Mata-Miguez, Jaime, U. of Texas, Austin, TX - To aid research on 'Assessing the Genetic Impact of Aztec and Spanish Imperialism in Mesoamerica,' supervised by Dr. Deborah A. Bolnick
Preliminary abstract: Historical and archaeological evidence indicate that Aztec and Spanish imperialism had a profound demographic impact on Mesoamerica over the last 600 years. The emergence of the Aztec empire in the 15th century prompted important political rearrangements and changing patterns of migration within the region, while the Spanish conquest in the 16th century led to population decline, community reorganization, new patterns of migration and gene flow (between Mesoamerican populations as well as with Europeans), and repeated epidemics. Even though these events may have drastically changed the genetic composition of Mesoamerican populations, the genetic effects of Aztec and Spanish imperialism in this region remain largely unknown. My project aims to clarify such effects by analyzing genome-wide markers in ancient and modern inhabitants of Xaltocan, a polity in the Basin of Mexico that was incorporated into the Aztec empire in 1428 and conquered by the Spaniards in 1521. This research is a perfect example of how, in addition to historical and archaeological investigations, anthropologists can use genetics as a complementary line of evidence to better understand the impact of major events in human history.
University of Chicago, Chicago, IL, Grossman, Kathryn Mary, PI - To aid research on 'Re-centering the Ninevite 5 Economy: Archaeological Investigations at Hamoukar, Syria,' supervised by Dr. Gil J. Stein
MARY KATHRYN GROSSMAN, then a student at the University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois, was awarded funding in November 2009, to aid research on 'Recentering the Ninevite 5 Economy: Archaeological Investigations at Hamoukar, Syria,' supervised by Dr. Gil J. Stein. Recent archaeological studies of ancient urban societies have drawn attention to the new kinds of social, political, and economic relationships that came into existence as cities emerged and developed. This focus on the disjunction between pre-urban and urban societies, however, needs to be balanced by a recognition that the specific trajectory followed by each case of urbanization was largely determined by what came before. This research project investigated the foundations of the urbanization process in Early Bronze Age northern Mesopotamia, fore-fronting the social context of food and craft production within a single site, rather than focusing on regional political economy. The project was built around excavations at Hamoukar, a major urban settlement in northeastern Syria with abundant evidence for both the Ninevite 5 period (c. 3000-2500 BC) and the better-known urban phase that followed (c. 2500-2200 BC). Excavations on the eastern and western sides of Hamoukar's lower town uncovered successive phases of well-preserved mudbrick architecture and a rich, in situ artifactual assemblage. Analysis of the architecture, ceramics, faunal remains, and administrative tools from these excavations has provided a wealth of new information about the roots of the urbanization process in northern Mesopotamia.
Rignall, Karen Eugenie, U. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY - To aid research on 'Expanding Cultivation, Land, and Livelihood Transformations in Southern Morocco,' supervised by Dr. Lisa Cliggett
KAREN EUGENIE RIGNALL, then a student at the University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky, was awarded funding in October 2009, to aid research on 'Expanding Cultivation, Land, and Livelihood Transformations in Southern Morocco,' supervised by Dr. Lisa Cliggett. The project explored the relationship between land use change, land tenure, and livelihood strategies in a pre-Saharan oasis valley of southern Morocco. Research in three communities in the Mgoun valley revealed how changing land use practices become sites for contestations around livelihoods, political authority, and social hierarchies. In the past two decades, local residents have converted uncultivated steppe into agricultural land and housing settlements in unprecedented numbers. This conversion reflects shifts in land tenure systems resulting from transformations in livelihoods and social hierarchies in the region. The research explored these changes at a variety of scales -- regional, community, and household -- and used household case studies to address the centrality of land as a site of political and social contestation. Households with the resources to navigate customary tenure regimes in their favor use these institutions to facilitate their agricultural investments in the steppe. Rather than push for open land markets and individual tenure -- as predicted by many accounts of neoliberalism and agrarian change -- they invoke a discourse of communalism in support of customary regimes. In contrast, marginalized families without access to land resist communal tenure regimes, mobilizing to divide collective lands and secure individual tenure
