Koh, Kyung-Nan, U. of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA - To aid 'Corporate Discourses about 'Giving': An Ethnographic and Discourse Based Study,' supervised by Dr. Gregory P. Urban
KYUNG-NAN KOH, then a student at the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, received an award in November 2004 to aid research on the rhetoric and practices of corporate social responsibility in the U.S., under the supervision of Dr. Gregory P. Urban. Research was conducted at two different companies in Pennsylvania and in an island of Hawai`i, and was concerned with how corporate social responsibility help companies relate to the community and develop corporate personhood. The research focused on areas of corporate giving, community engagement, and marketing, and data was gathered in the form of internal documents and audio or digital photographic recordings of everyday work activities, meetings, and social gatherings. The data sets show that corporate outgoing 'texts' and 'things' undergo a meticulous entextualization process and that during the dynamic processes of their production, are mobilized as collective representations that appeal to imagined rather than contacted communities: as tools for recruiting interests from, and relating the corporation to, various socio-cultural groups that have potentials to enter into exchange relations. In a sense, contemporary displays and performances of social responsibility are corporate communicational attempts to locate audiences and form entrusting relationships, for employees that cope with uncertainties about maintaining organizational continuity.
Bachand, Holly S., U. of California, Berkeley, CA - To aid research on 'Formative Mesoamerican Cylinder Seals and Stamps: A Study of Their Function and Meaning,' supervised by Dr. Rosemary A. Joyce
HOLLY S. BACHAND, then a student at University of California, Berkeley, California, received funding in July 2002 to aid research on 'Formative Mesoamerican Cylinder Seals and Stamps: A Study of their Function and Meaning,' supervised by Dr. Rosemary A. Joyce. It has long been assumed in Mesoamerica that Formative period cylinder seals and stamps were used to paint the body or textiles worn on the body. The objective of this research was to investigate the form, manufacture, iconography, and contexts of these objects to make inferences about social identity and cultural interaction, since practices like bodily adornment are closely tied to people's social identities. The sample of 321 specimens, from publicly held collections in Mexico, Guatemala, Honduras, and Belize was photographed, measured, and drawn. Manufacturing methods were noted, and where possible ceramic paste and temper were described. Additionally, 47 pigment residue samples were taken and identified using a polarized light microscope. There are many correlates in design and iconography that suggest widespread networks across Mesoamerica. Yet the majority of stamps and seals exhibit manufacture and design features that are clearly of local invention. Distribution patterns indicate that the practice probably diffused from the Valley of Mexico, where the longest and most vibrant tradition of cylinder-seal use exists. Nevertheless, there is nothing prototypical about the styles and designs of stamps and seals either within or beyond the Valley of Mexico. This diversity implies diverse agents and networks were involved in the spread of the practices and the manufacture of these objects.
Park, Joowon, American U., Washington, DC. - To aid research on 'Belonging in a House Divided: Violence and Citizenship in the Resettlement of North Koreans to South Korea,' supervised by Dr. Adrienne Pine
Preliminary abstract: Violence -- visible and invisible, intentional and unintentional - permeates the experience of forced migrations, shaping and defining every phase of resettlement processes. Since the majority of forced migrants experience acute violence(s) in displacement, it is necessary to examine how violence operates in the ways in which citizenship is constructed and constituted as they attempt to integrate into host societies. Citizenship is generally conceptualized in the dimensions of status and rights, but where both status and rights are granted to people recognized as refugees in integration processes, this study goes beyond the juridical-political aspects of having status, rights, and duties. Thus, this dissertation research investigates the relations between violence and citizenship through the resettlement and integration of North Korean defectors in Seoul, South Korea and asks: how do wide-ranging forms of violence North Korean defectors experience impact their pathways to and embodiment of citizenship? Through examining the ways in which citizenship is constituted, constructed, claimed, practiced, and imagined in relation to the multiple embodied experiences and legacies of violence, this ethnographic research explores the lived experiences and subject-making processes of citizenship vis-à-vis refugee resettlement.
