Winchell, Mareike, U. of California, Berkeley, CA - To aid research on 'The Politics of Ayllu Justice: Translations of Tradition and Law among Quechua Activists in Cochabamba, Bolivia,' supervised by Dr. Charles Hirschkind
MAREIKE WINCHELL, then a student at University of California, Berkeley, California, received a grant in October 2010 to aid research on 'The Politics of Ayllu Justice: Translations of Tradition and Law among Quechua Activists in Cochabamba, Bolivia,' supervised by Dr. Charles Hirschkind. Research focused on the ways recent legal reforms reshape existing practices of historical consciousness and ethical subjectivity in Bolivia, with emphasis on the frictions between the Bolivian state's vision of revolutionary change, on the one hand, and rural experiences of state reform among Quechua and Spanish-speaking descendents of landowners, and servants in ex-hacienda regions on the other. Through research with land reform officials and rural Quechua-speakers, the study shed light on: 1) how emergent ideals of revolutionary citizenship and temporal change become institutionalized; and 2) the ways institutional efforts coexist uneasily with a set of vertical relational practices that rural residents imbue with ethical significance.
Levitt, Emily Katherine, Cornell U., Ithaca, NY -To aid research on 'Changing the Tax Base Changes Everything: The Fiscal Dimensions of Citizenship and Sovereignty in Upstate New York,' supervised by Dr. Paul Nadasdy
Preliminary abstract: In Seneca Falls, NY, the Cayuga nation is buying property and refusing to pay the associated taxes, thereby attempting to establish a reservation. Many residents of Seneca Falls are organizing in opposition to this move and the associated loss to the municipal tax base. This project examines the financial and non-financial stakes of the struggle from the perspectives of the different players involved. I ask: what understandings of political and economic life are embedded in these controversies surrounding the changes posed to the tax base? Through studying both Cayuga and non-Cayuga discourses about the role of taxes and revenue, this project examines the ways in which these heated debates reflect and constitute different ideas of what citizenship and sovereignty entail. This research will open new space for anthropological enquiry through its focus on taxation's relationship to citizenship and sovereignty, through its synchronic approach to a group of politically highly varied research subjects, and through bridging the traditionally discrete domains of Native American and other North American anthropologies. Through drawing anthropological attention to these contestations about the fiscal dimensions of citizenship and taxation, this project will further academic understanding of a variety of important aspects of American political debates.
Bigham, Abigail Winslow, Penn State U., University Park, PA - To aid research on 'Signatures of Natural Selection among Populations of the Andean Altiplano and the Tibetan Plateau,' supervised by Dr. Mark David Shriver
ABIGAIL BIGHAM, then a student at Penn State University, University Park, Pennsylvania, received a grant in October 2006 to aid research on 'Signatures of Natural Selection among Populations of the Andean Altiplano and the Tibetan Plateau,' supervised by Dr. Mark Shriver. This research's focus was to identify gene specific evidence for genetic adaptation to high altitude hypoxia using independent, highland populations from distinct geographic regions. This includes the populations of the Andes (Quechua and Aymara) and a population from the Tibetan Plateau (Tibetans). Three major questions were addressed: 1) Is there gene-specific evidence for natural selection among populations of the Tibetan Plateau? 2) Is there gene-specific evidence for natural selection among populations of the Andean Altiplano? 3) Do the Tibetan and Andean populations exhibit similarities and/or differences in genes or functionally different changes in the same genes involved in high altitude adaptation? In order to answer these questions, a variety of molecular assays were performed on the study populations. These included: 1) Using high density multi-locus genome scan data to identify natural selection candidate genes and gene regions; 2) Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) typing in each of the candidate genes to further scrutinize these regions for evidence of selection; 3) DNA sequencing of one gene showing strong evidence of selection in both Tibetans and Andeans; and 4) Association analyses that control for admixture to test for genotype-phenotype correlations.
Prasad, Srirupa, U. of Illinois, Urbana, IL - To aid research on 'Gender Construction at Crossroads of Colonialism, Nationalism and Health: A Case Study of Colonial Bengal,' supervised by Dr. Winifred R. Poster
SRIRUPA PRASAD, while a student at the University of Illinois in Urbana, Illinois, received funding in December 2001 to aid research on gender construction, colonialism, nationalism, and health in Bengal, India, under the supervision of Dr. Winifred R. Poster. Prasad looked at the history and trajectory of medical practice in late colonial Bengal (1885-1935), addressing the absence of the home or household in the literature on the history of medicine in India and arguing that the household was a critical unit of analysis for understanding the history of medical practices in modern societies. In colonial India, ideas about disease, good health, sanitation, diet, cleanliness, and therapeutics were important means through which bodies were controlled and disciplined. They were a part of the nationalist discourse, too, behind which lay a zeal to regenerate the nation through healthy bodies and healthy minds that gave rise to a complex politics between Western and existing traditions of knowledge. Everyday prescriptions for health were also implicated in the construction of gender. Culturally nuanced and traditionally Indian notions of health, disease, and therapeutics played a crucial role in the techniques of bodily discipline, making disciplinary regimes in India different from those in the West at the same time. Prasad found that domesticity and the Indian household were indispensable for understanding anticolonial political nationalism in India and argued that the domain of the political should be extended to include the social forms of bodily disciplining that took place in the private domains of Hindu Bengali society.
