Hopkins, Mariah E., U. of California, Berkeley, CA - To aid research on 'Spatial Foraging Patterns and Ranging Behavior of Mantled Howler Monkeys (Alouatta palliata), in Panama,' supervised by Dr. Katherine Milton
MARIAH E. HOPKINS, then a student at the University of California, Berkeley, California, received funding in December 2005, to aid research on 'Spatial Foraging Patterns and Ranging Behavior of Mantled Howler Monkeys (Alouatta Palliata), in Panama,' supervised by Dr. Katherine Milton. One of the most defining characteristics of the primate order --- and humans in particular -- is the extraordinary capacity for learning and retention. Many primatologists have pointed to the cognitive demands of foraging as an important selective pressure for intelligence, linking a primate's ability to exploit resources that are unevenly distributed in space and time to survival and reproductive success. Yet, while analyses of the strategies that humans employ to obtain resources are common, we still know relatively little about the methods that wild primates use to find desired resources across heterogeneous landscapes. This project addresses this need by using mantled howler monkeys as a model species to explore the role of spatial information (such as landscape structure, resource distribution patterns, and locations of neighboring groups) in guiding primate movements and foraging decisions. Models of animal movement developed in this research synthesize methods established in the fields of operations research and human geography for novel application to primate ecology. Results not only shed light on an important evolutionary pressure in primate evolution, they also yield a better understanding of the complex relationships between primates and their habitats -- information critical to developing management plans for both threatened primate species and tropical forests.
Monroe, Cara Rachelle, U. of Californa, Santa Barbara, CA - To aid research on 'Ancient Human DNA Analysis from CA-SCL-38 Burials: Correlating Biological Relationships, Mortuary Behavior, and Social Inequality,' supervised by Dr. Michael Jochim
Preliminary abstract: Archaeological, ethnographic, and linguistic evidence from the Central Coast and San Francisco Bay area of California suggest a complex culture history of dynamic regional interactions and migration, as well as the emergence of varying degrees of permanent social stratification. The predominately Late Period (1000--Contact YBP) earth/shellmound cemetery site of CA-SCL-38 ('Yukisma') located in the Santa Clara Valley of California suggests that the site was spatially structured according to not just age and sex, but also through a dual moiety system and elite status. Using an ancient DNA (aDNA) approach, this project will test for correlations between the genetic relatedness of individuals, grave goods, and burial patterns. This will provide a direct examination of prehistoric mortuary practices and the emergence/maintenance of social inequality.
Chance, Kerry Ryan, U. of Chicago, Chicago, IL - To aid research on 'Living Politics: New Practices and Protests of the 'Poor' in Democratic South Africa,' supervised by Dr. John L. Comaroff
KERRY RYAN CHANCE, then a student at University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois, was awarded a grant in May 2008 to aid research on 'Living Politics: New Practices and Protests of the 'Poor' in Democratic South Africa,' supervised by Dr. John L. Comaroff. This dissertation project examines how everyday practices and interactions between the state and residents of urban townships and shack settlements demarcate political life in democratic South Africa today, nearly two decades after the fall of apartheid. Conducted over eighteen months in the South African city of Durban, ethnographic research was based in the shack settlement of Kennedy Road, home to the national headquarters of Abahlali baseMjondolo, a leading poor peoples' movement. Drawing from political philosophy and studies of global slums, the project considers how residents collectively identify and articulate demands as political across historically race-based communities, and how this living politics (ipolitiki ephilayo), premised upon material conditions, is transforming long-standing relations with the state.