Taddei, Renzo R., Columbia U., New York, NY - To aid research on 'The Metapragmatics of Political Disputes Over Water in Ceara, Northeast Brazil,' supervised by Dr. Lambros Comitas
RENZO R. TADDEI, then a student at Columbia University, New York, New York, received a grant in October 2003 to aid research on 'The Metapragmatics of Political Disputes Over Water in Ceara, Northeast Brazil,' supervised by Dr. Lambros Comitas. This research focused on the socio-semiotic dimensions of new participatory arenas for water allocation in the Jaguaribe Valley, in the semi-arid hinterlands of the State of Ceará, in the Brazilian Northeast. The field research, carried out during 2004, involved over one hundred interviews with farmers, community leaders, politicians, technicians, government agents, individuals knowledgeable in traditional rain forecast techniques (locally called 'rain prophets'), journalists and local researchers in the areas of water management and meteorology. Additionally, rain prophets' meetings were filmed, as were basin-level water committee meetings in the Jaguaribe, Banabuiú and Curú Valleys, meetings of the State Water Resources Council and the international climate outlook fora that take place in Fortaleza. The research was complemented by broad-reaching archival research in local newspapers. A central element being studied, namely the disputes for authority and legitimacy to lead collective action, in committee discussions as well as in daily productive activities (like farming decisions), was addressed through the documentation and analysis of how authoritative discourses were created in the political game. Three institutionalized rituals were picked as case studies: the annual rain prophets' meeting, the climate outlook forum of Fortaleza, and the water allocation meeting that takes place in the Jaguaribe Valley. In each of these cases, the research gathered evidence of how semiotic manipulations - that is, transformation of meanings associated to environmental issues - are used strategically or are 'bricolaged' towards envisioned goals, by different stakeholders involved in the political process.
Johnsen, Scott A., U. of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA - To aid research on 'Ritual and Reform: Bali-Hinduism in the Indonesian Nation-State,' supervised by Dr. Peter A. Metcalf
SCOTT A. JOHNSEN, while a student at the University of Virginia in Charlottesville, Virginia, received funding in July 2001 to aid research on Balinese Hinduism in Indonesia, under the supervision of Dr. Peter A. Metcalf. Johnsen's goal was to determine how the practices and interpretations of Balinese rituals might be changing as Bali shifted from a hierarchical, 'Indic' model of social organization to a model oriented toward inclusion and egalitarian values in the Indonesian nation-state. He conducted eighteen months of research based in the city of Bangli, the capital of the regency of the same name and the home of formerly influential court families. He collected data through a combination of participant observation of city temple rituals and life-cycle rituals, interviews with ritual participants and religious and political authorities, and study of the mass media. Two main issues were pursued: the nature and influence of the construct 'Balinese Hinduism' as promulgated by the National Hindu Council, local authorities, laymen, and school authorities and the ways in which local government had both adopted and transformed many of the ritual duties formerly thought to be the prerogatives of royal families. Johnsen gathered data on the use of the concept 'one god' in Balinese Hinduism and on the frequently heard idea that Balinese had only recently come to understand their religion. He obtained views of social rank and its place in contemporary Bali by interviewing participants in intercaste marriages and in funerals of upper-caste persons attended by lower caste persons. Interviews with members of former royal families and government authorities and attendance at government-sponsored rituals enabled Johnsen to understand how local government conceived of itself as the heir to the duties of the former royal families.
Naqvi, Tahir, H., U. of California, Berkeley, CA - To aid research on 'Urban Citizenship and Ethno-Modernity in
Pakistan,' supervised by Dr. Stefania Pandolfo
TAHIR NAQVI, then a student at University of California, Berkeley, California, received funding in June 2002 to aid research on 'Urban Citizenship and Ethno-Modernity in Pakistan,' supervised by Dr. Stephania Pandolfo. Between July 2003 and May 2003 the researcher conducted fieldwork in Karachi, Pakistan. He proposed to explore a recent urban ethno-nationalist formation called the Muhajir Nationalist Movement (MQM). The leading research objective was to account for the conditions of possibility, form, and antagonistic politics of Muhajir nationality in light of its uniquely provisional articulation of nationalist difference. Muhajir ethno-nationalist discourse does not uphold a fixed or essentialized vision of its political community, or subject. This has significant implications for how postcolonial nationalism, minoritism, and anti-state and collective violence can be represented in the globalized present. Through interviews, participant observation of MQM party life, and archival analysis of official and unofficial materials, the grantee examined how Muhajir political violence can only partially be characterized as 'nationalist.' Research disclosed the significance of the urban democratic transition in ordering violence. By analyzing praetorian political rationality's spatialized production of urban political citizenship, the grantee elaborated key disjunctures in the experience of citizenship during democratization (1989-1999). Through popular and official narratives, the researcher explored the spatialized ambiguity between violence, identity that emerged during this period.