Franklin, Kathryn Jane, U. of Chicago, Chicago, IL - To aid research on 'Poltiical Economy at the Crossroads: Trade and Authority in the Medieval Armenian Highlands, AD 500- 1400,' supervised by Dr. Adam Thomas Smith
KATHRYN J. FRANKLIN, then a student at University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois, was awarded a grant in April 2011 to aid research on 'Political Economy at the Crossroads: Trade and Economy in the Medieval Armenian Highlands, AD 500-1400,' supervised by Dr. Adam T. Smith. This project investigated the intersection of local political life along the mountain highways of Armenia with regional trade during the late medieval period (AD 900-1400). The project aims to discover how people living in the Armenian highlands at this time imagined themselves in relation to both local history and wider cultural and political phenomena, and how they put such imagined relationships into action through architectural projects that engaged with the material objects carried through the landscape by donkey caravans. To achieve these aims, the project investigated a caravanatun ('caravan house') built by a local merchant-prince in the early 13th century at the site of Arai-Bazarjugh. The excavations revealed the caravanatun to be a rectangular hall divided into vaulted galleries by rows of arches. This large and secure space provided accommodation for human travelers as well as their beasts, which were kept in specially built stable-galleries at the sides of the building. A second phase of the project focused on categorizing the material artifacts found within this building, which includes metal objects, animal bones, and pottery. The ceramic assemblage from the Arai-Bazarjugh caravanatun floors includes cookwares and small bowls, as well as glazed dishes that may have been trade goods on their way to the next town.
Van Wyk, Ilana, School of Oriental and African Studies, London, United Kingdom - To aid research on 'Magical Possibilities: Gambling in Durban, South Africa,' supervised by Dr. John D. Campbell
ILANA VAN WYK, then a student at the School of Oriental and African Studies, London, England, received funding in January 2005 to aid research on 'Magical Possibilities: Gambling in Durban, South Africa,' supervised by Dr. John D. Campbell. Lured by promises of fabulous wealth, many impoverished South Africans in the post-apartheid era throng to play the lottery and attend services at the Universal Church of the Kingdom of God (UCKG). They often sacrifice their savings, wages, and valuables to 'swing the dice' or get God to send them material blessings. Such behavior has often been explained in terms of magical appropriations of capitalism and economic desperation. This study situates sacrifice and the manipulation of luck in the context of participants' understandings of risk, power and moral rectitude. Sacrificing large sums of money in the UCKG signalled one's moral ascendance over the invisible forces of witchcraft, demons, and evil that constantly work to bring about one's downfall. However, this attracted the dangerous attention of one's enemies. To outsiders, such bold behaviour signaled frightening new sources of foreign power. These sources were mapped onto older explanatory structures and served to magnify the potentialities of evil. This research aims to map the intersections between power, morality, risk, and wealth in this locale while paying particular attention to the transformative abilities of incompletely controlled foreign forces and the politics of their deployment within the individual bodies of gamblers and UCKG members.
Van Wyk, Ilana. 2014. The Universal Church of the Kingdom of God in South Africa. Cambridge University Press: New York.
Kim, Jaeeun, U. of California, Los Angeles, CA - To aid research on 'Transborder National Membership Politics in Korea,' supervised by Dr. Rogers Brubaker
JAEEUN KIM, then a student at University of California, Los Angeles, California, received a grant in May 2008 to aid research on 'Transborder National Membership Politics in Korea,' supervised by Dr. Rogers Brubaker. Fieldwork was carried out in Japan (part of the multi-sited dissertation field research in Korea, Japan, and China), examining the Cold War competition between North and South Korea over the allegiance of the colonial-era Korean migrants to Japan. Based on extensive interviews and broad archival research, fieldwork demonstrated: 1) those who migrated between the Korean peninsula and the Japanese archipelago during the postwar and Cold War periods not only were subjected to, but also have actively shaped, the evolving interstate system across East Asia; 2) in extending their embrace to the population outside their respective territories, North Korea tried to construct a parallel institutional world for Koreans in Japan, replicating the corporatist social structure of the homeland, while South Korea tried to outstrip its counterpart by operating more effectively at the Interface between this transborder population and the outside world (e.g., securing the cooperation and support of the Japanese government, controlling Korean Japanese' connection to their home communities); and 3) the registration and documentation practices were not a mere instrument of the two competing 'homeland' states, but served as a cultural artifact through which some transborder population envisioned their belonging on multiple scales.
