Gould, Sarah A., U. of Toronto, Toronto, Canada - To aid 'An Ethnographic Study of Child Fosterage in Madagascar,' supervised by Dr. Michael Lambek
SARAH A. GOULD, while a student at the University of Toronto in Toronto, Ontario, received funding in May 2001 to aid an ethnographic study of child fosterage in northwestern Madagascar, under the supervision of Dr. Michael Lambek. Gould conducted her fieldwork during a period of political conflict following the presidential elections of 2001, during which two competing models of nationalism drew upon and reified the ideas of kinship, culture, ethnicity, and class underlying identity politics. Drawing on two themes-the fluidity of kinship and personhood in life and the fixity of descent among the dead in Madagascar-Gould focused on child fosterage as a means of elucidating the process of kinship and the flexibility and boundedness of identity. She investigated networks of kinship that reached from rural and urban areas in the province of Mahajanga to the capital city and overseas, focusing on children's roles within households and kinship networks and exploring how children's movements between households fit into wider patterns of exchange, reciprocity, and hierarchy. She also explored the innovative ways in which individuals enacted, negotiated, and transformed kinship ties in response to the socioeconomic demands of life in the region and considered the ways in which kinship, as moral practice, reflected and reproduced the principles of community. To answer questions of identity, she addressed patterns of child rearing, residence, and burial in relation to the meanings, uses, and practices of kinship and focused on the processes of incorporation and exclusion that created ties to kin and ancestors over a lifetime. Living with a Sakalava ruler, Gould also explored the ways in which metaphors of kinship in royal politics structured relations between subjects, rulers, and royal ancestors in a polyethnic setting.
Samli, Sherife Ayla, Rice U., Houston, TX - To aid research on 'Containing the Future: The Hope Chest in Contemporary Urban Turkey,' supervised by Dr. James D. Faubion
AYLA SAMLI, then a student at Rice University, Houston, Texas, received funding in November 2007 to aid research on 'Containing the Future: The Hope Chest in Contemporary Urban Turkey,' supervised by Dr. James D. Faubion. This research investigated the hope chest, or çeyiz, as an indicator of changes in women's status in Istanbul, Turkey. A time-honored tradition central to wedding preparations, the hope chest has undergone extreme changes recently, reflecting larger changes in family structure, women's education, and love relationships. This research explored the changing çeyiz as a commodity, a family keepsake, a national symbol, and as a transitional object accompanying the bride into her new home. To understand the çeyiz and its manifold implications, research was undertaken at merchant centers, handiwork courses, wedding-related stores, and in family homes. Intergenerational interviews among families and interviews with brides and grooms explored the hope chest as a negotiated object -- something created and accumulated through bargaining. Implicit to the hope chest was a discussion how young women and their mothers had different expectations regarding women's roles. The data suggests that education, above all other factors, critically shapes women's attitudes toward their hope chests, their expected gender roles in marriage, and their negotiating power in both household purchases and wedding arrangements.
Lin, Hsiu-Man, U. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM - To aid research on 'The Biological Evidence of the San-Pau-Chu-Site, Taiwan, and Its Association with Austronesian Migration,' supervised by Dr. Osbjorn M. Pearson
HSIU-MAN LIN, then a student at University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, New Mexico, received funding in June 2005 to aid research on 'The Biological Evidence of the San-Pau-Chu-Site, Taiwan, and Its Association with Austronesian Migration,' supervised by Dr. Osbjorn M. Pearson. The general aim of this research is to characterize genetic variation in native population(s) in Taiwan as a tool to test hypotheses about population relationships and possible migrations in the southern Pacific. To date, we have collected samples of forty-one individuals from the San-Pau-Chu (SPC) site in Taiwan. Current ancient DNA results conducted for mitochondrial DNA hypervariable region sequencing and cloning as well haplogroups A, B, and M have show that at least two individuals can be assigned to haplogroup A, one to haplogroup B4, and four to haplogroup M. However, the results so far have raised additional questions. Do current results show that the SPC people are related to (or the ancestors of) the Ping-Pu people, the populations who were historically closer to Han Chinese, and more frequently admixed with them? Were the Ping-Pu people are genetically closer to Han Chinese than other highland Taiwanese Aborigines? Have issues with small sample sizes complicated the conclusions? Additional tests on haplogroups C and F, simulation studies of sampling designs, and collected dental morphological data may help to answer these questions. These next steps are currently underway and will be included in the dissertation.