Daspit, Lesley L., Purdue U., West Lafayatte, IN - To aid research on ' Market Women in Central Africa: Transnational Interface of Wildlife Commerce & Conservation,' supervised by Dr. Melissa J. Remis
LESLEY L. DASPIT, then a student at Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana, received funding in October 2007 to aid research on 'Market Women in Central Africa: Transnational Interface of Wildlife Commerce and Conservation,' supervised by Dr. Melissa J. Remis. This dissertation project examines the roles of women in the commerce and conservation of wildlife in the Dzanga-Sangha Dense Forest Reserve (RDS), Central African Republic (CAR). Commercialized hunting and trade of wildlife is seen as the largest threat to wildlife in this region. To date, the majority of research and policy has centered on men as hunters, while undervaluing women as stakeholders. Within the RDS, wildlife is an increasing component of livelihoods, despite conservation efforts targeted at reducing dependence upon it. The current research focuses on a group of market women at the center of this trade. It combines gender analysis and ethnography to understand shifting human-wildlife relations within a fluctuating economy. It also explores the relationships between market women's activities and broader conservation and development policies through interview and archival research at key environmental NGOs in Washington, DC and CAR. Findings from this research demonstrate how women's roles in a wildlife economy intersect with movements of people, economic opportunities, and environmental ideologies. Further, these findings suggest that women are spatially and ideologically removed within the commerce and conservation of wildlife and shed light on how this impacts women's abilities to effectively contribute to sustainable development within the region.
Skrabut, Kristin Joy, Brown U., Providence, RI - To aid research on 'Only the 'Truly Needy' Need Apply: Exploring Formal/Focal Intersections in Peru's Fight Against Poverty,' supervised by Dr. Kay B. Warren
DR. STEPHEN WALTER SILLIMAN, University of Massachusetts, Boston, Massachusetts, received a grant in October 2010, to aid research on 'Beyond Change and Continuity: Native American Community Persistence in Colonial New England.' Funding supported an archaeological project on the impacts of colonialism on Native American communities in southern New England, specifically the Eastern Pequot's reservation (established in 1683) in southeastern Connecticut. The project was oriented toward tackling a larger conceptual issue: the problem of discussing Native American societies in colonial periods as either changing or staying the same, rather than understanding how they did both (or neither) on trajectories of 'persistence.' The project had two goals: 1) to search for elusive 17th-century sites from the founding decades of the reservation; and 2) to excavate a newly identified late 18th-century household to understand variations during that period. Despite intensive searching with shovel test-pits in a never-before-tested section of the reservation, no sites sought in the first objective were located. The second objective was met with great success. A late 18th-century Eastern Pequot house site was located, mapped, and excavated, producing approximately 4,500 artifacts, 3,500 animal bones, and 14 kg of shellfish remains associated with what was once a wooden house with window glass, nailed frames, rock chimney, cellar, and trash pits. Its results have contributed significantly to the interpretation of Native American reservation history and cultural persistence in the face of economic, material, and political pressures.
High, Casey, London School of Economics, London, United Kingdom - To aid research on 'From Enemies to Affines: History, Identity, and Changing Inter-Ethnic Relations among the Waorani of Amazonian Ecuador,' supervised by Dr. Peter Gow
CASEY HIGH, then a student at London School of Economics, London, United Kingdom, was awarded funding in December 2002 to aid research on 'From Enemies to Affines: History, Identity, and Changing Inter-Ethnic Relations among the Waorani of Amazonian Ecuador,' supervised by Dr. Peter Gow. This research began as a study of how the Waorani, an indigenous group of Amazonian Ecuador, construct peaceful relations both between local groups and with their indigenous Quichua neighbors, with whom they have a history of violent conflict. In addition to focusing on changing interethnic relations in the region, the project considered how local people engage representations of the past in establishing ethnic and other identities in relation to non-Waorani groups. Collecting narratives of past violence revealed that detailed imagery of violent death, narrated generally from the perspective of the victim group, is a central idiom by which Waorani people make moral commentary on intergroup and interpersonal relationships. While the research initially considered such local uses of historical representations, a particularly violent event that occurred in the Waorani territorial reserve during fieldwork led the researcher to examine the meanings contemporary intergroup violence has for local people. In May 2003, a group of men from a Waorani village attacked a distant enemy group, referred to locally as 'Taromenani', leaving some 25 people dead. Although nobody in the community where the fieldwork was conducted was harmed or directly involved, local villagers were familiar with and closely related to those who perpetrated the attack and were profoundly concerned with the implications of the event. By recording the frequent descriptions Waorani people made of the attack, the killers and their victims, the researcher was able to examine ethnographically how local people represent violence, interpret its causes, and react to such conflicts.
High, Casey. 2009. Victims and Martyrs: Converging Histories of Violence in Amazonian Anthropology and U.S. Cinema. Anthropology and Humanism 34(1):41-50.108
High, Casey. 2009. Remembering the Auca: Violence and Generational Memory in Amazonian Ecuador. Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute 15(4):719-736.
High, Casey. 2010. Warriors, Hunters, and Bruce Lee: Gendered Agency and the Transformation of Amazonian Masculinity. American Ethnologist 37(4):753-770.