Johnson, Caley Anne Szewczak, City U. of New York, Graduate Center, NY - To aid research on 'Baboon Diet in the Forest and Savanna: An Intraspecific Comparison of Nutritional Goals,' supervised by Dr. Jessica Rothman
CALEY JOHNSON, then a graduate student at City University of New York Graduate Center, New York, New York, was awarded funding April 2014 to aid research on 'Baboon Diet in the Forest and Savanna: An Intraspecific Comparison of Nutritional Goals,' supervised by Dr. Jessica Rothman. During the Plio-Pleistocene, early hominins fed in increasingly open habitats and their diets diversified, including woody/herbaceous and grass-derived foods. Foraging in this new environment is linked with a suite of changes since our last common ancestor with apes, including bipedalism and encephalization. From our savannah origins, it is hypothesized that humans have little evolutionary experience with high-fat and sugary foods. Therefore, modern humans tend to overconsume energy and maintain protein intake, contributing to an obesity crisis. The objective of this study was to model how habitat shapes nutrient priorities in an omnivorous primate, the baboon, which like humans is known for its ecological and dietary flexibility. Feeding observations and collection of food and feces were utilized to assess the nutritional consequences of diet changes during hominin evolution. Numerous studies of stable carbon isotope reconstruction assume that in a forested landscape, individuals did not access and consume grass-derived foods. This study found that rainforest-dwelling baboons in Uganda consume significant amounts of grassy piths. However, that stable carbon isotopes of baboon excreta masks the presence of grass-derived foods. These new results from a forest-dwelling omnivorous primate advise a more nuanced consideration of carbon stable isotope analyses regarding hominin habitat and diet reconstruction.
Anderson, Christine Broughton, U. of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA - To aid research on 'Uncovering and Recovering Cleared Galloway: The Lowland Clearances and Improvement in Scotland,' supervised by Dr. H. Martin Wobst
CHRISTINE B. ANDERSON, then a student at the University of Massachusetts, Amherst, Massachusetts, was awarded funding in October 2010, to aid research on 'Uncovering and Recovering Cleared Galloway: The Lowland Clearances and Improvement in Scotland,' supervised by Dr. H. Martin Wobst. The concept that clearing the tenant and cottar classes off the land in Galloway, Scotland, during the eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries was constructed in tandem with the more popular account of the Highland clearances and the ideology of improvement framed this research project. This concept made the tenant and cottar classes who experienced clearing invisible while also whitewashing the underlying violence and oppression. The goal of this research project was to understand how clearance was manifest in the 'improvement strategies' used by landowners and, more broadly, how the creation, maintenance, and subversion of power were carried out within developing agrarian capitalism. Archival evidence and results from the landscape survey support that strategic choices made by landowners to agriculturally improve their estates resulted in the clearing of tenants and cottars. Written leases and other documentation outlined changes to be carried out on the landscape that drastically altered tenant lifeways. Physical evidence on the ground correlated with the written documentation and is archaeologically significant. The research to date asserts that the practice of clearing in the Lowlands was more nuanced than its Highland counterpart; the ideological and physical processes that constituted agricultural improvement were processes of clearing.
Murphy, Daniel Joseph, U. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY - To aid research on 'Communal Resource Management and Rural Inequality in Post-Socialist Mongolia,' supervised by Dr. Peter Deal Little
DANIEL J. MURPHY, then a student at University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky, received funding in May 2007 to aid research on 'Communal Resource Management and Rural Inequality in Post-Socialist Mongolia,' supervised by Dr. Peter Deal Little. This project investigated the ways in which increasing rural inequality in post-socialist Mongolia has altered common-property resource management institutions, access to pastoral resources, and resources use patterns. The researcher carried out this project in the third bag (Uguumur district) of Bayankhutag soum (county), Khentii aimag (province) in eastern Mongolia and employed a range of qualitative and quantitative methodologies (including participant observation, surveying, semi-structured and unstructured interviewing, and case-study analysis) to investigate the research questions. The project found that general socio-economic inequality and commercialization in pastoral society, rather than solely absentee herd-ownership as hypothesized, has fostered divergent herd management practices and resource use strategies. Moreover, the research has found that these changes, in combination with neo-liberal governance reforms such as decentralization, have altered community dynamics and the effectiveness of community level institutions to regulate resource use. This research will contribute to: 1) new understandings of common property systems and theories of 'community;' 2) expansion of anthropological investigations of property relations under post-socialism to common-property systems; and 3) anthropological studies of pastoral inequality.