Gullette, Gregory S., U. of Georgia, Athens, GA - To aid research on 'Tourists, Immigrants and Family Units: Analyses of Tourism Development and Migration from Huatulco, Mexico,' supervised by Dr. Benjamin G. Blount
GREGORY S. GULLETTE, while a student at the University of Georgia in Athens, Georgia, received funding in May 2002 to aid research on tourism development and migration from Huatulco, Oaxaca, Mexico, under the supervision of Dr. Benjamin B. Blount. Gullette sought to determine whether causal relationships existed between increased tourism development in the Bays of Huatulco and out-migration from the region. He hypothesized that Huatulco residents would perceive tourism as reducing the availability of and access to local resources due to the redirection of capital and resources to the tourist infrastructure. This redirection of resources and the growing U.S. tourist presence in Huatulco would lead residents either to perceive a change in their standard of living or to have new expectations of an appropriate standard of living based on their perception of the tourist destination. As resource redirection continued and residents' expectations of standards of living continued to change, increased out-migration from the development area and increased attempts to immigrate to the United States would occur. To test these hypotheses, Gullette conducted social network research, in-depth interviews, and archival research and collected household histories and comprehensive socioeconomic data. He employed chained referral sampling to compose a study population of Huatulco households that had sent migrants to the United States. From the perspective of political ecology, he analyzed tourism development, resource access, and out-migration patterns by exploring how microconditions, institutions, economies, and human movement were situated within macropolicies of state-sponsored tourism development and resource allocation.
Warwick, Matthew Christopher, U. of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI - To aid research on 'Diet, Economy, and Sociopolitical Change in the Pukara Polity, North Titicaca Basin, Peru,' supervised by Dr. Jean Leslee Hudson
MATTHEW WARWICK, then a student at University of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, Wisconsin, received funding in November 2007 to aid research on 'Diet, Economy, and Sociopolitical Change in the Pukara Polity, North Titicaca Basin, Peru,' supervised by Dr. Jean Hudson. In the Lake Titicaca Basin, the Formative period featured extensive changes in sociopolitical complexity, ritual practice, and economic organization following the transition from villages to the regional Late Formative polities of Pukara and Tiwanaku. These changes were fueled through development and intensification of agro-pastoral economies. Thus, it becomes imperative that subsistence and herding strategies supporting life at both the village- and polity-level are understood. The database for the southern basin is robust, due to long-term research at Chiripa, Tiwanaku, and associated sites. This project was designed to collect comparable data for Formative contexts within the northern basin, the heartland of the Pukara polity. Large faunal assemblages from Huatacoa and Pukara -- two sites spanning the Early to Late Formative periods -- were studied. These sites represent a small village site and the nearby polity center, where domestic contexts, public area, and ritual architecture had been excavated. The completed project seeks to address animal use in everyday meals, commensal politics, and ritual activity. Camelids are being studied to investigate site and polity-wide herd management practices. Additional data collected included taxonomic abundance; camelid osteometrics, mortality profiles, and body part distribution; taphonomy; and methods of butchery, food preparation, and bone tool production.
