Sung, Wen-Ching, Harvard U., Cambridge, MA - To aid research on 'Networking between Global and Local Scientific Communities: An Anthropological Study of Biotechnology in China,' supervised by Dr. Arthur Kleinman
WEN-CHING SUNG, while a student at Harvard University in Cambridge, Massachusetts, received funding in May 2002 to aid research on networking between local and global scientific communities in Chinese biotechnology, under the supervision of Dr. Arthur Kleinman. Sung explored the ways in which Chinese scientists interacted with the globalization of genomics and the privatization of science under the recent scientific transformation in China. Focused specifically on the development of the Beijing Genomics Institute (BGI) in its local and global contexts, the study produced four major findings. First, a genome center in China is not a simple replication of a Western genome center. BGI can be viewed as a biotech firm with 'Chinese features' because it can be located in neither the private nor the public research sector. Second, Chinese scientists have used BGI's international connections as currency to negotiate with the Chinese government for financial support and as a protective umbrella under which to maneuver the private and public research sectors in order to accumulate knowledge, funding, equipment, and academic recognition. Third, the relationship between the state and Chinese scientists has changed since the scientific transformation. Chinese scientists now utilize both external pressure and nationalism to negotiate with the Chinese government, a practice Sung called 'conditional autonomy.' Fourth, Sung proposed 'co-production' as a framework within which to illuminate the interdependent relations among technoscience, society, politics, and the economy.
Hodge, Christina J., Boston U., Boston, MA - To aid research on 'Middling Identities in Colonial New England: Class, Taste, and Material Culture in Newport, RI,' supervised by Dr. Mary C. Beaudry
CHRISTINA J. HODGE, then a student at Boston University, Boston, Massachusetts, was awarded a grant in January 2005 to aid research on 'Middling Identities in Colonial New England: Class, Taste, and Material Culture in Newport, Rhode Island,' supervised by Dr. Mary C. Beaudry. This project was an archaeological study of the Wood Lot at the Wanton-Lyman-Hazard site, Newport, Rhode Island. The Wood Lot has early to mid-18th-century domestic components. The project traced the material practices of Newport's middling sorts. It also provided historical context for the development of an incipient middle class in colonial America. Funding supported expert analysis of over 3,000 fragmentary faunal remains from Wood Lot privies and other filled features. Faunal remains, combined with artifactual evidence, provided a more thorough picture of middling lives. In the traditional English manner, most New Englander city dwellers prized the meat of young animals. Wood Lot households occasionally invested in these esteemed and expensive foods, particularly veal and suckling pig. Yet, residents were not wealthy and apparently supplemented their store-bought meats with caught fish and wildfowl. Fashionable 'Georgian' culture was, thus, demonstrably fragmentary and idiosyncratic. Different categories of material culture tell different stories of status, taste, and desire. Middling individuals participated in social transformations of 18th-century New England through their most intimate spaces-their bodies and homes. This study revealed which refined behaviors non-elite Newporters accepted, rejected, and altered to create their own versions of gentility.
Girard- Buttoz, Cedric, German Primate Centre, Goettingen, Germany - To aid research on 'Costs of Mate-Guarding in Wild Long-Tailed Macaques (Macaca fascicularis),' supervised by Dr. Antje Engelhardt
CEDRIC GIRARD-BUTTOZ, then a student at the German Primate Centre, Goettingen, Germany, was awarded a grant in October 2008 to aid research on 'Costs of Mate-Guarding in Wild Tong-Tailed Macaques (Macaca fascicularis),' supervised by Dr. Antje Engelhardt. Little is known so far about how primate males cope with the costs arising from mate-guarding females in multi-male groups. The aim of the project therefore was to quantify these costs using long-tailed macaques as a model species. The study was carried out during two reproductive seasons on three groups living in the Gunung Leuser National Park, Indonesia. Research combined behavioral observations and non-invasive measurements of c-peptides as an indicator of male energetic status. Results indicate that males counterbalance reduced energy intake deriving from decreased feeding time and fruit consumption by decreasing their vertical locomotion and thus energy expenditure. Accordingly, no effect of mate-guarding on energetic status was found in the males studied. Results thus far are surprising in that they show alpha male long-tailed macaques do not monopolize all available females even when it may be possible. One explanation may be that results include rare empirical evidence of the concession model in primates. The constraints shaping the evolution of male reproductive strategy in primates might strongly differ between non-strictly seasonal species (such as long-tailed macaques) and strictly seasonal species and further studies on both ends of the spectrum are needed.