Di Nunzio, Marco, U. of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom - To aid research on 'Ethiopian Good Fellas: Unemployment, the Politics and Imagination of Addis Ababa's Youth,' supervised by Dr. David Pratten
MARCO DI NUNZIO, then a student at the University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom, was awarded funding in May 2010, to aid research on 'Ethiopian Good Fellas: Unemployment, the Politics and Imagination of Addis Ababa's Youth,' supervised by Dr. David Pratten. This research is an examination of the impact that the strategies of political mobilization of the ruling party, the Ethiopian People's Revolutionary Front (EPRDF), have had on the life of street youth over the last six years in the old city center of Addis Ababa (Ethiopia). By looking at the political success of the ruling party in the 2010 national elections from the perspective of the street youth, this study provides new insights into the way in which the state power produces marginality in urban Ethiopia. The design of micro-credit schemes and the establishment of cooperatives and small enterprises comprised the means that the ruling party employed to successfully mobilize 'street unemployed youth.' This process, however, did not consist of taking the urban youth away from the street. Rather, it relied on keeping the 'street actors' in the street while making them dependent on the government for their own survival. By studying these dynamics, this research argues that the making of marginality in Ethiopia consists of the emergence of a political delimitation of terrains of actions for the poor. In these terrains, street actors -- while continuing to struggle to make a living -- navigate and reproduce their condition of political subjects, and at the same time experience the margins and the limits of their social exclusion.
Schulthies, Becky L., U. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ - To aid research on 'Media Scripts and Interpretive Processes in Arab Domestic Discourse,' supervised by Dr. Norma Mendoza-Denton
BECKY L. SCHULTHIES, then a student at University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona, was awarded a grant in July 2004 to aid research on 'Media Scripts and Interpretive Processes in Arab Domestic Discourse,' supervised by Dr. Norma Mendoza-Denton. The objective of this study is to investigate how media scripts and language ideologies contribute to Moroccan and Lebanese domestic dialogues and interpretations of current transnational events. Media scripts refer to television and radio input or information circulated through entextualization processes (embedded direct and indirect quotations and references framed by a particular discussion). These media scripts include stories, statistics, historical dates, anecdotes and projections that Moroccan and Lebanese families utilize and manage in interpretive discussions. Given the array of multilingual and Arabic dialect programming available in Morocco and Lebanon, language ideologies play a significant role in which media scripts are appropriated and how they are managed in family settings. This research merges the ethnography of media reception with careful linguistic analysis of domestic discourse in order to understand the social life of media scripts within domestic conversations and family collaborative interpretive processes as they relate to viewing practices. Video and audio-recordings of fifteen families in Morocco and eight in Lebanon were made while they watched television several times a week over a period of three months. Informal interviews were conducted with family members to background the media sources and specific social, historical, and economic factors shaping the landscape in which these families assemble interpretive frameworks. Conversation and discourse analysis techniques were applied to selected transcripts to show how participants are orienting to media, assuming linguistic stances in relation to transnational identities, and evaluating truth-value of information through deixis, intonation, gesture and topic control.
Hobaiter, Catherine Louise, U. of St. Andrews, St. Andrews, Fife, United Kingdom - To aid research on 'Gestural Communication in Wild Chimpanzees of Budongo, Uganda,' supervised by Dr. Richard William Byrne
CATHERINE HOBAITER, then a student at University of St. Andrews, Fife, United Kingdom, was awarded funding in October 2007 to aid research on 'Gestural Communication in Wild Chimpanzees of Budongo, Uganda,' supervised by Dr. Richard Byrne. In the first systematic study of gestural communication in wild chimpanzees, the grantee sought to compare her findings with previous results from captivity. First analyses have focused on possible routes of acquisition. Research on captive great apes led to the idea that ape gesture repertoires consist of signals with different ontogeny: species-typical displays biologically inherited, invariant in all populations, used automatically and in fixed ways; and ontogenetically ritualized gestures, communicative signals, shaped from effective actions, then subsequently used intentionally and flexibly. Recent work on gorilla gestures challenged this partition, reporting little difference in flexibility or intentionality between obvious species-typical gestures and those that might potentially have been ritualized. The grantee examined data from wild chimpanzees to see which account fitted best. There were no differences in flexibility or intentionality (persistence, response-waiting, audience-effects) between species-typical or potentially ritualized gestures, or any sign of the idiosyncratic or 'one-way' gestures expected from an ontogeny in dyadic shaping. Most strikingly, the grantee found significant differences between the physical forms of the gestures and the actions from which they were presumed to be ritualized. The research concludes that chimpanzees possess an extensive repertoire of biologically inherited gestures, used flexibly in intentional communication.
Zorbas, Konstantinos, U. of Cambridge, Cambridge, United Kingdom - To aid research on 'Interactions Between Shamans and Clients in a Siberian City,' supervised by Dr. Piers G. Vitebsky
KONSTANTINOS ZORBAS, while a student at the University of Cambridge in Cambridge, England, was awarded a grant in March 2003 to aid research on interactions between shamans and clients in a Siberian city, under the supervision of Dr. Piers G. Vitebsky. Zorbas studied episodes of illness and performances of shamanic healing in the city Kyzyl, Republic of Tyva, Russia. Focusing principally on healing interactions between shamans and their clients, he found that occurrences of psychosomatic suffering were effectively managed by being explained as results of witchcraft or curses practiced by an enemy. Follow-up evaluations of patients' post-treatment conditions led to the conclusion that shamanic healing entailed therapeutic effects, even for clients who reported prior recourse to professional medical treatment with partial or no positive results. The efficacy of shamanic healing was seen to lie in the use of certain literal and metaphoric elements of ritual language that engaged both shaman and patient in a process of recollecting and restructuring traumatic memories. Similarities in the responses elicited from shamans and patients regarding their experiences of the therapeutic process suggested that the experience of healing was embodied through culturally mediated sensory modes of attention to the performance. Zorbas concluded that the meaning the experience of illness held for the patient derived from a psychologically embedded preoccupation with cursing and its implications. Shamanic healing went beyond the limits of the consultation to evoke an overall transformation in the patient's awareness of self.