Liebmann, Matthew J., U. of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA - To aid 'The Guadalupe Mesa Archaeological Project: An Archaeological Examination of Pueblo Revitalization, 1680- 1696,' supervised by Dr. Robert W. Preucel
MATTHEW J. LIEBMANN, while a student at the University of Pennsylvania in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, received a grant in June 2003 to aid archaeological research on seventeenth-century Pueblo revitalization at ancestral Jemez sites in north-central New Mexico, under the supervision of Dr. Robert Preucel. The research was carried out in collaboration with the Pueblo of Jemez Department of Resource Protection and consisted of a noninvasive study of two ancestral Jemez villages of the Pueblo Revolt era (1680-96 c.e.). Ceramic and architectural data were collected in order to evaluate the material manifestations of Pueblo revivalism (the introduction of cultural practices thought to have been characteristic of previous generations but not recently present in a society), nativism (the elimination of foreign influences from a culture), and changes in leadership that followed the revolt of 1680. Analysis of the ceramic assemblages from these sites indicated that Jemez potters did not return to the production of earlier ceramic types but instead created new styles of pottery during this turbulent time. Architectural data showed evidence for nativism and revivalism as well as strong, centralized, community-wide leadership in the early years following the revolt. The architecture of the later revolt era, however, suggested a deterioration of centralized leadership and the dissipation of the revitalization movement by 1694.
Liebmann, Matthew. 2008. The Innovative Materiality of Revitalization Movements: Lessons from the Pueblo Revolt of 1680. American Anthropologist 110(3):360-372
Brown, Laura C., U. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI - To aid research on 'Tipping Scales with Tongues: Language Use in Thanjavur's Petty Shops,' supervised by Judith T. Irvine
LAURA C. BROWN, then a student at University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, received funding in April 2005 to aid research on 'Tipping Scales with Tongues: Language Use in Thanjavur's Petty Shops,' supervised by Dr. Judith T. Irvine. Roadsides in India bloom with small grocery shops, mali kada, where goods, advertisements, and news from distant locations mix with products and persons who spend most of their time within a single neighborhood. Because they are primary sites for household consumption and expenditure, meetings between friends and interactions between neighbors who are unlikely to speak in other settings, these shops are critical sites for the enactment and negotiation of multiple kinds of affiliation, obligation, and trust. Focusing on conversations in and around three such shops in Thanjavur, India this project explores the ways in which communication about different forms of debt and obligation -- in cash, kind, action, and affection -- relates to ideas about the correctness, economic value, and morality of Tamil language use. Recordings of conversations in shops, examinations of account books, interviews with product suppliers, and explicit discussions of ways of speaking suggest that people doing business in such shops often stress the quantity and regularity of talk, as opposed to its form or content, as critical to the maintenance of relationships
Piperata, Barbara A., U. of Colorado, Boulder, CO - To aid research on 'The Energetics of Lactation among Tropical Horticulturists Living in the Brazilian Amazon,' supervised by Dr. Darna L. Dufour
BARBARA A. PIPERATA, while a student at the University of Colorado in Boulder, Colorado, received funding in January 2002 to aid research on the energetics of lactation among tropical horticulturists in the Brazilian Amazon, under the supervision of Dr. Darna L. Dufour. Piperata's goal was to understand how tropical horticultural women met the increased energetic demands of lactation when they lived in conditions of food scarcity and practiced subsistence agriculture. She followed twenty-three women over their first six months of lactation and took measurements of their dietary intake, energy expenditure, and body composition at three times (forty days, two to four months, and six months postpartum) in order to identify the strategies used to meet the increased energy demands of lactation. One of the most interesting adaptive strategies these women used was the cultural practice called resguardo. During this forty-day immediate postpartum period, the women were excused from all strenuous work, including subsistence activities, and depended on other household members, especially husbands, to meet subsistence demands. By two to four months postpartum, women had returned to more normal activity patterns, and body fat stores became important for meeting energy needs. By six months postpartum, all women were supplementing their infants' diets, but most women continued to lose weight, indicating that their food intake was insufficient to meet their caloric needs. Thus, the strategies utilized by these women changed over the course of lactation. These findings illustrate the importance of an in-depth, longitudinal, biocultural approach to studying a life-history event such as lactation.
Piperata, Barbara A., and Lindsey M. Gooden Mattern. 2011. Longitudinal Study of Breastfeedng Structure and Women's Work in the Brazilian Amazon. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 144(2):226-237
Piperata, Barbara A. 2007. Nutritional Status of Ribeirinhos in Brazil and the Nutrition Transition. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 133(2):868-787.
