Meierhoff, James Walter, U. of Illinois, Chicago, IL - To aid research on 'Historic Tikal: Refugee Exploitation of the Last Maya Frontier,' supervised by Dr. Joel Palka
JAMES W. MEIERHOFF, then a student at University of Illinois, Chicago, Illinois, was awarded funding in April 2013 to aid research on 'Historic Tikal: Refugee Exploitation of the Last Maya Frontier,' supervised by Dr. Joel Palka. The project investigated the remains of a nineteenth century village at the ancient Maya City of Tikal. This village is contemporaneous with the migration of Yucatec-speaking Maya who were fleeing the violence of the Caste War of Yucatan, and settled in the sparsely occupied frontier zone on the edge of three distinct colonial and national entities: Mexico, Guatemala, and British Honduras. It is hypothisized that the positioning of this village in an area conceived of as frontier space by the surrounding societies facilitated the ability the inhabitants to renegotiate trade and social relationships with these groups. In 2014, four historic households were investigated by locating their stone hearths and associated trash deposits with metal detectors. The trash deposits surrounding the habitation sites suggest a robust trade relationship with the outlining societies. Foreign trade items of metal, glass, and 'white wear' ceramics were found in abundance, and often in reusable condition. Local forest products, such as diverse animal remains and possibly reused ancient stone tools, were also present. Continued analysis of the artifacts from the historic Tikal village will continue to inform on life in the Last Maya Frontier, and the materiality of the refugee experience.
Cowgill, Libby Windred, Washington U., St. Louis, MO - To aid research on 'Ontogeny of Long Bone Diaphyses in Immature Late Pleistocene Postcrania,' supervised by Dr. Erik Trinkaus
LIBBY W. COWGILL, then a student at Washington University, St. Louis, Missouri, was awarded a grant in April 2006 to aid research on 'Ontogeny of Long Bone Diaphyses in Immature Late Pleistocene Postcrania,' supervised by Dr. Erik Trinkaus. While studies of adult remains have identified patterns of temporal variation in postcranial robusticity, relatively less research has focused on possible differences in developmental trajectories that result in variable levels of skeletal robusticity in the adult form. This study aims to clarify the developmental basis for the acquisition of adult postcranial strength in both Late Pleistocene and Holocene humans by addressing two research questions: When during growth do the differences in postcranial strength that differentiate Late Pleistocene and Holocene adults manifest themselves in subadults? Are immature Late Pleistocene individuals attaining postcranial strength at the same rate and following the same pattern as Holocene subadults? Cross-sectional geometry was used to compare the developmental trajectories of humeral, tibial, and femoral growth in Late Pleistocene Neandertal and modern human subadults (N=104) to a sample of immature humans from seven geographically diverse Holocene populations (N=621). The results of this research indicate that populational differences in postcranial robusticity emerge early in development. While many of these differences are likely related to activity pattern variation, the early onset of populational variation during growth implies that other factors, including nutrition and genetics, may play an important role in the development of long bone strength. While individual variation is common, cross-sectional geometric properties of immature Late Pleistocene individuals generally show modestly elevated levels of postcranial strength. These results highlight the complex mosaic of processes that result in adult postcranial robusticity, and suggest that further exploration of the developmental interplay between intrinsic and extrinsic influences on skeletal robusticity will likely enhance our understanding of adult postcranial morphology.
Cowgill, George L. 2015. We Need Better Chronologies: Progress in Getting Them. Latin American Antiquity 26(1):26-29.
Cowgill, Libby W. 2010. The Ontogeny of Holcene and Late Pleistocene Human Postcranial Strength. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 141(1):16-37.
Cowgill, Libby W. 2007. Humeral Torsion Revisited: A Functional and Ontogenetic Model for Populational Variation. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 134(4):472-481.
Cowgill, Libby W., Erik Trinkaus, and Melinda A. Zeder. 2007 Shanidar 10: A Middle Paleolithic Immature Distal Lower Limb from Shanidar Cave, Iraqi Kurdistan. Journal of Human Evolution 53(2):213-223.
Cowgill, Libby W., Anna Warrener, Herman Pontzer, and Cara Ocobock. 2010. Waddling and Toddling: The Biomechanical Effects of an Immature Gait. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 143(1):52-61.
Cowgill, Libby W., Courtney D. Eleazer, Benjamin M. Auerback, et al. 2012. Developmental Variation in Ecogeographic Body Proportions. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 148(4):557-570.
Roy, Arpita, U. of California, Berkeley, CA - To aid research on 'Particle Physics and the Anthropology of Right and Left,' supervised by Dr. Paul Rabinow
ARPITA ROY, then a student at University of California, Berkeley, California, received funding in November 2007 to aid research on 'Particle Physics and the Anthropology of Right and Left,' supervised by Dr. Paul Rabinow. In November 2009, the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN, Switzerland, is slated to start high-energy proton collisions as a probe into the structure of matter and forces of nature. The research project inquires into modern cosmology through a specific and concrete concept -- chirality or handedness -- with the underlying question, 'What does physics admit of orientation?' If physics presupposes a separation of mind and matter, or subject and object, then how can it base a physical universe with a preferred orientation? If it does not, then what is the relevance of handedness in its discourse? As an object of study in symbolic classification, handedness has a rich genealogy in anthropological thought. The project draws upon and integrates classical anthropological themes with ongoing fieldwork experience at CERN to establish how the concept acquires its present rationality in the framework of relativistic quantum mechanics and symmetries of space-time. Not only are particular concepts (of physics) like momentum, velocity or spin implicated in the study of chirality, but also other abstract ones of space, substance, relation, and form. It is to this discussion that the research makes a contribution. The research is timely both for what it says about the substantive nature of physics and about collaborative practices more generally.