Shankar, Shobana, U. of California, Los Angeles, CA - To aid research on 'Wards and Workers: Christianity, Agency, and Social Mobility in Muslim, Hausa Society, 1899 to Present,' supervised by Dr. Edward A. Alpers
Hammer, Emily Louise, Harvard U., Cambridge, MA - To aid research on 'Landscapes of Pastoral Nomads in Southeastern Turkey,' supervised by Dr. Jason Alik Ur
Preliminary Abstract: How do non-sedentary people invest meaning in local landscapes? I will examine this question by investigating patterns of re-occupation and manipulation of natural resources by pre-modern pastoral nomads in southeastern Turkey. To date, Mesopotamian archaeologists have collected data almost exclusively on the sedentary sector of ancient societies. In the absence of direct evidence, pastoral nomads are typically incorporated into archaeological models solely through biased historical accounts written by urban elites and analogies to twentieth century ethnographic observations. This approach has resulted in an incomplete understanding of historical specificity and individual agency in pre-modern nomadic pastoral land-use. My dissertation research addresses this issue by collecting spatial data that provides evidence for diachronic patterns in nomadic pastoral winter inhabitation over the last 500 years, specifically the arrangement of campsites and associated landscape features such as cisterns, corrals, and caves. In the current phase of the project, I will analyze how water accessibility relates to inhabitation and herding patterns. Via sediment coring and radiocarbon and cosmogenic dating methods, I will investigate the possibility of campsite re-inhabitation events and to determine the time of use of these campsites and as well as the time of creation of nearby cisterns in order to develop hypotheses about the evolution of mobile settlement and landscape. By investigating cisterns as landscape anchors--spatial nodes orienting people's camping and pasture patterns over long periods of time--my analysis will contribute to anthropological knowledge regarding how people transform natural resources into socially-constructed places of significance.
Malone, Molly Sue, U. of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada - To aid research on 'Living on the Skagit River: Native American Historical Consciousness and Relationships with the Aquatic Environment,' supervised by Dr. Bruce Granville Miller
MOLLY SUE MALONE, then a student at the University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada, was awarded a grant in October 2009, to aid research on 'Living on the Skagit River: Native American Historical Consciousness and Relationships with the Aquatic Environment,' supervised by Dr. Bruce Granville Miller. This research examines Upper Skagit Indian Tribe members' historical consciousness of their families' settlement patterns and fishing practices in the Skagit River watershed over the past two hundred years, and ,asks what this consciousness reveals about how contemporary Native American relationships to land and water are shaped by colonial processes of land alienation and subsequent struggles for tribal recognition and access to aboriginal territory. Data was collected over a twelve-month period using three overlapping methods of inquiry: the collection of oral narratives with contemporary Upper Skagit people, participant observation within the Upper Skagit community, and archival work with documents pertaining to the post-contact history of the Skagit River valley as well as field notes and oral narrative transcriptions collected by earlier anthropologists working among the Upper Skagit throughout the 20th century. The data is compiled into family settlement narratives and an overall tribal narrative for the purpose of evaluating the various levels of historical consciousness pertaining to colonial impacts on the watershed .
Borejsza, Aleksander, U. of California, Los Angeles, CA - To aid research on 'Land Use and Land Tenure in Prehispanic Tlaxcala,' supervised by Dr. Richard G. Lesure
ALEKSANDER BOREJSZA, then a student at the University of California, Los Angeles, California, was awarded a grant in July 2003 to aid research on 'Land Use and Land Tenure in Prehispanic Tlaxcala,' supervised by Dr. Richard G. Lesure. Geoarchaeological research in Tlaxcala (Mexico) focused on the management of slopes for agricultural purposes, from prehispanic to modern times, and its relation to soil erosion. Surveying and excavation of abandoned agricultural terraces was combined with the study of alluvial sequences exposed in arroyo walls. Excavations at La Laguna revealed that a large settlement occupied the slopes in the Late to Terminal Formative (500BC-AD100) but the original ground surface was lost to erosion at abandonment. Stone-walled terraces that survive were built in the Late Postclassic (AD1350-1520) to reclaim land for cultivation. Erosion recurred after Conquest. Several successive systems of ditches and earthen berms (metpanties) were superimposed on the prehispanic vestiges by the managers of a hacienda since the eighteenth century. Barranca Tenexac, a stream that receives runoff from La Laguna, responded to slope erosion and stability by alternating episodes of rapid aggradation and soil development. The stratigraphy of three other low-order streams records widespread anthropogenic disturbance in the Late Holocene. Barranca Xilomantla cut a 9m-deep channel in the Formative and rapidly filled it with sediment rich in wood charcoal, which may reflect the use of fire in forest clearance and farming of unterraced slopes. All four streams incised more than 10m in response to the abandonment of terraces and overgrazing by sheep immediately after Conquest. No remains of Formative terraces were found, and some previously reported cases were dismissed as erroneous associations of sherd scatters with modern features. Terracing in the Late Postclassic targeted previously damaged an otherwise marginal land.
