Klopp, Emily Bernice, Northwestern U., Chicago, IL - To aid research on 'Primate Sexual Dimorphism and Display: Intraspecific Scaling of Craniofacial Features in Male Cercopithecoids,' supervised by Dr. Brian T. Shea
EMILY KLOPP, then a student at Northwestern University, Chicago, Illinois, received funding in October 2006 to aid research on 'Primate Sexual Dimorphism and Display: Intraspecific Scaling of Craniofacial Features in Male Cercopithecoids,' supervised by Dr. Brian T. Shea. The project provides a first and very important test of the theoretical predictions of recent sexual selection models in the socially complex higher primates. The hypothesis predicts that the canine tooth and several bony facial features exhibit intraspecific positive allometry across adult males within each of various highly dimorphic papionin species. Positive allometric scaling for adult males is functionally based in the potential role of sexually dimorphic craniofacial features in 'advertising' or signaling overall male size and fitness to both females and/or other adult male conspecifics. Initial analysis shows the null hypothesis to be supported in Macacafascicularis, Papio anubis/cynocephalus, and Hylobates lar lar but not in Cercopithecus aethiops. Additional analysis on papionin species using accurate size surrogates is forthcoming. This project departs from almost all previous studies of sexual dimorphism in papionins and other primates by focusing solely on male variance and scaling within species, and by testing a specific hypothesized functional explanation for an allometric trajectory.
Klopp, Emily B. 2012. Craniodental Features in Male Mandrillus May Signal Size and Fitness: An Allometric Approach. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 147(4):593-603.
Beliaev, Alexandre B., U. of California, Berkeley, CA - To aid research on 'Specters of Soviet Affinity: Political Participation Among Latvian Noncitizens,' supervised by Dr. Lawrence Mark Cohen
ALEXANDRE BELIAEV, then a student at the University of California, Berkeley, California, was awarded a grant in April 2009, to aid research on 'Specters of Soviet Affinity: Political Participation among Latvian Noncitizens,' supervised by Dr. Lawrence M. Cohen. Latvia's 'noncitizens' are mostly ethnic Russians who settled in Latvia during the Soviet period. Following the restoration of Latvian independence, they did not commit to undergoing Latvian naturalization process. This research investigated: 1) how noncitizenship has come to be seen as enabling of certain political practices; and 2) how this set of practices has facilitated a polity that, while being coincident and maintained by the nation-state, has not been subsumed by it. This investigation yielded three conclusions. First, the pursuit of minority rights -- among them, the right to citizenship without undergoing naturalization -- is increasingly seen as non-political. Second, the notion of 'culture' implicit in the discourse on 'national minorities' does not correspond to the notion of 'cultured life,' which is seen as necessary for politics. Third, politics is increasingly understood in the idiom of 'coalition' rather than 'contestation.' The emergence of 'coalition' as a central political idiom is not a consequence of lessening of ethnic tensions, but rather a consequence of a new demarcation of privateIpublic spheres.
Osborn, Michelle Ann, U. of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom - To aid research on 'Ghetto Governance: An Urban Ethnography of Chieftaincy in Kenya's Kibera Slum,' supervised by Dr. David Pratten
MICHELLE A. OSBORN, then a student at the University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom, was awarded funding in April 2009 to aid research on 'Ghetto Governance: An Urban Ethnography of Chieftaincy in Kenya's Kibera Slum,' supervised by Dr. David Pratten and Dr. David Anderson. By linking together historical analysis with political ethnography, this study explores the evolution of the Provincial Administration within Kibera and examines the role of chiefly authority within the slum's socio-political landscape. Today Kibera is characterized by a political pluralism, in which local chiefs, who are representatives of the central government, struggle to maintain power and legitimacy alongside competing non-state authorities, such as youth gangs and vigilantes. This ethnographic account is positioned within the space that exists between the bureaucratic office of the chief and the streets of Kibera. Within this space contestations and negotiations over local authority routinely intersect with the everyday practices and politics of chiefs. This study considers how such encounters affect both local governance and the daily lives of the urban poor. Drawing from literature on urban and political anthropology as well as studies of chieftaincy, the anthropology of the state, and global slums, this research contributes to our understanding of how local governance and urban chieftaincy operate and affect the lives of the urban poor within one of the sub-Saharan Africa's largest slums.