Piperata, Barbara. 2004. Rural-to-Urban Migration in Latin America: An Update and Thoughts on the Model. American Journal of Human Biology 16:395-404
Piperata, Barbara. 2007. Diet, Energy Expenditure, and Body Composition of Lactating Ribeirinha Women in the Brazilian Amazon. American Journal of Human Biology 19:722-734
Piperata, Barbara. 2007. Nutritional Status of Ribeirinhos in Brazil and the Nutrition Transition. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 133:868-878
Vercellotti, Guiuseppe, Barbara A. Piperata, Amanda M. Agnew, et al. 2014. Exploring the Multidimensionality of Stature Variation in the Past through Comparisons of Archaeological and Living Populations. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 155(2): 229-242.
Vercellotti, Giuseppe, and Barbara A. Piperata. 2012. The Use of Biocultural Data in Interpreting Sex Differences in Body Proportions among Rural Amazonians. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 147(1):113-127.
Garrido Escobar, Francisco Javier, U. of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA - To aid research on 'New Perspectives on the Inca Road: Local Mining and Globalization in the Prehistoric Chilean Desert,' supervised by Dr. Marc Bermann
FRANCISCO J. GARRIDO ESCOBAR, then a student at University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, was awarded a grant in April 2013 to aid research on 'New Perspectives on the Inca Road: Local Mining and Globalization in the Prehistoric Chilean Desert,' supervised by Dr. Marc Bermann. Scholarly treatments of the Inca Empire have often focused on the deep economic and political transformations wrought by Inca conquest and administration. In contrast, much less is known about 'bottom up' changes, or how local groups might have independently used the overarching Inca system to create new economic opportunities of their own. The recent discovery of mining and craft specialized sites lying just off the Inca Road in the Atacama Desert provides the opportunity to explore the relationship of how local economic activities, not under Inca control, were stimulated by Inca imperial infrastructure. These sites that constitute the Chinchilla mining system differ markedly from Inca state-ruled mining sites in lacking Inca-style architecture, and featuring artisan (household) versus centrally managed production of copper ore beads, iron oxide red pigment, and stone artifacts. This research tested the proposition that this economic activity was made logistically possible only by the use of the Inca Road. In addition to evaluating the potential role of the Inca Road system as a spur to new forms of local economic activity, the research assesses contrasting models of imperial transportation systems and their role in the creation of global connections in marginal territories.
Thomas, Jonathan Tanner, U. of Iowa, Iowa City, IA - To aid research on 'Fashioning Identities, Forging Inequalities: Personal Ornaments of Late Neolithic Iberia,' supervised by Dr. Katina T. Lillios
JONATHAN T. THOMAS, then a student at University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa, received funding in April 2011 to aid research on 'Fashioning Identities, Forging Inequalities: Personal Ornaments of Late Neolithic Iberia,' supervised by Dr. Katina T. Lillios. In the transition from the Neolithic to the Copper Age (3500-2500 BC), tribe or chiefdom-like groups in southwestern Iberia used a wide variety of raw materials for the semi-specialized production of personal ornaments, potentially monetized objects through which long-distance exchange connected these groups to areas elsewhere in Atlantic Europe and the western Mediterranean. Using several types of microscopy and stable isotope analysis, this research collected technological, stylistic, and geochemical data from fifteen thousand beads and pendants recovered from thirty-six LN/CA collective burials in Iberia to determine the range of ornament variability, presence of standardization, and geochemical signatures and sources of non-local objects. Preliminary results indicate that: 1) beads produced from locally available raw materials exhibit a much higher degree of morphological and technological standardization, likely as a result of batch production; 2) beads made from non-local or exotic raw materials show a low degree of standardization and occur with much less frequency; 3) many types of highly sought after metamorphic rocks from the interior were widely distributed at coastal sites in the Estremadura, linking even distant groups both economically and in terms of shared symbolic values; and 4) few ornaments show any significant use wear.