Martin, Melanie Ann, U. of California, Santa Barbara, CA - To aid research on 'Maternal Factors Influencing Variation in Infant Feeding Practices in a Natural Fertility Population,' supervised by Dr. Michael Gurven
MELANIE A. MARTIN, then a student at University of California, Santa Barbara, California, was awarded funding in April 2012 to aid research on 'Maternal Factors Influencing Variation in Infant Feeding Practices in a Natural Fertility Population,' supervised by Dr. Michael Gurven. Exclusive breastfeeding for six months and continued breastfeeding for two years or longer promote optimal infant health and growth. Globally, however, many mothers introduce complementary foods and wean earlier than recommended. This study examined factors associated with variation in infant feeding practices in an indigenous population, the Tsimane of Bolivia. During 2012-2013, interviews and anthropometric measurements were collected from 147 Tsimane mothers and infants aged 0-36 months, with 47 mother-infant pairs visited repeatedly over eight months. Half of Tsimane infants were introduced to complementary foods by four months of age, although 75 percent were still breastfed at two years. On average, male infants were exclusively breastfed longer and weaned later than females. No other maternal, infant, or household factors measured influenced the duration of exclusive breastfeeding duration. Age at weaning, however, was increased by the number of family members over the age of 10, and decreased by a mother's subsequent pregnancy and total number of living offspring. Poor growth was evident in only two percent of infants aged 0-6 months, but increased markedly after twelve months. Earlier weaning and/or the quantity or quality of complementary foods may more significantly impact Tsimane infant growth and health outcomes than does early complementary feeding.
Chattaraj, Durba, Yale U., New Haven, CT - To aid research on 'Between the City and the Sea:Transport and Connectivity in West Bengal,' supervised by Dr. Thomas Blom Hansen
DR. PARTH R. CHAUHAN, Stone Age Institute, Gosport, Indiana, received a grant in October 2006 to aid research on 'Palaeoanthropological Surveys and GIS Mapping in the Narmada Basin, Central India.' Due to future extensive submergence from large-dams in the Narmada Basin, the project's goal was to carry out a systematic survey for palaeoanthropological occurrences in stratified contexts and also create multi-layer GIS maps of known and new find-spots, sites, and localities, and associated stratigraphic sections in relation to geological formations of the valley. The field strategy involved locating, mapping and documenting as many sites as possible within an area of 60 sq-km, between the Tawa and Sher tributaries. Using multidisciplinary data, the research team constructed models of land-use patterns during the Paleolithic. For example, the Early Acheulean and Late Acheulean and Middle Paleolithic and Upper Paleolithic are geographically separate, despite shared raw material preference and locations (fine-grained Vindhyan quartzite). Additional work involved preliminary test-excavations or test-trenching at promising sites to understand the stratigraphic context of the associated material (e.g. lithics, fossils, geological features) and absolute dating possibilities. The most significant discoveries include: 1) high density of artifacts at Dhansi (the oldest-known site in the Basin and possibly in India); 2) Late Acheulean artifacts associated with an extensive paleochannel; 3) rare stratified Early Acheulean occurrences; 4) and the most complete Late Pleistocene elephant recovered in buried context.
Reiser, Christine Nicole, Brown U., Providence, RI - To aid research on 'Rooted in Movement: Community Keeping and Spatial Practices in Native New England,' supervised by Dr. Patricia E. Rubertone
CHRISTINE N. REISER, then a student at Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island, was awarded funding in April 2008, to aid research on 'Rooted in Movement: Community Keeping and Spatial Practices in Native New England,' supervised by Dr. Patricia E. Rubertone. This multi-stranded archaeological study examined spatial and material practices of community keeping that belie continuing discourses of Native community loss in 18th and 19th century southern New England. It focused particularly on individuals living in hamlet and enclave communities, small clusters of several families living at the intersections of town and 'wilderness' in western Connecticut. Archaeological evidence from existing collections and landscape surveys were culled to illuminate continued practices of communal living within, and significant interconnections between, these distinctive community spaces. The spatial and contextual data gathered provide the framing for elucidating the range of practices encompassed in maintaining Native community connections across place and distance in southern New England. In particular, it situates how to better understand the relationships between community-keeping, mobility, landscape, and place. Rather than upholding that communities were lost when ties to place were disrupted, a complex, long-standing picture of movement and communal residence emerges. Throughout the last six centuries, as relationships to particular lands changed, Native groups maintained community in part through continued practices of seasonal dispersal, patterned mobility, relocation to less-used locales on their homelands, and removal to nearby kin. Rather than abrogations of homeland and community, such actions represent continuations of Algonquian community-keeping and place-making across distance.
