Solomon, Daniel Allen, U. of California, Santa Cruz, CA - To aid research on 'Coexistence and Conflict: Associative Techniques of Humans and Rhesus Macaques in Northern India,' supervised by Dr. Susan Friend Harding
DANIEL A. SOLOMON, then a student at University of California, Santa Cruz, California, received a grant in October 2008 to aid research on 'Coexistence and Conflict: Associative Techniques of Humans and Rhesus Macaques in Northern India,' supervised by Dr. Susan Harding. This research focused on the often problematic relationships between humans and rhesus macaques in and around 'monkey temples' in Delhi and Shimla, India. The project had two focuses: first, the ways in which humans and rhesus monkeys associated with one another in everyday contexts; and second, how monkeys were talked about in media and political narratives about problems like monkey attacks and crop destruction. Urban macaques make their livings on handouts from devotees of the monkey-like god Hanuman and on the edible refuse left behind by dense urban crowds and patchy waste-handling infrastructure. So as monkey management programs have begun to take off in earnest, questions around waste management and the distribution of public resources have been highlighted. Debates about what to do with problematic monkeys have often taken the form of a critique of Indian modernization and government competence in general, but these debates have also provided spaces for re-evaluating governmental and religious protections afforded to animals vis-à-vis the travails of underserved classes of people. These particular issues offer urban Indians spaces for experimenting with different techniques for mitigating the most adverse effects of coexistence between social species, and for re-imagining the ethics of social protections and resource distribution.
Hefner, Claire-Marie, Emory U., Atlanta, GA - To aid research on 'Shaping Muslim Subjectivities: Gender, Piety, and Modernity in Indonesian Islamic Boarding Schools,' supervised by Dr. Michael Gates Peletz
CLAIRE-MARIE HEFNER, then a student at Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia, received funding in April 2011 to aid research on 'Shaping Muslim Subjectivities: Gender, Piety, and Modernity in Indonesian Islamic Boarding Schools,' supervised by Dr. Michael G. Peletz. How do young Indonesian Muslim school girls learn and engage with what it means to be a proper, pious, and educated woman? How do differences in understandings of proper Muslim femininity reflect broader variations in Indonesian associations, educational traditions, and social values? These are the broad questions that frame this comparative study of two Islamic boarding schools for girls in Yogyakarta, Indonesia. The focus of the investigation is two prominent Islamic boarding schools (pesantren): Pesantren Krapyak Ali Maksum and Madrasah Mu'allimaat Muhammadiyah. Each school is run, respectively, by one of the two largest Muslim social welfare organizations in the world: the 'traditionalist' Nahdlatul Ulama (NU) and the 'modernist' Muhammadiyah. These two schools were selected because of their national reputations and because of the critical role they play in molding future NU and Muhammadiyah female kaders (cadres). At a time when many scholars suggest that the distinctions between NU and Muhammadiyah are no longer relevant, this study questions that assertion through the optics of developments in Indonesian Islamic education, evaluating what it means for these young women to be members of these organizations. As private institutions with strong academic reputations, Mu'allimaat and Krapyak also cater to the needs and desires of the new Indonesian Muslim middle-class. Through ethnographic observations, a multivariate student survey, over 100 interviews, and media analysis, this study examines girls' engagement with 'gendered' aspects of curricula, extracurricular practices, and informal socialization within and outside of school.
McLay, Eric Boyd, U. of Victoria, Victoria, Canada - To aid research on 'Ancestral Landscapes on the Northwest Coast: Inland Shell Middens, Memory Work and Coast Salish Narratives,' supervised by Dr. Quentin Mackie
Preliminary abstract: This PhD dissertation proposes to explore social memory and the depositional practices associated with 'inland shell middens' in the Gulf of Georgia region, British Columbia, Canada. Discovered atop mountain hilltops and valleys distant from modern shorelines, inland shell middens defy ethnographic expectations and normative ecological models of hunter-gatherer foraging behaviors based on efficiency and least-cost economic principles. These investigations will examine whether the depositional practices associated with inland shell middens may represent evidence for new strategies of ritual practice beginning in the Marpole Phase (2550 to 1000 calBP), where past Coast Salish peoples gathered, feasted and ritually-deposited foods and other offerings to commemorate and commune with ancestors and non-human beings on the landscape. Survey, remote sensing and small-scale excavations will explore site chronologies, stratigraphic contexts, features and genealogies of practices associated with the deposition of foods and materials. To move beyond the deeply-plumbed Northwest Coast ethnographic literature to interpret the archaeological past, this research will draw upon dialogues with descendant Coast Salish communities today about how their cultural beliefs, values, experiences and daily practices associated with the ancestral dead and non-human beings powerfully shape Coast Salish understandings of their own settlement history.