Frank, Emily, Indiana U., Bloomington, IN - To aid research on 'Inheriting a Global Economy: Inheritance Disputes among the Gwembe Tonga,' supervised by Dr. Richard R. Wilk
EMILY FRANK, then a student at Indiana University, Bloomington, Indiana, was awarded funding in November 2003 to aid research on 'Inheriting a Global Economy: Inheritance Disputes among the Gwembe Tonga,' supervised by Dr. Richard R. Wilk. The research will show how local decision-making in regards to inheritance has been inextricably altered by and incorporated into larger discourses on international AIDS prevention and modernity in southern Zambia. These larger issues are illuminated by utilizing a framework of legal pluralism to locate women's decisions regarding their inheritance on a continuum encompassing customary to national legislative norms. Extensive structured and semi-structured interviews in both rural and urban settings from a wide sample of the population were conducted. While in the field the researcher lived in two communities and witnessed how inheritance practices unfolded, as well as interviewing women, local leaders, court officials, NGO representatives, and government officials. From this field approach a robust understanding of how household property inheritance is changing was gained. The project is based on twelve months of fieldwork in Southern Province, Zambia and Lusaka between 2002 and 2004, with funding from the Wenner Gren foundation and Indiana University. Fieldwork indicates that decision-making challenges traditional gender roles and ideas within two Tonga communities as well as demonstrating the unintended ways AIDS and AIDS prevention campaigns enter into and alter daily life in Southern Africa. The Tonga communities in Southern Province, Zambia, represent a microcosm of the social, legal, and economic changes impacting southern Africa. They are particularly relevant to all the societies encompassed by the 'matrilineal belt,' an area that extends from Congo down through Central Africa.
Zovar, Jennifer Montgomery Johnson, Vanderbilt U., Nashville, TN - To aid research on 'Post-Collapse Formations of Community, Memory, and Identity: The Archaeology of Pukara de Khonkho, Bolivia,' supervised by Dr. John Wayne Janusek
JENNIFER M. ZOVAR, while a student at Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee, was awarded a grant in May 2008 to aid research on 'Post-Collapse Formations of Community, Memory, and Identity: The Archaeology of Pukara de Khonkho, Bolivia,' supervised by Dr. John W. Janusek. The goal of the investigation was to use the large, densely populated settlement of Pukara de Khonkho as a test case to examine community development following the collapse of the Tiwanaku state, specifically considering the roles of population movement and intercommunity interaction. This phase of research focused on intensive ceramic analysis of excavated material from Pukara de Khonkho and nearby sites. Vessel form, paste, decoration, finish and use wear were recorded. A comparison of the results illustrates that the inhabitants of Pukara de Khonkho shared a common ceramic style that was dissimilar from neighboring communities, and it is suggested that these differences represent one example of the material manifestation of distinct community identities. The results of additional laboratory tests, including ICPMS analysis of ceramic sherds, strontium isotope analysis of human bone, and radiocarbon dating will help to, respectively, provenience ceramic production, identify first generation migrants, and situate the Pukara de Khonkho in regional chronology.
Bekelman, Traci Allison, U. of Colorado, Boulder, CO - To aid research on 'Using the Protein Leverage Hypothesis to Understand Socioeconomic Variation in Diet and Body Size,' supervised by Dr. Darna Dufour
Preliminary abstract: The primary objective of the proposed research is to provide insights into the factors responsible for the larger body size of urban Latin American women of low- versus high-socioeconomic status (SES). To accomplish this we intend to focus on dietary factors, of which surprisingly little is known, and specifically to test hypotheses derived from the Protein Leverage Hypothesis, a theoretical model developed by Simpson and Raubenheimer. Guided by the Protein Leverage Hypothesis, this study will test an explanation for the inverse relationship between SES and body size: limited access to dietary protein in low-SES women leads to a lower proportion of protein in the diet which, in turn, drives higher energy intake. To accomplish the research objective, anthropometry and weighed food records will be collected from 134 urban women in low- and high-SES neighborhoods in San José, Costa Rica. We will also examine perceived economic barriers to protein access using structured interviews and the strategies women use to overcome those barriers using a Geographic Information System (GIS). This research will generate new knowledge about how biology, culture and the physical and social environments interact to influence energy intake and body size.
Ratanapruck, Prista, Harvard U., Cambridge, MA - To aid research on 'Merchants, Women, and States: Nepali Trade Diaspora in Indian - Southeast Asian States and Societies,' supervised by Dr. Engseng Ho
PRISTA RATANAPRUCK, then a student at Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts, was awarded funding in June 2004 to aid research on 'Merchants, Women, and States: Nepali Trade Diaspora in Indian - Southeast Asian States and Societies,' supervised by Dr. Engseng Ho. In the established historiography of transregional trade in Asia, the role of Asian merchants is perceived to have ended since the arrival of European East India Companies. This research project, however, investigates how small Asian peddlers such as Manangis (Nepalis) have continued to operate and remain thriving traders. It explores how today's transnational peddling traders such as Manangis use pre-existing trade relations and social ties to form trade and social networks to negotiate with local states in world capitalist economy. Field research shows that Manangis form strong and enduring social and economic ties both internally within their community and externally between them and local communities abroad. These relationships which range from generation-long friendships and kindship relations through marriages help them reduce protection costs-costs that emerge from conflicting and cooperative relationships with the states, and are often referred to as bribery. Besides relying on these social resources, Manangis also pool together material and financial resources through their religious institution, for redistribution in their society. That is, much of profits from trade are spent on supporting Tibetan Buddhist monasteries and religious events. But before the donations are used for their intended religious purposes, they are temporarily redistributed in the community in the form of loans, often to finance trade and business ventures. In this context, economic activities and the expansion of trade are propelled by the accumulation and redistribution of surplus through religious institutions. The research illustrates how Manangis expand their trade as well as fulfill their social purposes according to what they value. This project shows an alternative way of thinking about the development of capitalistic enterprise, besides the history of Western capitalism and questions assumption about the rise of the West.
