Moffett, Elizabeth Ann, U. of Missouri, Columbia, MO - To aid research on 'Effect of Cephalopelvic Proportions on Anthropoid Pelvic Morphology and Integration,' supervised by Dr. Carol V. Ward
Preliminary abstract: Although birth selection is thought to be one of the most important pressures shaping the pelvis, it remains unclear if and how obstetric selection produces consistent changes in pelvic form among primates with rigorous birth demands in comparison to species with relatively easy labors. This is a significant problem, as there is a discrepancy between the hypothesized importance of birth in shaping the pelvis and what we know about the effects of obstetric demand on pelvic morphology. What are the patterns of dimorphism in the shapes and sized of the birth canal within primate species, and do these patterns correspond to obstetric demand? What patterns of dimorphism in the birth canal, if any, are shared by species with large cephalopelvic proportions? How do patterns of dimorphism in the birth canal correspond to patterns of dimorphism in the non-obstetric pelvis? How does obstetric demand shape integration patterns in the primate pelvis? These gaps significantly hinder the interpretations we can make about functional pelvic morphology in extant and extinct primates, including hominins. This study aims to explore the effects of birth-related selection on the morphology of the primate bony pelvis using three dimensional landmark coordinate data from the birth canal and non-obstetric pelvis within both obstetrically constrained and obstetrically unconstrained anthropoid species. Enhanced understanding of the effects of obstetric demand on pelvic form will provide valuable contributions to several theoretical areas, including the evolution of large cephalopelvic proportions among hominins and other primates, and form-function relationships in the anthropoid pelvis.
Delezene, Lucas Kyle, Arizona State U., Tempe, AZ - To aid research on 'Coevolutionary Models and the Hominin Canine Honing Complex,' supervised by Dr. William H. Kimbel
LUCAS K. DELEZENE, then a student at Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona, was awarded a grant in October 2008, to aid research on 'Coevolutionary Models and the Hominin Canine Honing Complex,' supervised by Dr. William H. Kimbel. Pleiotropy (i.e., a single gene effects multiple phenotypic characters) is hypothesized to play a significant role in the production of adaptations for functionally linked characters. This study tested the following hypotheses; 1) pleiotropy between anterior (incisors and canines) and posterior teeth produces a negative correlation for their sizes; 2) pleiotropy is strong between the canines and incisors; 3) the pattern of pleiotropy differs between males and females for characters of the canine honing complex, which has caused the complexes to evolve differentially in males and females; 4) patterns of pleiotropy are stable among anthropoids (monkeys and apes); and 5) pleiotropy strongly biased primate dental diversification. This study found that patterns of pleiotropy are conserved among species, though subtle differences exist between taxa. Despite this shared pattern, dental diversification has frequently occurred in directions not predicted by pleiotropy. For the honing complex, the pleiotropic organization and coevolution of its components in males and females is the same, which undermines arguments that the complex is selectively important only in males. Finally, there is no evidence for strong or negative pleiotropy between any dental characters, which falsifies hypotheses that predict such relationships between incisors and postcanine teeth or between the canines and the postcanine teeth.
Delezene, Lucas K., and William H. Kimbel. 2011. Evolution of the Mandibular Third Premolar Crown in Early Australopithecus. Journal of Human Evolution 60(6):711-730.
Valentine, Benjamin Thomas, U. of Florida, Gainesville, FL - To aid research on 'Isotopic Perspectives on Migration and Identity: A View From the Harappan Hinterland,' supervised by Dr. John Krigbaum
BENJAMIN T. VALENTINE, then a student at University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, received funding in April 2011 to aid research on 'Isotopic Perspectives on Migration and Identity: A View from the Harappan Hinterland,' supervised by Dr. John Krigbaum. Indus Civilization cemetery burials provide an important opportunity for understanding the interaction between migration and identity in ancient urban South Asia. Life history data from the multi-isotope analysis of Integration Era (2600-1900BC) individuals at the lowland sites of Harappa (n=45) and Farmana (n=21) inform a mortuary analysis that seeks to embed the social dimensions of mortuary practices within a context of interregional interaction and highland-lowland exchange. Carbon and oxygen isotope data are variable but show little intra-cemetery patterning. Strontium and lead isotope data, however, suggest nearly all inhumed individuals were first generation immigrants separated in early childhood from natal groups living in the resource-rich highlands. Further analyses are needed to confirm the trend, but initial interpretations are best explained by fosterage. Known to be practiced in historical South Asia, fosterage can simultaneously create relationships of mutual obligation and hierarchical differentiation between culturally distinct groups. By contrast, isotope data from post-urban Sanauli suggest geographic origin demarcated identity less clearly during the Localization Era (1900-1300BC). If validated by further work, this archaeological case study helps to understand the complex outcomes of migration across urban cultural boundaries.