Cakirlar, Canan, Tubingen U., Tubingen, Germany - To aid research on 'Coastal Adaptations of Troy: The Molluscs,' supervised by Dr. Hans-Peter Uerpmann
CANAN CAKIRLAR, while a student at Tubingen University, Tubingen, Germany, was awarded a grant in November 2005 to aid research on 'Coastal Adaptations of Troy: The Molluscs,' supervised by Dr. Hans-Peter Uerpmann. A coastal survey was conducted in the vicinity of Troy, Turkey, between February 2006 and November 2006 in order to establish a modern mollusk collection that could serve as an analogue to delineate the patterns observed in the archaeomalacological record of Troy. The goal of the survey and subsequent laboratory analyses was to elucidate the mode of shellfishing, with special reference to cockle (C. glaucum) gathering at Bronze Age Troy. Archaeological cockle remains were analyzed in the light of ecological data attained from periodical observations of extant local populations. Seasonal patterns of shell growth disclosed by observations on the internal shell increments of modern cockles were correlated with those of the archaeological cockles in order to determine the harvest time of archaeological shells. The results suggest that the annual pattern of cockle gathering shifted from a seasonally balanced mode of collection in the 3rd millennium BC to a mode of procurement emphasizing summer collection during the 2nd millennium BC in Troy. This shift is related to changes in other areas of subsistence economy at Troy and the geomorphological changes that took place in the Trojan Bay during the course of the Bronze Age.
Scaramelli, Caterina, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA - To aid research on 'Swamps Into Wetlands: Water, Conservation Science and Nationhood in Turkey,' supervised by Dr. Stefan Helmreich
Preliminary abstract: How have wetlands, previously 'swamps' to be drained and reclaimed, become sites of ecological value in Turkey, starting with its participation to the Ramsar Convention on Wetlands of International Importance in 1994? I argue that Turkish wetlands are becoming 'ecological objects' through which debates unfold about national water conservation practices; arenas in which scientists, birders, and citizens work through the relation of human and non-human phenomena in Turkish 'nature'; and venues through which such actors position regional dynamics within national narratives, international politics, and transnational scientific economies. I will conduct fieldwork in two delta wetlands of 'international importance'-- Gediz on the Aegean Sea, and Kizilirmak on the Mediterranean -- with wetland scientists, ornithologists, residents, visitors, and state officials. I will interview older wetland protection advocates as well, and will conduct archival research to track how wetlands have been operationalized in Turkey's scientific and policy circles. Wetlands are becoming novel sites through which national and transnational differences -- religious, ethnic, gender, economic-- as well as matters of international positioning are now negotiated; whether Turkey looks to Europe, the Middle East, or Asia is very much in the making, I suggest, in the wetlands. My project also complicates the anthropological questions of water's materiality and agency, treating it neither as essential to the material form of water itself nor as obviously the result of the underdetermination of material form. I ask, rather: Who decides what constitutes water in the wetland, and through which forms of knowledge and scientific techniques? Which sociotechnical worlds and infrastructures make it flow and how, and make materiality matter or not?
Greene, Lance K., U. of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC - To aid 'An Archaeology of Cherokee Survival: Identity Construction in the Aftermath of Removal,' supervised by Dr. Vin P. Steponaitis
LANCE GREENE, then a student at University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, received funding in March 2006 to aid research on 'An Archaeology of Cherokee Survival: Identity Construction in the Aftermath of Removal,' supervised by Dr. Vin P. Steponaitis. Research included two activities: archival research and archaeological excavations. Archival research was performed at the National Archives in Washington, DC, the special collections at Duke University, the Southern Historical Collection at the University of North Carolina, Western Carolina University, and the courthouse, register of deeds, and historical museum in Murphy, North Carolina. Archaeological excavations were performed at three house sites in Cherokee County, North Carolina. The inhabitants of these sites -- the Welches, Hawkins, and Owls -- were members of the post-Removal Cherokee enclave of Welch's Town. The most extensive excavations were at the house site of John and Betty Welch, the patrons of Welch's Town. Archival, archaeological, and landscape data have provided considerable detail to the Welch's Town narrative and revealed a variety of adaptations pertaining to how these Cherokees survived the intense racism of the post-Removal era in North Carolina. The families of Welch's Town made pragmatic and conscious choices in material culture, reflecting a complex and changing identity bound to issues of race, ethnicity, class, and gender.
Lopiparo, Jeanne L., U. of California, Berkeley, CA - To aid research on 'Household Ceramic Production and Small-Scale Economies in the Terminal Classic Ulua Valley, Honduras,' supervised by Dr. Rosemary A. Joyce - Lita Osmundsen Fellowship
JEANNE L. LOPIPARO, while a student at the University of California in Berkeley, California, was awarded the Lita Osmundsen Fellowship in January 2001 to aid research on household ceramic production and small-scale economies in the Terminal Classic Ulúa Valley, Honduras, under the supervision of Dr. Rosemary A. Joyce. Through fine-grained excavation and analysis of Terminal Classic household sites in the lower Ulúa Valley, Lopiparo documented the dispersed production of fine-paste ceramic artifacts and examined the implications of small-scale production for processes of social integration. The incorporation of locally produced, mold-made ceramic artifacts into rituals of renewal at multiple scales provided evidence of a ritual mode of production for the integration of independent house societies. Stylistic analysis of these artifacts demonstrated how participation in shared production practices both expressed commonalities and established distinctions among households, communities, and regions. Lopiparo advanced a model for the ritual mode of production that suggested the means of integration through which societies were produced and reproduced at the local level in the absence of the sociopolitical and economic centralization characteristic of Classic-period centers in the Maya lowlands. As nexuses for rituals that were fundamental to social production and reproduction, house societies were instrumental in the crafting of society in the Terminal Classic Ulúa Valley.