Fattal, Alexander L., Harvard U., Cambridge, MA - To aid research on 'Guerrilla Marketing: Information Warfare and the Demobilization of FARC Rebels,' supervised by Dr. Kimberly Susan Theidon
ALEXANDER L. FATTAL, then a student at Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts, was awarded a grant in April 2009 to aid research on 'Guerrilla Marketing: Information Warfare and the Demobilization of FARC Rebels,' supervised by Dr. Kimberly Theidon. This research, which builds on two years of ethnographic fieldwork in Colombia and five months in Sweden, explores the counterinsurgency in Colombia through a detailed study of the Program for Humanitarian Attention to the Demobilized (PAHD) within the Colombian Ministry of Defense, the everyday lives of former insurgents, and the way the PAHD partners with an advertising firm to sell its program to current rebels and update the image of the Colombian armed forces. This dissertation argues that the assemblage of the individual demobilization policy in Colombia and its media dimensions seeks to radically rebrand the Colombian counterinsurgency as humanitarian, and elide its abysmal human rights record. At stake in the Colombian government's efforts is the very definition and future of demobilization as a peace-building policy, as well as a greater understanding of how war and capitalism intertwine in contemporary civil wars.
Solomon, Daniel Allen, U. of California, Santa Cruz, CA - To aid research on 'Coexistence and Conflict: Associative Techniques of Humans and Rhesus Macaques in Northern India,' supervised by Dr. Susan Friend Harding
DANIEL A. SOLOMON, then a student at University of California, Santa Cruz, California, received a grant in October 2008 to aid research on 'Coexistence and Conflict: Associative Techniques of Humans and Rhesus Macaques in Northern India,' supervised by Dr. Susan Harding. This research focused on the often problematic relationships between humans and rhesus macaques in and around 'monkey temples' in Delhi and Shimla, India. The project had two focuses: first, the ways in which humans and rhesus monkeys associated with one another in everyday contexts; and second, how monkeys were talked about in media and political narratives about problems like monkey attacks and crop destruction. Urban macaques make their livings on handouts from devotees of the monkey-like god Hanuman and on the edible refuse left behind by dense urban crowds and patchy waste-handling infrastructure. So as monkey management programs have begun to take off in earnest, questions around waste management and the distribution of public resources have been highlighted. Debates about what to do with problematic monkeys have often taken the form of a critique of Indian modernization and government competence in general, but these debates have also provided spaces for re-evaluating governmental and religious protections afforded to animals vis-à-vis the travails of underserved classes of people. These particular issues offer urban Indians spaces for experimenting with different techniques for mitigating the most adverse effects of coexistence between social species, and for re-imagining the ethics of social protections and resource distribution.
Joffe, Ben Philip, U. of Colorado, Boulder, CO - To aid research on 'White Robes, Matted Hair: Tibetan Renouncers, Institutional Authority, and the Mediation of Charisma in Exile,' supervised by Dr. Carole Ann McGranahan
Preliminary abstract: What is the relationship between institutional authority and religious power in Tibetan exile? My research focuses on how the charisma and legacy of Ngagpa Yeshe Dorje Rinpoche, the former official weather controller of the Tibetan exile government - are being institutionalized and mediated in exile following his death. Ngagpa (m) and ngagma (f), are non-celibate, professional Buddhist renouncers who specialize in esoteric ritual traditions. Simultaneously existing in and straddling lay and monastic worlds, they reside in a shifting third space of accommodation and resistance to mainstream structures. With the invasion of Tibet by China in 1950, Tibetan refugees in India have struggled to make a sovereign nation legible and legitimate in exile, and to rebuild political and social institutions away from home. The once de-centralized religious traditions of virtuoso ngagpa/mas are now being preserved in durable institutions, fixed in texts, and taught increasingly to foreigners. Researching Yeshe Dorje's institution in India and its resident ngagpa/mas, I examine how the politics of ritual power are playing out in exile communities. Using ngagpa/mas' charisma as a lens through which to explore unfolding politics of reform in diaspora, I show how the forging of cultural coherence in exile involves both creativity and contradiction.