Bunce, John A., U. of California, Davis, CA - To aid research on 'Behavioral Genetics of Color Vision for a Wild Neotropical Monkey,' supervised by Dr. Lynne A. Isbell
JOHN A. BUNCE, then a student at the University of California, Davis, California, received funding in May 2005 to aid research on 'Behavioral Genetics of Color Vision for a Wild Neotropical Monkey,' supervised by Dr. Lynne A. Isbell. Under what ecological circumstances does trichromatic color vision (affording the capacity to distinguish red from green) provide an advantage over dichromatic vision ('red-green' colorblindness) for primates in natural forest environments? To answer this question, the foraging and predator avoidance behaviors of wild dichromatic and trichromatic individuals of the Neotropical monkey Callicebus brunneus were compared. Genetic samples were collected from the members of five C. brunneus monogamous groups for the determination of each individual's vision type (di- or trichromatic). Each group was followed for an average of 25 days over a nine-month period in 2006. Simultaneous continuous behavioral observations were collected from the adult female (usually trichromatic) and adult male (invariably dichromatic) in each group, with special attention to foraging events and the use of risky (high/exposed) microenvironments. Of the 1409 observed foraging events for the five monkey groups, trichromatic vision was potentially advantageous in about half of the events (696), namely, those involving yellow, orange, or red food items. These data will be used to determine if trichromatic females differ from their dichromatic male mates in terms of the types and colors of foods eaten, the propensity to lead foraging forays, and the use of risky microenvironments.
Shapiro, Darshana Fay, Rutgers U., New Brunswick, NJ - To aid research on 'The Functional Anatomy of Trabecular Bone in the Ilia of Living and Fossil Primates,' supervised by Dr. Robert S. Scott
Preliminary abstract: Understanding locomotion in the past is critical for the interpretation of the hominid fossil record. This issue has recently reemerged in the debate about the locomotor and positional behavior, and thus the phylogenetic position, of Ardipithecus ramidus, but has been of primary anthropological importance since Dart's description of Australopithecus africanus as a biped, linking that trait to the human lineage. Reconstructions of the locomotor regimes of fossil primates have largely relied on analyses of external pelvic morphology, comparing the anatomy of the fossils to that of living primates. Advances in non-destructive imaging have provided another approach to reconstructing loading history, via the internal trabecular architecture of certain skeletal elements. The proposed research seeks to answer the question: Is the internal trabecular architecture of the primate ilium diagnostic of specific locomotor regime? Or, put another way, what locomotor behaviors cause specific trabecular patterns? A series of hypotheses regarding the causal relationship between locomotor mode and trabecular architecture in extant primates will be tested via high resolution x-ray computed tomography. The pairing of trabecular patterns with locomotor regimes in the living comparative sample will then enable the testing of locomotor hypotheses for the fossil primates Rudapithecus hungaricus and Australopithecus afarensis.
Li, Darryl Chi-Yee, Harvard U., Cambridge, MA - To aid research on 'Another Universalism? Transnational Islamist Movements and Bosnia-Herzegovina,' supervised by Dr. Engseng Ho
DARRYL CHI-YEE LI, then a student at Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts, received a grant in April 2008 to aid research on 'Another Universalism? Transnational Islamist Movements and Bosnia-Herzegovina,' supervised by Dr. Engseng Ho. This project analyzes how Arab Islamists -- especially ex-fighters and aid workers -- in Bosnia-Herzegovina reconciled their pan-Islamist commitments with their experiences of cultural, racial, and doctrinal difference vis-a-vis Bosnian Muslims. This research was conducted between September 2009 and July 2011 based in Sarajevo and Zenica, with trips to Brcko, Bugojno, Travnik, Tuzla, and Visoko. Extensive ethnographic life-history interviews were conducted with Arab immigrants in Bosnia-Herzegovina, with a focus on ex-combatants and NGO workers. These interviews took place in a variety of locales, including family homes, cafes, during roadtrips, offices, and an immigration detention center. A similar number of Bosnians who fought alongside, married, or worked with such individuals were also interviewed at length. Archival research supplemented this data, including Bosnian court records and administrative papers; army and state documents gathered by the UN International Criminal Tribunal for ex-Yugoslavia; wartime and post-war newspaper and magazine collections; and Islamic booklets and pamphlets produced by and about Arab Islamists in Bosnia-Herzegovina.