O'Neill, Matthew C., Johns Hopkins U., Baltimore, MD - To aid research on 'Linking Laboratory and Field Studies of Primate Energetics,' supervised by Dr. Christopher B. Ruff
O'Neill, Matthew C. 2012. Gait Specific Metabolic Costs and Preferred Speeds in Ring-Tailed Lemurs (Lemur catta), with Implications for the Scaling of Locomotor Costs. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 149(3):356-364.
Sharangpani, Mukta, Stanford U., Stanford, CA - To aid 'Kin-figurations: An Examination of Domestic Violence, Class, and Kinship in Mumbai,' supervised by Dr. Akhil Gupta
MUKTA SHARANGPANI, then a student at Stanford University, Stanford, California was awarded a grant in July 2004 to aid 'Kin-figurations: An Examination of Domestic Violence, Class, and Kinship in Mumbai,' supervised by Dr. Akhil Gupta. This project suggests that while domestic violence transcends class, it is perceived, experienced, negotiated and lived in very specific ways by members of different classes. This project focuses on the conditions that create a space that is ripe for acts of violence, rather than simply focusing on explicit enactments of violence. As such, it provides a solid analytical framework for formulating grassroots and policy level solutions that are not simply 'rescue' based, but rather nuanced and oriented towards the complex and contradictory experiences of aggression and violence. Finally, by viewing violence along the axes of kinship and class, this project contests the notion of collective rights and highlights the need to locate family violence (and violence in general) within multiple fields of power and inequity.
Halili, Rigels, Polish Academy of Sciences, Warsaw, Poland - To aid research on 'Oral Epic Poetry in Kosovo and Sandzak Nowadays,' supervised by Dr. Andrzej Mencwel
RIGELS HALILI, then a student at Polish Academy of Sciences, Warsaw, Poland, received funding in April 2006 to aid research on 'Oral Epic Poetry in Kosovo and Sandzak Nowadays,' supervised by Dr. Andrzej Mencwel. This research project realized from July 2006 to February 2007, aimed to inquire into the presence, function and role that oral epic poetry plays nowadays in the regions of Sand?ak and Kosovo. Several singers have learned their songs from other members of their families or neighbors; in other words through an oral transmission. But others admitted that they have learned songs from different songbooks or tapes of other singers. Textual analysis of recorded songs showed that only among Kosovo singers is there still a strong presence of formulaic character of singing. The traditional way of singing is becoming more and more a professional and commercial activity. In San?ak, but increasingly in Kosovo as well, epic songs rarely appear in public places that are not in connection with commercial activities. But they are still present in many spheres of private life, especially weddings. Moreover, the number of active singers is decreasing. All singers emphasized that the young generation is not interested in learning old songs, while they prefer newly composed popular songs, especially those broadcasted in the media or distributed on the internet. However, oral forms did not disappear entirely, but were transformed, while functioning in new communicative conditions.
Field, Amy Leigh, New York U., New York, NY - To aid research on 'Capital, Creatures, and Care: Farm Animal Protection Law and Human-Animal Relationships in Eastern Germany,' supervised by Dr. Sally Engle Merry
Preliminary abstract: Animal protection regulations have produced tremendous change in practices of farm animal care in Germany. Since the nineteenth century, urbanization has created a base of consumers who are distant from the work of animal care, yet desire its reform. Farmers are the targets of this pressure, and local agricultural officials must oversee the implementation of these reforms. Eastern Germany, unlike Western Germany, has only had these laws since the Berlin Wall fell. This project investigates how the introduction of animal protection law shapes human relationships with farm animals in eastern Germany. It will be conducted in Thuringia, an eastern German state which is the site of an intense new focus on reforming animal farming. With methodologies including participant-observation, life history interviews, document analysis, and analysis of discourse practices in both formal and informal sites of interaction between farmers, consumers, officials, and animals, I ask how farmers and officials understand the new laws, mobilizing their understandings of animals' needs, and those of the consuming public. My analysis takes neither humans nor animals for granted as categories, but instead investigates the mechanisms by which participants talk about and imagine the contradictory nature of animals as both commodities and living beings.
