Fried, Ruby L., Northwestern U., Evanston, IL - To aid research on 'Intergenerational Impacts of Culture Change: Traditional Food and the Metabolic Functioning of Alaska Native Peoples,' supervised by Dr. Christopher Kawaza
Preliminary abstract: Anthropological studies conducted from Samoa to Siberia have demonstrated consequences of cultural change on human biological variation. Findings point to market integration, 'Westernization,' 'acculturation,' and other social transitions as determinants of changes in diet and lifestyle that lead to increased obesity and metabolic dysregulation in affected populations. While the majority of this research has focused on the direct impacts of such shifts on adult biology, recent work is focusing attention on early life critical periods when experiences can lead to durable biological changes that alter developmental biology and long-term health. As a recent manifestation of this idea, rising rates of maternal obesity, gestational weight gain (GWG), and high blood glucose and triglycerides may be creating an evolutionarily novel, gestational milieu that promotes faster fetal growth, higher birth weights, adiposity, and metabolic dysregulation in offspring. This emerging evidence supports a new hypothesis: the impacts of culture change on human biology do not end with the individual who directly experiences it, but may also be transmitted, via an altered in utero environment, to the next generation. The proposed study aims to test this model of an intergenerational impact of culture change among Alaska Native mother-infant dyads by comparing dietary intake (traditional vs. Western foods) with maternal obesity, GWG, pregnancy metabolism and fetal/infancy growth and adiposity in offspring. Recent and still ongoing cultural and dietary transitions among Alaska Native groups provide a valuable opportunity to evaluate maternal metabolism as a pathway linking rapid culture change with altered growth, body composition and health outcomes in offspring.
An, Linh My, U. of California, Los Angeles, CA - To aid research on 'Mental Illness among Chinese Immigrant Families in New York City,' supervised by Dr. Douglas Wood Hollan
LINH MY AN, then a student at the University of California, Los Angeles, California, was awarded a grant in May 2010, too aid research on 'Mental Illness among Chinese Immigrant Families in New York City,' supervised by Dr. Douglas Wood Hollan. This study investigated the responses to mental illness in Chinese immigrant families in New York City. More specifically, it examined how cultural notions of self, emotional experience, behavioral rules, mental illness, kinship structure, and morality of caring interact with economic and social processes to influence the way females caregivers deal with relatives who are schizophrenic. The overwhelming majority of previous studies of families and mental illnesses focus only on negative aspects of caregiving or the subjective experience of the patient. This previous work has underemphasized and underexplored how families interact to construct shared perspectives of mental illness, normalcy, and recovery. In contrast, this research utilized ethnographic observations and interviews to understand how meaning is constructed in everyday family interactions. It is hoped that study results will complement and extend current understanding of mental illness among immigrant groups who experienced renegotiation of familial and gender roles in the U.S. and elsewhere.
Fox, Jason R., U. of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA - To aid research on 'Continuity and Change in Social Organization of an Early Village Society,' supervised by Dr. Marc P. Bermann
JASON R. FOX, then a student at the University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, received funding in May 2003 to aid research on 'Continuity and Change in Social Organization of an Early Village Society,' supervised by Dr. Marc P. Bermann. Excavations at two Formative Period (ca. 2000 BC- 200 AD) mound sites of the Wankarani Complex in western Bolivia indicate considerable inter-settlement diversity in socioeconomic organization during this period. Using a series of deep trench and test pit excavations (2-5 m) at the settlements of Pusno and Chuquifta, this investigation has revealed sequences of deposits spanning at least six centuries, from ca. 1000 BC to 400 BC. This study represents the first diachronic investigation of the Wankarani Complex, with the objectives of examining settlement variability in both space and time. The broad spatial and temporal excavation samples taken from the two sites permit comparisons of changing site structure and site function using both feature and artifact databases. Contrasts in these databases suggest that these two settlements played very different roles in the Formative Period settlement system of the La Joya area.
Storey, Angela Diane, U. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ - To aid research on 'Contesting Participatory Governance: Social Movements, Service Access, and Citizenship in Cape Town's Informal Settlements,' supervised by Dr. Thomas Park
Preliminary abstract: Significant work in development, governance, and community action across the global south is defined by its participatory nature. Far from referencing a singular set of ideas or practices, the meaning of participation is highly contested and reflects the multiplicity of actors, environments, and histories involved in constructing frames of engagement within a site. In South Africa, social movements emerging from informal settlements have challenged forms of participatory governance adopted by the South African state and encouraged by development aid donors as misrepresentations of local needs used for political ends. Despite this critique, movements call for further participatory projects to ameliorate existing sociopolitical exclusions. My dissertation explores the complex relationships formed between social movements, development groups, local government, and residents working to improve access to water, electricity, and sanitation for informal settlements in the Khayelitsha area of Cape Town, South Africa. Focusing on the tensions between meanings and forms of participation enacted by each group allows the examination of participation as a contested and productive site for understanding broader political changes in South Africa. I ask: How do local struggles over participatory governance shape ideas about citizenship, responsibility, and knowledge production for social movements and residents of informal settlements in Khayelitsha?
