, then a student at Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts, received funding in April 2009, to aid research on 'Cognitive Development in Chimpanzees and Bonobos: Novel Perspectives on the Evolution of Human Cognition,' supervised by Dr. Richard W. Wrangham. Human cognition is central to our species' uniqueness, determining our cultural sensibilities and facilitating our ability to use language. Understanding the developmental origins of cognitive abilities provides further insight into how human cognition differs from that of other animals. The development of numerous human traits has been altered relative to other primates, such as the advent of adolescent growth spurts in height and of menopause. However, little comparative work has determined how humans' cognitive development is distinct. This project assessed cognitive development in humans' two closest living relatives, bonobos (Pan paniscus) and chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). Bonobos have been suggested to be paedomorphic, or 'juvenilized,' in the development of their skeletal features in comparison to chimpanzees. This project tested the hypothesis that bonobos are also cognitively paedomorphic relative to chimpanzees. Bonobos were found to exhibit delayed development in their skills of physical cognition, or knowledge of the physical world, though their social cognitive skills developed comparably to those of chimpanzees. These results suggest that developmental patterns were under selection in recent ape evolution. Similar shifts in human development may have resulted from convergent selection pressures in bonobos and humans, for example in the reduction of aggression in both species.
LaHatte, Kristin Margaret, U. of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA - To aid research on ''Don't Hand Your Stomach Over to Just Anyone:' Development Aid and Personal Social Relations in Haiti,' supervised by Dr. Ira Bashkow
Preliminary Abstract: Development aid advocates a normative ethos of professionalism that foregrounds equality between providers and recipients while discouraging personal relationships that could lead to accusations of corruption, nepotism and dependency. These personal relationships are understood to undermine the inculcation of values such as transparency and accountability that are encouraged by development aid providers. And yet, in many of the places that development aid operates, recipients consider personal relationships--gift exchange, food sharing, and long-term commitments--not only appropriate, but also obligatory. Haiti is a particularly rich site to examine this dissonance as the social relations that Haitians most value directly conflict with the relational model promoted by development. While Haitian appraisals of development aid are overwhelmingly negative, one exception I found during my preliminary fieldwork was 'twinning:' parish-to-parish development projects between Catholic churches in the US and Haiti, which emphasize the creation of personal relationships. Given this contrast between the ethos of professionalism and the ethos of 'twinning,' I hypothesize that Haitians evaluate development aid through the very creation of the personal relationships that the ethos of professionalism in development discourages, rather than merely through the criteria of project goals and effectiveness. Through a twelve month ethnographic exploration of two food aid projects in Haiti, this research will examine how aid recipients evaluate and compare development organizations and their projects and what broader meanings such evaluations hold.
Arntzen, Kristen K., Washington U., St. Louis, MO - To aid research on 'Complex Hunter-Gatherers and Subsistence Intensification: The Middle and Late Archaic of the American Midwest,' supervised by Dr. Fiona Marshall and Dr. Patty Jo Watson
KRISTEN K. ARNTZEN, while a student at Washington University in St. Louis, Missouri, was awarded a grant in December 2001 to aid research on subsistence intensification among complex hunter-gatherers in the American Midwest during the Middle and Late Archaic periods, under the supervision of Dr. Fiona Marshall and Dr. Patty Jo Watson. Arntzen's interdisciplinary archaeological project at the Allscheid Rockshelter in southwestern Illinois was designed to examine long-term socioeconomic change among delayed-return Archaic hunter-gatherers. The project provided a new, upland perspective on continuing processes of settlement and subsistence intensification, a perspective critical for understanding transitions to sedentism and early agriculture in prehistory. Arntzen mapped deep excavation profiles for Middle and Late Archaic cultural layers (ca. 7000-4000 B.P.) and obtained a suite of radiocarbon dates, which together offered a picture of shifting regimes of sediment deposition and changing site use by humans. This work was supplemented by the creation of a topographic map of valley morphology surrounding the shelter, which made it possible to evaluate hypotheses about human influence on mid-Holocene landscape change. Additionally, the topographic data were used in an ecological survey of arboreal plant taxa around the shelter, which were to aid in evaluating plant procurement strategies indicated by material excavated at the site. The resulting temporal, geological, and geographical resolution for the site and its surroundings was necessary to accurately portray specific local configurations of socioeconomic complexity and strategies of intensification among prehistoric hunter-gatherers.