Radeva, Mariya Ivanova, City U. of New York, Graduate Center, New York, NY - To aid research on 'Frontiers of Progress, Landscapes of Enchantment: Sustainable Development in Postsocialist Europe,' supervised by Dr. Katherine Verdery
MARIYA I. RADEVA, then a student at City University of New York Graduate Center, New York, New York, received funding in October 2010 to aid research on 'Frontiers of Progress, Landscapes of Enchantment: Sustainable Development in Postsocialist Europe,' supervised by Dr. Katherine Verdery. This dissertation project focused on one territorially exceptional space -- Strandzha Nature Park in Bulgaria -- in order to ask how the creation of 'sustainable' public goods such as nature parks since the 1990s has commodified previously non-commodified objects and how this process is resisted or contested. Data collected through interviews with experts, archival research, and participant observation suggest an uneven temporality of the process, beginning in late socialism and continuing today. Yet a critical transformation of value occurred in the 1990s, when aid from foreign development agencies was made conditional upon nature conservation. Swapping differently valued objects in the then expanding green market altered the macroeconomic terrain. Different mechanisms were used to disburse large amounts of project funding to reform land tenure, build civil society, and preserve the environment. While never a singular force, investing new value in nature has had fascinating effects. A coalition of green NGOs emerged, who vie for legislative power and manifest as a civic social movement. The localities cut out for conservation experienced dramatic change because devalued socialist assets have been revalued as natural and cultural heritage. Such revaluation articulated with the creation of new forms of global intangible commodities in UNESCO's world heritage preservation.
Gomes, Cristina M., Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, Leipzig, Germany - To aid research on 'The Dynamics of Social Exchanges in Wild Chimpanzees of the Tai Forest, Cote d'Ivoire,' supervised by Dr. Christophe Boesch
CRISTINA M. GOMES, then a student at Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, Leipzig, Germany, was awarded a grant in June 2004 to aid research on 'The Dynamics of Social Exchanges in Wild Chimpanzees of the Tai Forest, Cote d'Ivoire,' supervised by Dr. Christophe Boesch. This project investigates the dynamics of social exchanges in female and male wild chimpanzees of the Taï National Park (Côte d'Ivoire), by considering grooming, aggression, aggressive support, food sharing and copulations as commodities that can be traded between individuals in a biological market. Data on these and other social interactions were collected in the South Community of the Tai Chimpanzee Project, between July 2004 and February 2006. Information collected was used to construct giver and receiver matrices to test hypotheses of general and direct reciprocity. Preliminary analysis showed that chimpanzees in the Taï Forest did not follow a general rule of directing grooming more frequently towards those with whom they associated the most or those of the same rank or age class. However, both female and male chimpanzees gave more grooming to those individuals from whom they received more grooming in return. This finding supports the hypothesis that wild chimpanzees exchange social acts such as grooming for grooming, suggesting that such exchanges could be part of a more complex biological market, where other commodities are exchanged. Further analysis will be done to investigate if other social acts such as food sharing, copulation and support are exchanged between and within sexes and if these are affected by market pressures.
Robertson, Mary Denise, U. of Chicago, Chicago, IL - To aid research on 'Marketing 'Race': Investigating Racial Identities and Cultural Expertise in South African Marketing Research,' supervised by Dr. William Mazarella
Preliminary abstract: In post-apartheid South Africa, the figure of 'the Black consumer' has become the focal point for key tensions surrounding 'race' and identity. While marketers and advertisers are under increasing pressure to tap the spending power of Blacks, what it means to be both 'Black' and a consumer is contested, both within the industry and in broader society. While some see the rise of Black spending power as a marker of political freedom (Posel 2010), others see it as evidence of cultural loss, with the Black elite being accused of having lost their identity and of being 'coconuts' -- brown on the outside, but white on the inside (Matlwa 2007). At the same time, racial identity itself is being commodified. Following fierce criticism of the way White advertisers had gone about representing 'Black culture' in their ads in the early years of post-apartheid South Africa (Kuzwayo 2000), Black South Africans -- both rich and poor -- are entering the previously white-dominated marketing research industry, valued for their cultural expertise in 'being Black'. How do those in the marketing research industry, occupying diverse positions within the South African social landscape, negotiate the relationship between racial identity and consumption in their day to day interactions and in the knowledge they produce? This project will investigate this question by conducting ethnographic research of two marketing research companies, each of which position themselves as specialists in researching the 'emerging Black market' -- the term used by the industry to gloss Black South Africans conceptualized as potential consumers.