Berry, Nicole S., U. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI - To aid research on 'Everyday Health Care Interactions and Obstetric Care Use Among Kaqchikel Women,' supervised by Dr. Bruce Mannheim
NICOLE S. BERRY, while a student at the University of Michigan in Ann Arbor, Michigan, received a grant in May 2002 to aid research on the use of obstetric care among Kaqchikel women in Guatemala, under the supervision of Dr. Bruce Mannheim. Berry spent 12 months (September 2002 to August 2003) in Sololá, Guatemala, investigating the influence of everyday interactions between Kaqchikel Mayan women and health-care workers on these women's decisions to seek emergency care during birthing difficulties. She collected data primarily through participant and nonparticipant observation and interviewing. She participated in educational efforts aimed at increasing the quality of emergency obstetric care, both for indigenous traditional birth attendants and for doctors working in the hospital. During two months at the local hospital, she observed 93 obstetric cases that came into the emergency room and recorded a subset of 34 of them. The audio recordings were transcribed with the help of trained assistants. Finally, Berry carried out extensive interviewing in the Kaqchikel village where she lived and the two neighboring villages that composed one health district. She interviewed a randomly chosen sample of 134 women and 15 men about the topic of birth. In each interview she recorded basic demographic information, investigated people's uses of health care resources, and obtained a detailed reproductive history with an emphasis on birthing complications.
Berry, Nicole S.2006. Kaqchikel Midwives, Home Births, and Emergency Obstetric Referrals in Guatemala: Contextualizing the Choice to Stay at Home. Social Science & Medicine 62:1958-1969.
Reisnour, Nicole Joanna, Cornell U., Ithaca, NY - To aid research on 'Sounding the Immaterial: The Sonic Politics of Adat and Agama in Post-Authoritarian Bali,' supervised by Dr. Martin Fellows Hatch
Preliminary abstract: What happens when something invisible is made publicly audible? How do objects and practices that make the unseen perceivable mediate sociality in contemporary Bali? This project is an investigation of the religious and communal attachments that are produced, sustained, and transformed, through specific practices of making and manipulating sound. Through twelve months of ethnographic fieldwork--focusing primarily on the explicitly religious and customary use of bell towers (kulkul) and loudspeakers, but also considering a variety of musical and popular sound practices through which individuals and communities interact with, and intervene in, the immaterial world of spirits and the divine (niskala)--this study will pursue the following research questions: 1) What semiotic ideologies and affective sensibilities mediate engagements with sound in contemporary Bali?; 2) How do the specific material qualities of sounds contribute to their affective and semiotic agency?; and 3) How do sounds participate in negotiating the boundaries of adat (custom), agama (religion), and their various others (e.g. the modern, the secular, the state) in the post-authoritarian context? Ultimately, this study will provide insight into ongoing debates concerning the proper limits of religious and customary authority in Bali, which have been receiving renewed investment since the 1998 collapse of Suharto's New Order regime.
Fujikura, Yasuko, New School U., New York, NY - To aid research on 'Cultural Politics of Badi Families: The Social Impact of AIDS Prevention Projects in Western Nepal,' supervised by Dr. Rayna Rapp
YASUKO FUJIKURA, then a student at New School University, New York, New York, was awarded a grant in May 2003 to aid research on 'Cultural Politics of Badi Families: The Social Impact of AIDS Prevention Projects in Western Nepal,' supervised by Dr. Rayna Rapp. This study focused on the social impact of AIDS prevention projects on reproductive practices in the Badi community, historically considered as a 'prostitute' caste, in the western region of Nepal. The Badi, who are treated as dalit (untouchable caste), had served as entertainers for small rajas (kings) and landlords in the past, and became increasingly dependent on income from women's sex work in the recent decades of migration and urbanization. Badi women became identified as one of the 'high risk groups' by HIV/AIDS prevention projects from the late 1980s, when the WHO and international media predicted that the HIV/AIDS virus would enter Nepal from India through migrant laborers and sex workers. During the 1990s, the identification of specific target areas and groups in the AIDS prevention projects generated various rumors and accusations among other local residents, resulting in renewed discrimination and disputes over the questions of sex work, children's rights, citizenship, and property rights. Through ethnographic fieldwork conducted in a Badi settlement in the urban town of Nepalgunj near the India-Nepal border, this project investigated how the international and domestic AIDS prevention projects create new contexts in which Badi families find possibilities and constraints in their reproductive futures. By identifying subtle transformation through family biographies and life histories, this research documents how people struggle within and against their conditions of life in the context of large social transformations.