Grill, Jan, U. of St. Andrews, Fife, United Kingdom - To aid research on 'On the Margins of the States: Contesting Roma Identifications and Belonging in the Slovak Borderlands,' supervised by Dr. Paloma Gay y Blasco
JAN GRILL, while a student at the University of St Andrews, Fife, United Kingdom, received a funding in April 2006 to aid research on 'On the Margins of the States: Contesting Roma Identifications and Belonging in the Slovak Borderlands,' supervised by Dr. Paloma Gay y Blasco. This project examined the making of Roma situated subjectivities at the margins of two states through ethnographic study of one village in eastern Slovakian borderlands and Roma labor migrants' networks in the industrial cities of Great Britain. By exploring Roma groups who find themselves largely excluded from the formal labor market and marginalized by the dominant societies, the research shows their migration mobility as a strategy enabling them to circumvent variously constraining social and symbolic orders, and to contest hegemonic racial and social categories historically placing them at the bottom of power hierarchies in the world defined by the dominant others. The research investigated how and to what extent various Roma actors and groupings embrace or resist the dominant public mis-representations of Gypsies and discourses of work ethic and morality interwoven within the imageries of 'proper' citizenship and sociality. The findings indicate how migrants reinvent the self's position through carving out a social space of their own by skilful maneuvering in between the two states' structures. The project ethnographically documents social conditions of migration and highlights the centrality of historically accumulated forms of capitals entrenched within the system of asymmetrical social differentiation both between the Roma and non-Roma, but also among the Roma themselves.
Walker, Robert, U. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM - To aid research on 'Skill Investment and Subsistence Activities among the Maku-Nadeb of Northwest Amazonas, Brazil,' supervised by Dr. Kim Hill
ROBERT WALKER, while a student at the University of New Mexico in Albuquerque, New Mexico, received funding in July 2002 to aid research on skill investment and subsistence activities among the Maku-Nadeb people of northwestern Amazonas, Brazil, under the supervision of Dr. Kim Hill. Walker investigated the long length of the human juvenile period, analyzing age- and sex-dependency in time allocation, food production, and physical performance in the Maku-Nadeb's small-scale economy for clues to the processes involved in the evolution of this trait. He gave special attention to play activities, observation of others, and work output by youngsters. Under the premise that the human juvenile period is necessary to obtain adult proficiency in important life skills, Walker evaluated two competing models, that of a complex foraging niche and that of a complex social niche.
Lewis, Cecil M., U. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM - To aid research on 'Biological Affinity at Chen Chen, Peru: A Molecular Genetic Study of a Tiwanaku V Community,' supervised by Dr. Anne C. Stone
CECIL M. LEWIS, then a student at the University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, New Mexico, was awarded a grant in May 2002 to aid research on 'Biological Affinity at Chen Chen, Peru: a Molecular Genetic Study of a Tiwanaku V Community,' supervised by Dr. Anne C. Stone. During the Middle Horizon (A.D. 500-1000), materials belonging to the Tiwanaku tradition were present in areas of Bolivia, Peru, Argentina, and Chile. While the geographical breadth of this tradition suggests that it was one of the most influential pre-Inca polities in the Andes, the nature of the Tiwanaku culture is not well understood. Archaeological researchers suggested that within and among some Tiwanaku communities were different ethnic groups sharing a broader Tiwanaku identity. These ethnic groups may have represented Andean ayllus, a form of identity in which group membership was linked to a shared common ancestor. The primary objective of this research was to test the hypothesis that the Tiwanaku community of Chen Chen M1 was composed of multiple maternal ayllus. The assumption of this analysis was that ayllus could be recognized by correlations between mtDNA haplogroups and mortuary data. Thus, nonparametric statistics were applied to mitochondrial DNA haplogroups and mortuary attributes for 23 individuals who were buried within the Chen Chen Ml cemetery. There were no significant correlations among these variables. In conclusion, this multiple matri-ayllu model of the identity was unsupported. In addition to the first objective, the Chen Chen mtDNA data were compared to data from 26 contemporary and one ancient Native American population to evaluate temporal and spatial continuity. Correspondent analysis and chi-square results did not reject the common hypothesis that the Chen Chen community originated from a migration; however, the analyses did support significant levels of gene flow in this region before the influence of Tiwanaku people.
Lewis, Cecil M., Jr., Jane E. Buikstra, and Anne C.Stone. 2007. Ancient DNA and Genetic Continuity in the South Central Andes. Latin American Antiquity 18(2):145-160.