Ratanapruck, Prista. 2007. Kinship and Religious Practices as Institutionalization of Trade Networks: Manangi Trade Communities in South and Southeast Asia. Journal of the Economic and Social History of the Orient 50(2):325-346
Klopp, Emily Bernice, Northwestern U., Chicago, IL - To aid research on 'Primate Sexual Dimorphism and Display: Intraspecific Scaling of Craniofacial Features in Male Cercopithecoids,' supervised by Dr. Brian T. Shea
EMILY KLOPP, then a student at Northwestern University, Chicago, Illinois, received funding in October 2006 to aid research on 'Primate Sexual Dimorphism and Display: Intraspecific Scaling of Craniofacial Features in Male Cercopithecoids,' supervised by Dr. Brian T. Shea. The project provides a first and very important test of the theoretical predictions of recent sexual selection models in the socially complex higher primates. The hypothesis predicts that the canine tooth and several bony facial features exhibit intraspecific positive allometry across adult males within each of various highly dimorphic papionin species. Positive allometric scaling for adult males is functionally based in the potential role of sexually dimorphic craniofacial features in 'advertising' or signaling overall male size and fitness to both females and/or other adult male conspecifics. Initial analysis shows the null hypothesis to be supported in Macacafascicularis, Papio anubis/cynocephalus, and Hylobates lar lar but not in Cercopithecus aethiops. Additional analysis on papionin species using accurate size surrogates is forthcoming. This project departs from almost all previous studies of sexual dimorphism in papionins and other primates by focusing solely on male variance and scaling within species, and by testing a specific hypothesized functional explanation for an allometric trajectory.
Klopp, Emily B. 2012. Craniodental Features in Male Mandrillus May Signal Size and Fitness: An Allometric Approach. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 147(4):593-603.
Drybread, Kristen, Columbia U., New York, NY - To aid research on 'Considerations of Advocates for Brazilian Street Children,' supervised by Dr. Michael Taussig
KRISTEN DRYBREAD, while a student at Columbia University in New York, New York, was awarded a grant in June 2001 to aid research on advocates for Brazilian street children, under the supervision of Dr. Michael Taussig. Drybread studied interventions targeting street children and children in conflict with the law in northeastern Brazil, focusing on three principal entities: the National Movement for Street Children (MNMMR), Projeto Horta, and the Center for the Reeducation of Minors (CRM). MNMMR and Projeto Horta are grassroots organizations founded in the late 1980s with mandates to secure and protect the rights of Brazilian street children. In the late 1990s, they began to shift from advocacy on behalf of street children to interventions targeting children 'at risk' of becoming such. At the time of research, both MNMMR and Horta had suspended their work with street children, and Drybread sought to understand why. She found that the discourse of former advocates for street children had been transformed by failed expectations. Decades of intervention had done little to alter the conditions and prospects of such children, and few interventions had permanently removed them from the streets. The former advocates attributed the failure of their projects to two sources: the defiling power of the streets and the wildness of the children themselves. Their discourse expressed the view that children who had adapted to life on the streets were irredeemably feral. Involvement in crime had similarly tainted adolescents interned in the CRM, a high-security penal facility housing teens convicted of violent crimes. In both the popular Brazilian imagination and the discourse of the adults responsible for resocializing the teens, the boys were considered monsters. Research in the institution revealed that over time, boys confined there came to see themselves in the same way. Interviews with inmates, together with documentary research, revealed that the more time boys spent in the institution, the more the stories they told about themselves paralleled official stories about their incorrigibility. Self-perceptions of inalterable defilement made teenage convicts more likely to repeat their offenses; the less time boys spend in internment, the less likely they were to commit further crimes upon release.
Weir, James M., City U. of New York, New York, NY - To aid research on 'Popular Social Practices in the Context of Conflict: Chess, Music, and Gardening in Herat, Afghanistan,' supervised by Dr. Vincent Crapanzano
JAMES M. WEIR, then a student at City University of New York Graduate Center, New York, New York, received funding in May 2004 to aid research on 'Popular Social Practices in the Context of Conflict: Chess, Music, and Gardening in Herat, Afghanistan,' supervised by Dr. Vincent Crapanzano. This study presents the life stories of five 'ordinary'Afghans and examines the processes of self-presentation and self-identification in these narratives for what they reveal about the speaker's experience of recent Afghan history. This project queries these life stories at two distinctly different levels. The first is an existential/phenomenological reflection on the process of life narration itself. This is an examination of narrators as they engage their memories to spontaneously create a life story and asks what meanings and patterns emerge from this process of remembering, editing, summarizing and representing a life. The second level of examination explores the individual narrator's relationship to and interpretation of the historical and cultural context of his life. In comments interspersed in the text of the actual interviews and at greater length after each interview, this study considers the dispositions and sensibilities of individual Afghans as they recall and summarize their lives, with particular attention to the expectations and disappointments expressed as they recount their experiences of living through three troubled decades of Afghan history.