Wille, Sarah J., Indiana U., Bloomington, IN - To aid research on 'The Social Role of Objects: Investigating Artifact Life Histories at Chau Hiix, Belize' supervised by Dr. K. Anne Pyburn
SARAH J. WILLE, while a student at Indiana University in Bloomington, Indiana, received funding in November 2004 to aid research on 'The Social Role of Objects: Investigating Artifact 'Life Histories' at Chau Hiix, Belize,' under the supervision of Dr. K. Anne Pyburn. Analysis of Maya ceramics and other artifacts addressed specific questions concerning the function and meaning of an elaborate, site-center deposit near an important civic-ceremonial structure, while also considering the social role of deposited objects. Research provided a clearer picture of Later Classic period (ca. AD 800-1100) artifacts at Chau Hiix. Preliminary analysis of material in 2003 suggested the deposit served as an offering. Three systems of artifact classification (typological, analytical, and biographical) were employed to help evaluate the hypothesis that the deposit resulted from ritual termination action in the Terminal Classic, a period in Northern Belize characterized by continuity and change. Additional research involved intra-site comparative analysis of the data with similar ritual artifact assemblages from Later Classic burials and several caches. Over 5200 diagnostic ceramics and approximately 3700 lithic fragments were analyzed, and a representative sample was illustrated and photographed, as were all unique material finds including modified bone and shell, jade, and obsidian. While research will require further scrutiny of the data, preliminary results suggest the huge quantity of open vessel forms, stylized blackware vases, and unique material items do not indicate the deposit was an everyday midden, and instead represent the remains of some type of termination ritual, feasting event, or deposited 'specialized' trash.
MacLeod, Joshua Peter, Brown U., Providence, RI - To aid research on 'Mega-Projects, Nature, and Social Movements in Post-Conflict Guatemala,' supervised by Dr. Kay B. Warren
JOSHUA P. MacLEOD, then a student at Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island, received funding in October 2011 to aid research on 'Mega-Projects, Nature, and Social Movements in Post-Conflict Guatemala,' supervised by Dr. Kay B. Warren. This dissertation fieldwork grant funded ethnographic research realized in 2012 based in Guatemala City and in the highland towns of Nebaj and Chajul, Quiché, on changing forms of social mobilization and violence in Guatemala. The research project focuses on the construction of natural resource based 'mega-projects'-such as hydroelectric dams or open-pit mines-by the Guatemalan government and transnational corporations and the communal and national responses to these mega-projects, especially by indigenous communities and organizations. The research involved three areas of investigation: an analysis of the politico-economic transformations that have contributed to the current emphasis on the extraction and accumulation of natural resources; an investigating into what extent recent indigenous mobilizations are a resurgence of identity politics or a new socio-political moment where indigenous peoples are articulating an alternative political agenda for all citizens; and an exploration of how historical memories of counterinsurgent violence are resonant with contemporary conflicts. Fieldwork was unexpectedly extended by two occurences towards the end of the research period: the eruption of massive social protest in the town of Barillas over a hydro dam and the consequent declaration of martial law; and the trial, conviction, and posterior annulation of the conviction of former head of state, Efraín Ríos Montt, for genocide and crimes against the Ixil-Maya during the Guatemalan civil war in 1982-83.
Carlson, Jennifer Douglass, U. of Texas, Austin, TX - To aid research on 'Generating Landscapes: The Impact of Wind Turbine Installation on Frisian Communities in Coastal Northern Germany,' supervised by Dr. Kathleen C. Stewart
JENNIFER D. CARLSON, then a student at University of Texas, Austin, Texas, received funding in May 2010 to aid research on 'Generating Landscapes: The Impact of Wind Turbine Installation on Frisian Communities in Coastal Northern Germany,' supervised by Dr. Kathleen C. Stewart. This project employed participant observation, interviews, and archival research to explore practices of speculation that have arisen with the advent of renewable energy in rural northern Germany. The spread of wind turbines, solar panels, and bio-gas plants across Ostfriesland, Lower Saxony, as well as an influx of jobs in the environmental sector, have led villagers to see themselves as speculators with an unforeclosed future, in contrast to the rigid caste system that once held sway over their communities. In an atmosphere of development driven by environmental concerns, the possibility of capital gain is twinned with the threat of catastrophe in the public consciousness. Data collected over a year of fieldwork suggest that everyday talk in Ostfriesland is a social poetics where even the most mundane conversations may hold consequences for capital gain and wider economic and environmental stability. Here speculation is the ground of belonging in a world where fortunes, daily routines, social distinctions, and the built environment are in a state of constant flux. This case sheds light on the cultural generativity of renewable energy, with an eye to the social repercussions of eco-capitalist development in formerly preindustrial societies.