Borejsza, Aleksander. 2008. Agricultural Slope Management and Soil Erosion at La Laguna, Tlaxcala, Mexico. Journal of Archaeological Science 35:1854-1866
Rosso, Daniela Eugenia, U. Bordeaux, Bordeaux, France - To aid research on 'Technological and Physicochemical Characterization of MSA Pigments from Porc-Epic Cave (Dire Dawa, Ethiopia),' supervised by Dr. Francesco D'Errico
Preliminary abstract: We will apply novel methodology to the analysis of the pigments and pigment processing tools from Porc-Epic cave (Dire Dawa, Ethiopia) with the aim of gaining a better understanding of the emergence of pigment related technology in this region, evaluating its complexity, and discussing the implications of our results for the debate on the origin of 'behavioural modernity'. Porc-Epic is a Middle and Later Stone Age cave site. Research conducted during our Master's has highlighted that this site has yielded the richest collection of pigments in quantity thus far, and a variety of processing tools. Porc-Epic is one of the rare Palaeolithic sites at which most of the stages of pigment treatment can be recorded. Contextual, mineralogical, colorimetric, morphometric, technological, and functional information will be recorded in a comprehensive database. We will analyze all the pigments and processing tools from the 1975-1976 excavations. They consist of 4233 lumps of red and yellow material, with traces of anthropogenic modification, and 23 processing tools. Pigments will be studied using Optical and Scanning Electron Microscopy, XRF, μ-XRD, PIXE Spectrometry, and Raman spectroscopy. A petrographic analysis of the pigments and a survey of the area will be conducted to identify the geological sources.
Gilbert, David, E., Stanford U., Stanford, CA - To aid research on 'Continuity and Change in Sumatran Tropical Forest Farming,' supervised by Dr. William H. Durham
Preliminary abstract: This research is a mixed method evaluation of two small holder forest farming settlements in the central Sumatran provinces of West Sumatra and Jambi. Research is motivated by the renewed interest in the 'agrarian question' that addresses 21st century processes of rural change that continue to transform relationships between farmers, corporate agricultural producers and the state, and asks: How a purposeful sample of Sumatra's forest-farmers have countered exclusionary pressures on their forestlands to create flourishing, inhabited agroforestry systems.
Yazici, Berna, New York U., New York, NY - To aid research on 'Social Work in Turkey: Nation Making and the Modern Family,' supervised by Dr. Lila Abu-Lughod
BERNA YAZICI, while a student at New York University, New York, New York, received funding in January 2004 to aid research on state sponsored social work among the urban poor in Turkey, under the supervision of Dr. Lila Abu-Lughod. Yazici was interested in the models of family and gendered subjectivities promoted through social work intervention in order to illuminate how the social life of national subjects is constituted and contested. Her research explored how social work intervenes in familial relations and practices both through more indirect mechanisms such as educational programs as well as through the more direct medium of casework. For the former, she conducted twelve months of fieldwork at the state social work agency's two society centers. Attending the educational programs offered at the centers, observing the daily routines at the administrative offices, and interviewing clients, she focused on the role of social workers as mediators of social work programs and the clients' appropriations of social services. In addition, Yazici conducted supplementary fieldwork at a city directorate office of the agency, where she observed cases of child protection, domestic violence, and social assistance. Her research suggested two conclusions, both of which point to the effects of social work intervention in terms of relations of power, gender, and class: 1) There exists a tension between social work's official model of the nuclear family, which foregrounds the mother-child dyad, and the dominance of extended kin relations that prevail in the lives of the urban poor, which the social work agency strategically and paradoxically ignores and utilizes; and 2) social work's mission of 'protecting the unity of the family,' particularly interpreted as facilitating the child's upbringing within her family, structures the various services provided by the agency and may lead to (non)interventions that particularly disadvantage women and children.