McInnis, Heather E., U. of Oregon, Eugene, OR - To aid research on 'Middle Holocene Culture and Climate on the South Coast of Peru: Archaeological Investigations of the Pampa Colorado,' supervised by Dr. Madonna L. Moss
HEATHER E. McINNIS, while a student at the University of Oregon in Eugene, Oregon, received funding in November 2001 to aid research on economic specialization and the transition to sedentism among the creators of coastal Archaic shell middens in southern Peru, under the supervision of Dr. Madonna L. Moss. A survey of twenty-five square kilometers of the Pampa Colorada coastal desert plain, one of the few regions in the south-central Andes to have yielded a Middle Holocene date (5490 B.P.), was designed to identify and evaluate regional changes in settlement and subsistence economies and in the abundance and availability of natural resources in the area. Test excavations in twenty-three of one hundred documented sites provided evidence of occupation from 9000 to 3000 B.P. Settlement patterns and artifact and faunal assemblages revealed changes in socioeconomic strategies from intensive seasonal fishing and foraging during the Early Holocene to more diversified, marine-based subsistence economies by the late Archaic period. Increasingly hyperarid conditions in the south-central Andes from 8000 to 5000 B.P. and the onset of El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) events by 5000 B.P. may have prompted coastal fishers to settle seasonally at the juncture of multiple ecozones. These settlement and subsistence adjustments may have provided a basis for the development of sedentary fishing communities by the Late Holocene. Ethnographic interviews with Peruvian fishermen working in coastal zones close to the Pampa Colorada supplemented these data and provided a basis for modeling the development of resource specialization among coastal foragers.
Cohen, Saul, U. of Toronto, Toronto, Canada - To aid research on 'Contested Natures: Managing Indigenous and Scientific Environmental Knowledge in Botswana's CBNRM Program,' supervised by Dr. Sandra C. Bamford
SAUL COHEN, while a student at the University of Toronto in Toronto, Ontario, received funding in December 2003 to aid research on the intersection of development, tourism and environment in a Bugakhwe San community in northern Botswana, while under the supervision of Dr Richard Lee and Dr Sandra Bamford. Cohen was concerned with a nuanced examination of the micro-politics of the cultural-tourism project called Gudigwa Camp, a community-based project of the village of Gudigwa. Specifically, he examined the application of the 'community' concept within the context of the development project, in light of recent critiques that argue it homogenizes highly variable and internally differentiated social groupings. However, in addition he scrutinized conservation and development practitioners in the same manner to examine if they are subject to their own internal contradictions and conflicts. His research was therefore necessarily multi-sited, with time spent conducting research in the village, camp, and at the development agency offices. In addition to extensive interviews, he participated in many aspects of the rebuilding, running, and management of the camp, including board meetings, staff hiring workshops, camp activities, and training sessions. Cohen's work suggests that understanding the constantly shifting associations and alliances between various entities of each group cannot rely solely upon a conventional and fixed 'practitioner' and 'recipient' dichotomy. Rather it is imperative to read across these traditional lines of contact.
Romer, Johanna Ilene, New York U., New York, NY - To aid research on 'Constructing Violence: Risk, Security, and Criminal Justice Professions in Catalonia,' supervised by Dr. Bambi B. Schieffelin
JOHANNA RÖMER, then a graduate student at New York University, New York, New York, was awarded funding in April 2012 to aid research on 'Constructing Violence: Risk, Security, and Criminal Justice Professions in Catalonia,' supervised by Dr. Bambi B. Schieffelin. Spain has one of the highest rates of incarceration in Europe, and 45% of Catalan inmates are foreign. Nonetheless, Spain has maintained a rehabilitative prison system that originated in the post-Franco era. This ethnographic research (2012-2013) investigated the production of concepts of civil society in a prison bureaucracy in Barcelona. Focusing on the activities of prison treatment teams, composed of psychologists and other professionals, it shows how teams demonstrated civic values and moral stances towards prisoners and the state. The project highlighted teams' efforts to care for a diverse population of violent offenders also at risk for self-harm. It found that prevention practices focused on self-harm were an important component in violence treatment programs. It also found that teams sought to develop ideologies of sincerity in treatment relationships, which in practice situate sincerity as the embodiment of a particular political-economic relationship to the state. Teams lacked shared communicative resources with inmates, as well as stances toward government and authority. Showing how teams typified and communicated Spanish and Catalan ideas about the appropriate expression of emotion and violence to inmates, this project contributes a perspective that incorporates ideas of personhood to ongoing scholarship on the construction of civility and security in Europe.