Rabey, Karyne Nancy, U. of Toronto, Toronto, Canada - To aid research on 'Forelimb Muscle and Muscle Attachment Morphology in Primates,' supervised by Dr. David R. Begun
KARYNE NANCY RABEY, then a student at University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada, was awarded a grant in October 2010 to aid research on 'Forelimb Muscle and Muscle Attachment Morphology in Primates,' supervised by Dr. David R. Begun. Muscle attachment sites are formed during growth and development and are often used to reconstruct lifestyles and activity patterns of past populations. However, little is understood about the relationship between the appearance of bony features and the structure and function of the associated attaching soft-tissues. First, this research investigated whether muscle markings on the forelimbs reflect muscle size, strength and activity of orangutans and macaques from the Toronto Zoo. Preliminary results show that muscle attachment area seems to correspond to the physiological cross-sectional area and the fiber length values. This relationship was then further explored by testing how activity influenced the morphological development of the shoulder muscles and the corresponding attachments in wild-type mice subjected to three experimental activity patterns: sedentary-control, activity-wheel running, and activity-climbing. Analyses of fiber length and muscle weight indicate that wheel-running mice had greater overall excursion. The rate of bone growth was significantly greater in wheel-running mice than the other groups. However, the climbing mice showed more histologic variation in bone growth remodeling. These results contribute to a better understanding of how muscle and bone interact throughout their development and improve our ability to interpret behavior from human and non-human primate skeletal remains.
Rabey, N. Karyne, David J. Green, Andra B. Taylor, et al. 2015. Locomotor Activity Influences Muscle Architecture and Bone Growth but not Muscle Attachment Site Morphology. Journal of Human Evolution 78(1):91-102.
Goldfarb, Kathryn Elissa, U. of Chicago, Chicago, IL - To aid research on 'National-Cultural Ideologies and Medical-Legal Practices: Infertility, Adoption, and Japanese Public Policy,' supervised by Dr. Judith Brooke Farquhar
KATHRYN E. GOLDFARB, then a student at the University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois, received a grant in April 2009, to aid research on 'National-Cultural Ideologies and Medical-Legal Practices: Infertility, Adoption, and Japanese Public Policy,' supervised by Dr. Judith Brooke Farquhar. Only 9% of the 40,000 children in Japanese state care live with foster parents, and there are less than 500 annual adoptions in which an adult adopts an unrelated and unknown child. Many people claim that fostering and adoption will never be common practices because Japanese people prioritize blood relationships in families. This research is an effort to separate ideologies surrounding blood relationships from factors within the child welfare system that shape family practices, and to understand, on a systemic level, the relationships among people, institutions, and legal structures that shape contemporary family practices in situations where 'family' cannot be taken for granted. This project is a multi-sited ethnographic study based on participant-observation and interviews with people involved in three distinct constructions of family: couples that pursue infertility treatment; families with adopted or foster children; and people involved in institutional care and these care recipients. The grantee argues that cultural ideologies valorizing blood relationships are institutionalized within the child welfare system itself, particularly in the ways that notions of 'parental rights' effectively prevent children's placement in foster or adoptive care. Rather than solidifying kinship, it is posited that blood relationships can be a very real source of danger and dissolution.
Valles, Dario, Northwestern U., Evanston, IL - To aid research on 'Provedoras Unidas: Latina Migrant Family Child Care Providers Negotiating Poverty, Power & Organized Labor in Neoliberal Los Angeles,' supervised by Dr. Micaela di Leonardo
DARIO VALLES, then a graduate student at Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois, was awarded funding in October 2013 to aid research on 'Provedoras Unidas: Latina Migrants Family Childcare Providers Negotiating Power, Poverty and Organized Labor in Neoliberal Los Angeles,' supervised by Dr. Micaela di Leonardo. The dissertation project explores the everyday lives of Latina migrant family childcare (FCC) providers and low-wage mothers in Los Angeles, California, as they build community for economic and social justice. Ethnographic research was collected on family childcare providers who serve mostly low-income families, through life history interviews and at activist and union events and meetings. During this time, FCC providers escalated a statewide campaign to ensure better pay from state subsidies and to increase funding for early childhood education. Initial findings delineate the tightrope providers walk affirming the emotional and care bonds to the children they work with, while also remaining critical of the California's post-recessionary austerity politics. At the same time, providers' identity is situated in their ability to provide 'flexible' care essential to the 21st century economy, where many of their low-wage clients work around-the-clock to make ends meet. Life history interviews with providers reveal traces of similar experiences of migration from Mexico and Central America and positioning in Los Angeles' racialized division of labor as low-wage manufacturing and service workers. Ethnographic participation with FCC union activists reveals how recent labor and educational policy shifts intertwine with racial and gendered histories in constructing Latina motherhood in the public sphere, and the ways in which migrant women reshape these understandings and make new claims to political and economic citizenship.