Kim, Jaeeun. 2014. The Colonial State, Migration, and Diasporic Nationhood in Korea. Comparative Studies in Society and History 56(1):34-66
Aquino, Valorie V., U. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM - To aid research on 'Comparison of a Community-Scale Political Adaptive Cycle with a High-Resolution Paleoclimate Record at Uxbenka,' supervised by Dr. Keith M. Prufer
Preliminary abstract: In studies of human-environment interactions, the conceptual framework of panarchy and its associated resilience theory posit that periods of stability and transformation are inevitable in what has been termed an adaptive cycle. This project develops a community-level political adaptive cycle for Uxbenká, an ancient agrarian polity in the Maya hinterlands, and explores its linkages with the broader political ideology of divine kingship and climate stress. Employing high-resolution archaeological and paleoclimatological analyses, I will assess: 1) the timing of when Uxbenká residents adopted and ultimately rejected the ideology and material expressions of divine kingship, 2) cycles of growth, maintenance, decline and renewal in the built environment history of the civic-ceremonial precinct as proxies for the stability or instability of political power and authority, 3) the duration of a potential dynastic lineage through direct dating of individuals, and 4) drying events and periods of short- and longer-term climate unpredictability from an ultra-precise speleothem paleoclimate record. The results will produce nuanced information on the role of political ideology as a source of change that transforms human societies and provide insights on the conditions that confer or erode the resilience of political actors embedded in a coupled socionatural landscape.
Ozden, Senay, Duke U., Durham, NC - To aid research on 'Other Refugees: A Comparative Ethnography of Palestinian Refugees in Lebanon and Syria,' supervised by Dr. Charles D. Piot
SENAY OZDEN, then a student at Duke University, Durham, North Carolina, received funding in May 2003 to aid research on May 2003 to aid research on 'Other Refugees: A Comparative Ethnography of Palestinian Refugees in Lebanon and Syria,' supervised by Dr. Charles D. Piot. This research explored how the Palestinian refugee is produced as a subject at the intersection of Arab nationalism, the politics of class, and the territoriality of resistance in the aftermath of the 1967 Arab-Israeli war in Syria. Arguing that Palestinian refugee politics cannot be isolated from the larger configuration of Syrian politics, the research sought to understand how various political powers in Syria - the state as identified with the Ba'th Party, the communist opposition, and various Palestinian political factions - conceptualize 'refugee' as a political and administrative category, and in turn, how the varying definitions of the Palestinian refugee contribute to the discursive construction of nationalism and the state in Syria. The project further explores how, among Palestinian refugees, a shift in discourse from an earlier anti-imperialist rhetoric to one of civil society and human rights has inspired new perceptions of state, resistance and the refugee camp. Archival research was conducted, in Syria and Lebanon, at the National Archives and at the archives of Syrian and Palestinian political organizations. Ethnographic research involved interviews with members of the Palestinian resistance and the Syrian opposition, as well as participation in the activities of Syrian and Palestinian protest movements in Syria and Lebanon.
Duffy, Kimberly G., U. of California, Los Angeles, CA - To aid research on 'Dynamics of Social Relationships among Adult Male Chimpanzees,' supervised by Dr. Joan B. Silk
KIMBERLY G. DUFFY, then a student at the University of California, Los Angeles, California, received funding in January 2001 to aid research on 'Dynamics of Social Relationships among Adult Male Chimpanzees,' supervised by Dr. Joan B. Silk. Social relationships among male chimpanzees appear to be well differentiated, and it may be that competition within the group influences male reproductive success as much as competition between groups. The goal of this study was to investigate how the need for coalition formation during within-group and between-group competition shapes social bonds among male chimpanzees. This was addressed by testing predictions of grooming models originally proposed to study the connection between coalition formation during the two types of competition and female bonds in primates. This study examined the distribution of social bonds among the ten male chimpanzees of the Kanyawara community, Kibale Forest, Uganda. Data on grooming, proximity coalitions, aggression, and mating were collected between June 2001 and November 2003 by using both focal samples and ad-lib behavioral observations. These data allowed for the testing of predictions regarding the use of coalitions, diversity of grooming, effects of dominance rank on grooming and coalitionary support, extent of reciprocity in grooming, and the exchange of grooming for coalitionary support and mating tolerance. Males of the Kanyawara community were selective in their choice of grooming partners, formed social cliques, exchanged social currencies, and competed for access to high-ranking partners. The highest-ranking males were also the most social males, and they had the highest mating success. These results indicate that maintaining relationships with allies within the group was important to the reproductive success of these males. This is expected when competition within the community is strong relative to competition with other communities.