McCabe, Carl Wesley, U. of California, Davis, CA - To aid research on 'Informal Institutions and Cooperative Behavior: Motivations for Prosociality by Marketplace Vendors in Beijing, China,' supervised by Dr. Bruce Paul Winterhalder
CARL WESLEY MCCABE, then a student at the University of California, Davis, California, to aid research on 'Informal Institutions and Cooperative Behavior: Motivations for Prosociality by Marketplace Vendors in Beijing, China,' supervised by Dr. Bruce Winterhalder. The grantee conducted nearly a year of ethnographic fieldwork in an open-air marketplace in Beijing, China. During this period, research followed the activities of many of the market's vendors from the time the market opened in the morning until it closed in the evening. Beyond that, the project followed vendors as they conducted many other activities in their daily lives, including leisure and business-related activities. The grantee was able to collect several forms of datasets on individuals in the market, from market-wide surveys, to interviews focused on subsets of the market, to a suite of experimental games. The data collected will contribute to the grantee's investigation of prosocial behavior and models of salient economic, evolutionary biological, and cultural influences.
Collum, Kourtney K., U. of Maine, Orono, ME - To aid research on 'Farmers, Policy, and Pollinator Conservation: Examining the Social and Political Factors that Influence Conservation Agriculture,' supervised by Dr. Samuel Hanes
Preliminary abstract: Despite decades of empirical research examining the factors influencing adoption of conservation agriculture, conservation is still widely treated as a product of farmers' individual choices, rather than a product of the complex social, cultural, and political environments in which it is embedded. This research seeks to elucidate the complex social and political arenas within which agricultural conservation takes place and the ways in which social capital and social networks act as barriers or bridges to individual and collective conservation efforts. Using the triangulation of semi-structured interviews, survey data, and participant observation, the research examines farmers' adoption of bee conservation practices through a comparative study of lowbush blueberry growers in Maine, USA and Prince Edward Island (PEI), Canada. Despite similar ecologies and economies, Maine and PEI have dissimilar policies regarding commercial bee importation which has resulted in distinct pollination management within the two locations: one reliant on commercial honeybees, the other on wild (native) bee conservation. By integrating theory and method from political ecology, social capital, collective action, and network analysis, this research seeks to improve upon current models of conservation agriculture adoption, contribute to theory in agricultural anthropology, and illuminate how agricultural policy influences farmers' ability to respond to environmental change.
Fehrer, Kendra C., Brown U., Providence, RI - To aid research on 'Decentralizing Democracy: Urban Participation in Chavez's Venezuela,' supervised by Dr. Kay B. Warren
KENDRA C. FEHRER, then a student at Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island, was awarded a grant in May 2009 to aid research on 'Decentralizing Democracy: Urban Participation in Chavez's Venezuela,' supervised by Dr. Kay B. Warren. Research investigated the interaction of local citizenship practices with national development policy, and more specifically how citizens participate in a government program designed to foster grassroots democracy. Over the last several decades, political anthropologists studying the state have viewed participatory state programs as techniques of governance, mechanisms of constructing a 'governable subject' amenable to the state agenda. At the same time, development studies scholars have documented emerging participatory programs as institutionalized mechanisms of 'deepening democracy,' providing communities opportunities to expand the range and substance of their claims as citizens. Through twelve months of ethnographic research in a working class community in peri-urban Venezuela, the grantee explored the uneven, partial, and contested interaction of local practices with participatory development programs. Findings indicate that participatory programs -- as sights of negotiation and contestation over public resources -- were altering the mechanisms and meanings of citizen's participation. Specifically, they are circumscribing new practices and categories of citizenship closely tied to consumption of consumer goods, performance of public policy, and proximity to party structures. In a politically and geographically peripheral community far from the national capital, these practices are being contested and negotiated by community members seeking to create their own historical memory, livelihoods, and aspirations.