Amigo, Maria F., U. of Sydney, Sydney, Australia - To aid research on 'The Economic Roles of Children in Household Economies,' supervised by Dr. Paul Alexander
MARIA F. AMIGO, while a student at the University of Sydney in Sydney, Australia, received funding in January 2003 to aid research on the roles of children in household economies on the island of Lombok, Indonesia, under the supervision of Dr. Paul Alexander. The primary aim was to add an anthropological perspective to the literature on child labor, which had been dominated by other disciplines. By trying to understand native notions of 'childhood' and 'work,' Amigo challenged what had often been seen as cultural universals. And by analyzing children's work through their own accounts, she was able to show that the ideas, wants, and expectations children have about their lives are critical to understanding their work and their motivations for it. In the rural area studied, children became economically active at a very early age. Regardless of their household's difficulties in meeting everyday needs, children were expected to be committed to the household's economy. Children had long been involved in unpaid tasks (household chores, agricultural work), but the relatively recent introduction of large-scale tobacco plantations dramatically increased their opportunities for paid work. Hierarchical structures of power based on seniority and gender channeled them into the least desirable and lowest-paid work, yet children clearly made economic decisions in relation to their work and the money they earned. Rather than being victims forced to work for the benefit of others-as child workers are commonly described-the evidence suggested that children worked for the well-being of their households and were conscious that this meant their own well-being, too.
Desjardins, Sean Paul Alcide, McGill U., Montreal, Canada - To aid research on 'The Only Means of Survival: The Ethnoarchaeology of Inuit Sea-Mammal Hunting, Foxe Basin, Nunavut,' supervised by Dr. James Michael Savelle
SEAN P.A. DESJARDINS, then a student at McGill University, Montreal, Canada, received a grant in April 2012 to aid research on 'The Only Means of Survival: The Ethnoarchaeology of Inuit Sea-Mammal Hunting, Foxe Basin, Nunavut,' supervised by Dr. James M. Savelle. The goal of this ethnoarchaeological project was to examine the long-term development of seal and walrus hunting practices among Inuit and their ancestors in the resource-rich Foxe Basin region of central Nunavut, Canada. Archaeological fieldwork was conducted at the large precontact winter village, Pingiqqalik, a detailed survey of which revealed 55 Paleoeskimo Late Dorset houses (ca. AD 1000), 120 Neoeskimo Thule and historic Inuit houses (ca. AD 1200 to 1900), and roughly 600 emptied Neoeskimo gravel caches for storing sea mammal meat. Excavation of a Thule Inuit house and more than two dozen midden tests across the site produced an abundance of Thule and historic Inuit artifacts and animal bones, which will shed light on the general subsistence economy of the site. As hunting continues to play a major role in the social and economic lives of local Inuit, ethnographic work in the form of participant observation of a sea-mammal hunting crew was also undertaken. Methods for contemporary hunting, butchery, and sea mammal caching will be considered alongside data on the fauna and hunting technology recovered from Pingiqqalik. Together, these complimentary lines of information will help build a fuller understanding of the long, rich history of Inuit hunting, a politically charged and often misunderstood topic.
Schiffer, Jeffrey Joseph, Columbia U., New York, NY - To aid research on 'The Everyday Work of Achieving and Reproducing Indigeneity: Cases from the Northwest Coast,' supervised by Dr. Herve Varenne
JEFFREY J. SCHIFFER, while a student at Teachers College, Columbia University, New York, New York, was awarded a grant in December of 2010 to support ethnographic research on 'The Everyday Work of Achieving and Reproducing Indigeneity: Cases from the Northwest Coast,' supervised by Dr. Hervé Varenne. The one-year period of research comprised the primary phase of the grantee's dissertation research conducted in a large Aboriginal organization for child and family services in Vancouver, British Columbia -- the largest of its kind in Canada. In the midst of an organization providing child welfare and family support services to Aboriginal peoples from more than 100 communities across Canada, the grantee queried the process by which particular discourses, concepts, and practices are achieved and reproduced as indigenous in the diverse urban setting of Vancouver. Primarily by means of interviews, focus groups, and participation in ceremonies, feasts, special events, and daily activities within the organization, the grantee engaged his research participants in a collaborative exploration of the manner by which contemporary Aboriginal organizations for Aboriginal child and family have been and continue to be shaped by inherited colonial structures, histories of residential schooling, policies banning indigenous cultural practices, and attempted cultural genocide.