Moffett, Elizabeth Ann, U. of Missouri, Columbia, MO - To aid research on 'Effect of Cephalopelvic Proportions on Anthropoid Pelvic Morphology and Integration,' supervised by Dr. Carol V. Ward
Preliminary abstract: Although birth selection is thought to be one of the most important pressures shaping the pelvis, it remains unclear if and how obstetric selection produces consistent changes in pelvic form among primates with rigorous birth demands in comparison to species with relatively easy labors. This is a significant problem, as there is a discrepancy between the hypothesized importance of birth in shaping the pelvis and what we know about the effects of obstetric demand on pelvic morphology. What are the patterns of dimorphism in the shapes and sized of the birth canal within primate species, and do these patterns correspond to obstetric demand? What patterns of dimorphism in the birth canal, if any, are shared by species with large cephalopelvic proportions? How do patterns of dimorphism in the birth canal correspond to patterns of dimorphism in the non-obstetric pelvis? How does obstetric demand shape integration patterns in the primate pelvis? These gaps significantly hinder the interpretations we can make about functional pelvic morphology in extant and extinct primates, including hominins. This study aims to explore the effects of birth-related selection on the morphology of the primate bony pelvis using three dimensional landmark coordinate data from the birth canal and non-obstetric pelvis within both obstetrically constrained and obstetrically unconstrained anthropoid species. Enhanced understanding of the effects of obstetric demand on pelvic form will provide valuable contributions to several theoretical areas, including the evolution of large cephalopelvic proportions among hominins and other primates, and form-function relationships in the anthropoid pelvis.
Roudakova, Natalia, Stanford U., Stanford, CA - To aid research on 'Property, Professionalism, Practice: 'Brownian Motion' in Post-Soviet Journalism,' supervised by Dr. Sylvia J. Yanagisako
NATALIA ROUDAKOVA, while a student at Stanford University in Stanford, California, was awarded funding in July 2001 to aid ethnographic research on media ownership and journalistic practice in post-Soviet Russia, under the supervision of Dr. Sylvia J. Yanagisako. Roudakova studied the transformation of Russian journalism during the country's highly contested shift toward capitalism. In particular, she explored whether and how new configurations of media ownership had created new editorial priorities and practices of news gathering, and whether and how these practices encouraged new professional identities among journalists. Data collected at three news outlets representing the major configurations of media ownership in postsocialist Russia demonstrated that journalists' identities varied significantly, depending on the routines of news gathering encouraged by the media outlet's property structure. Journalists for advertisement-driven publications saw themselves not as mediators in a democratic public forum but as business and consumer analysts servicing the needs of emerging financial, managerial, and other high-income groups. In news outlets sponsored by covert subsidies from political and financial elites, journalists focused on the accurate delivery of political messages to other members of the elite, developing castelike solidarity with their sponsors. Journalists for government-held newspapers viewed themselves as public mediators and educators for whom state subsidies enabled an absence of market pressures on their civic and intellectual expression. Focusing on the link between media ownership and journalists' subjectivities, Roudakova viewed property structures not as external constraints on journalists' intellectual production but as elements constitutive of the practice and understanding of modern journalism.
Brant, Erika Marie, U. of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA - To aid research on 'Ancestors and Aggrandizers: Modeling Political Power and Ancestor Veneration in a Post-collapse Andean Society (AD 1000-1450),' supervised by Dr. Stephen Plog
Preliminary abstract: Anthropologists have long viewed ancestors as a source of kin-based authority which leaders draw upon to validate claims to power. An alternative viewpoint posits that ancestor worship may prevent the emergence of centralized authority and provide the ideological foundations for more equitable forms of sociality. The proposed research evaluates contrasting theories of ancestor veneration in the Titicaca Basin of Peru through surface collection and targeted excavations at Sillustani -- the foremost necropolis of the Colla ethnic group (AD 1000-1450). Following the collapse of the Tiwanaku state, the proliferation of modest forms of burial and commemoration in the Colla region seems to indicate a rejection of aggrandizing ideologies and the use of ancestors to promote more equitable social relations. Such a model is supported by local lore and limited archaeological research which describe Sillustani as an empty pilgrimage center where varying groups gathered periodically to honor lineage forebearers. Conversely, colonial documents characterize the Colla as a highly centralized kingdom and raise the possibility that Sillustani was a political capital. If the Colla were as centralized as Spanish documents attest, and Colla leaders resided at Sillustani, it is probable that much of their power derived from their proximity to Sillustani's ancestors, thus casting doubt on an egalitarian model of Colla ancestor veneration. Employing faunal and ceramic analyses to gauge status and wealth inequalities at Sillustani, my project evaluates the extent to which ancestor worship promoted or constrained the development of centralized authority in Colla society. Research at Sillustani also places ancestors at the center of debates surrounding the regeneration of hierarchy in post-collapse societies.