Lewis, Cecil M., U. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM - To aid research on 'Biological Affinity at Chen Chen, Peru: A Molecular Genetic Study of a Tiwanaku V Community,' supervised by Dr. Anne C. Stone
CECIL M. LEWIS, then a student at the University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, New Mexico, was awarded a grant in May 2002 to aid research on 'Biological Affinity at Chen Chen, Peru: a Molecular Genetic Study of a Tiwanaku V Community,' supervised by Dr. Anne C. Stone. During the Middle Horizon (A.D. 500-1000), materials belonging to the Tiwanaku tradition were present in areas of Bolivia, Peru, Argentina, and Chile. While the geographical breadth of this tradition suggests that it was one of the most influential pre-Inca polities in the Andes, the nature of the Tiwanaku culture is not well understood. Archaeological researchers suggested that within and among some Tiwanaku communities were different ethnic groups sharing a broader Tiwanaku identity. These ethnic groups may have represented Andean ayllus, a form of identity in which group membership was linked to a shared common ancestor. The primary objective of this research was to test the hypothesis that the Tiwanaku community of Chen Chen M1 was composed of multiple maternal ayllus. The assumption of this analysis was that ayllus could be recognized by correlations between mtDNA haplogroups and mortuary data. Thus, nonparametric statistics were applied to mitochondrial DNA haplogroups and mortuary attributes for 23 individuals who were buried within the Chen Chen Ml cemetery. There were no significant correlations among these variables. In conclusion, this multiple matri-ayllu model of the identity was unsupported. In addition to the first objective, the Chen Chen mtDNA data were compared to data from 26 contemporary and one ancient Native American population to evaluate temporal and spatial continuity. Correspondent analysis and chi-square results did not reject the common hypothesis that the Chen Chen community originated from a migration; however, the analyses did support significant levels of gene flow in this region before the influence of Tiwanaku people.
Lewis, Cecil M., Jr., Jane E. Buikstra, and Anne C.Stone. 2007. Ancient DNA and Genetic Continuity in the South Central Andes. Latin American Antiquity 18(2):145-160.
Grabiner Keinan, Adi, Cornell U., Ithaca, NY - To aid research on 'Producing Change on the Ground: Israeli Leftist Groups against the Occupation,' supervised by Dr. Magnus Fiskesjo
ADI GRABINER KEINAN, then a student at Cornell University, Ithaca, New York, received a grant in April 2012 to aid research on 'Producing Change on the Ground: Israeli Leftist Groups against the Occupation,' supervised by Dr. Magnus Fiskesjo. In the last few years, several Israeli leftist groups opposing Israel's occupation in the Palestinian Territories have introduced new forms of protest, aiming to address rapid transformations that enable Israel's regime of occupation. Their members oppose the perception of the occupation as a merely political issue that should be solved through negotiations, and attempt to challenge both the conditions and the effects of the occupation on the ground. Focusing on an ongoing process of protest in East Jerusalem, in which different political movements and activists took part, this study seeks to understand the dialectical relationships between human agency, subjectivity, and socio-cultural structures. Engaging with studies of social movements, broader debates on agency and subjectivity, and scholarship on state formation processes, the first line of inquiry of this research investigates the conditions produced within the framework of the occupation that enable such activism and the forms of agency and subjectivity associated with it; the second focuses on the complex, sometimes contradicting, effects of these forms of activism. Data collected through ethnographic, online, and archival research has the capacity to open new ways for understanding the relationship between political agency, subjectivity, and socio-cultural frameworks, in the case of Israel, and beyond.
De Cesari, Chiara, Stanford U., Stanford, CA - To aid research on 'Cultural Heritage Beyond the 'State'/Palestinian Heritage between Nationalism and Transnationalism,' supervised by Dr. Ian R. Hodder
CHIARA DE CESARI, while a student at Stanford University, California, received funding in January 2006 to aid research on 'Cultural Heritage Beyond the 'State'/Palestinian Heritage Between Nationalism and Transnationalism,' supervised by Dr. Ian Hodder. This research focuses on the relationship between patrimonialization processes and the new forms of governmentality that have emerged during the past decade in the West Bank and Gaza Strip - a political (dis)order characterized by the coexistence of novel forms of Israeli colonial rule, a quasi-state, the Palestinian Authority, as well as the significant presence of international and donor agencies. Taking as starting point the activism of Palestinian civil society organizations, and the relevance of material remains of the past as sites of high discursive density, the research explored heritage discourses and practices, the conditions of their emergence, and the effects of heritage projects on affected local communities. During tenure of the Wenner-Gren grant, the researcher carried out ethnographic fieldwork chiefly within UNESCO and the Hebron Rehabilitation Committee, a Palestinian semi-governmental organization responsible for a major urban rehabilitation project in the old city of Hebron, as well as in the old city itself. Fieldwork indicates the proliferation of different cultures of memory/heritage in the lacerated space of Palestine, rooted in a desire for continuity and roots against dispossession and displacement. While global languages of heritage are appropriated by local actors in the making of a relived Palestinian past, the politics of donors' aid tend to direct flows of monies to restricted, accessible areas, thus reinforcing the current process of bantustanization of the Occupied Territories.
De Cesari, Chiara. 2010. Creative Heritage: Palestinian Heritage NGOs and Defiant Arts of Government. American Anthropologist 112(4):625-637