Bridges, Elizabeth Jane, U. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI - To aid research on 'Regional Political Authority Under the Vijayanagara Empire: Archaeology of the Keladi-Ikkeri Nayakas,' supervised by Dr. Carla M. Sinopoli
ELIZABETH BRIDGES, then a student at University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, received a grant in April 2008, to aid research on 'Regional Political Authority Under the Vijayanagara Empire: Archaeology of the Keladi-Ikkeri Nayakas,' supervised by Dr. Carla M. Sinopoli. This project investigated the Keladi-Ikkeri Nayakas, regional kings who ruled under the Vijayanagara Empire from 1500 to 1614 and as independent sovereigns from 1614 to 1763. This project is based on archaeological survey at the first and second capitals of the Nayaka kings, occupied in the imperial and early independent periods. Archaeological fieldwork was conducted during three seasons between 2007 and 2009; Wenner-Gren funding supported the completion of fieldwork in the final season and subsequent analysis of artifacts. Archaeological fieldwork was conducted at the sites of Keladi and Ikkeri in Shimoga District, Karnataka State, India. A full-coverage survey over 18 square kilometers comprising the former urban cores at both sites located and documented a total of 238 sites. Support also funded archival research on historical sources held in the British Library; the documents examined included unpublished translations of relevant literature, and early colonial survey and census data relevant to establishing site chronology. These and other lines of evidence indicate that while the empire was instrumental in supporting the development of Nayaka power, regional rulers were functionally highly autonomous. This picture represents a contrast to many other archaeologically known empires whose processes of regional integration relied on relations of domination and resistance.
Pfeil, Gretchen Elisabeth, U. of Chicago, Chicago, IL - To aid research on 'Reckoning Charity's Risks and Rewards: Sufi Muslim Alms and Evangelical Missionary Gifts in Urban Senegal,' supervised by Dr. Michael Silverstein
GRETCHEN PFEIL, then a student at University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois, received funding in October 2006 to aid research on 'Reckoning Charity's Risks and Rewards: Sufi Muslim Alms and Evangelical Missionary Gifts in Urban Senegal,' supervised by Dr. Michael Silverstein. The research was designed as a study of the large and vibrant economy of charitable giving in Dakar, Senegal. It frames these acts of giving as a site in which local Muslim and expatriate Christian actors attempt to realize ideal forms of sociality by managing the manipulation of objects in transaction. The research proposed that Muslim and Christian givers employed different kinds of moral judgment in the management of small-scale transaction, resulting in distinct modes of circulation of goods revealed in differences in social formation at larger scales. Prepared meals, commodity foods, and money were tracked in charitable transactions to follow three objects of analysis: material goods, persons/social roles, and verbal/affective signs. The research employed individual and focus group interviews, participant observation and apprenticeship in related tasks (such as food preparation and shopping) and media studies to identify 'divisions of charitable labor' in the household and salient moments of judgment in practice. The research found that Evangelical giving focused on judgment about the proper accounting of the relationship between gifts and their stakes. Senegalese Muslim charitable practice, however, focused on enacting two other values: sutura and masla (Wolof 'discretion' and 'tolerance'). Enacting these values entails limitation of circulation of information and goods. Thus, not only do Muslim and Christian forms of giving rely upon and enact different kinds of moral judgment, they also involve different operative values, which not only create different forms of circulation as hypothesized, but also entail substantially different constitutions of agents/ givers.
Gamez Diaz, Laura Lucia, U. of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA - To aid research on 'Household Religiosity: Discerning Pluralism or Integration in Ancient Maya Society,' supervised by Dr. Olivier de Montmollin
LAURA LUCIA GAMEZ DIAZ, then a student at the University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, received a grant in October 2009, to aid research on 'Household Religiosity: Discerning Pluralism or Integration in Ancient Maya Society,' supervised by Dr. Olivier de Montmollin. This project conducted field research at the ancient Maya city of Yaxha, located in northern Guatemala. The primary focus of the investigation was the ancient Maya domestic ritual practices in this pre-Hispanic polity. It is suspected ancient social diversity involved differences and similarities between religious ideology and rituals from elites and nobles on the one hand (state religion), and commoners on the other (folk religion). The project sought to learn how these folk and state religions meshed together and how commoners might have participated in this state religion. Excavations where carried out in six different households at Yaxha's residential zone, all differing in their superficial characteristics and location within that zone. Not only ample material samples from these households were collected through the excavations, but also, it was possible to gather very useful information from the monumental central zone while on the site, setting an appropriate database for further analysis and comparisons.
Taneja, Anand Vivek, Columbia U., New York, NY - To aid research on 'The Sacred as History: Jinns and Justice in the Ruins of Delhi,' supervised by Dr. Partha Chatterjee
ANAND VIVEK TANEJA, then a student at Columbia University, New York, New York, was awarded funding in October 2009 to aid research on 'The Sacred as History: Jinns and Justice in the Ruins of Delhi,' supervised by Dr. Partha Chatterjee. This research is concerned with contemporary ritual practices around medieval Islamic ruins in Delhi. Many of these sacralized ruins are those of 'secular' buildings, not intended to be places of worship - palaces, dams, hunting lodges. The grantee argues that the sacredness of these ruins can be understood through an alternate ontology and epistemology linked both to the Islamic tradition, and to the massive disruptions and dislocations that have characterized everyday life in Delhi over the past hundred years. Through this research, the grantee argues for understanding the sacred as history, understanding these terms to be co-constitutive rather than antithetical. The emphasis on alternate epistemologies also offers a way of understanding relations between religiously de