Hammond, Ashley Suzanne, U. of Missouri, Columbia, MO - To aid research on 'Fossil Evidence for Hip Joint Mobility and the Evolution of Suspensory Locomotor Abilities in Hominoids,' supervised by Dr. Carol V. Ward
ASHLEY S. HAMMOND, then a graduate student at University of Missouri, Columbia, Missouri, was awarded a grant in October 2012 to aid research on 'Fossil Evidence for Hip Joint Mobility and the Evolution of Suspensory Locomotor Abilities in Hominoids,' supervised by Dr. Carol V. Ward. Suspensory behaviors are thought to be key locomotor behaviors to understanding extant great ape morphology, and figure into most scenarios of great ape and human evolution. It is assumed that suspensory behaviors are associated with increased ranges of joint mobility, particularly range of abduction at the hip joint, although there are no empirical data on hip mobility available. This project tested the hypothesis that suspensory primates have an increased range of motion at the hip joint compared to non-suspensory anthropoids in anesthetized animals (in vivo), and investigated the utility of modeling joint mobility digitally for application to fossil hominoids. The study found support for the hypothesis that suspensory primates have significantly increased range of hip abduction. Simulations of hip abduction revealed that there is also a consistent relationship between the digital approach and range of abduction measured in vivo, providing a framework for interpreting fossil hominoids. Range of abduction was then simulated in fossil hominoids Proconsul nyanzae, hypothesized to be an above-branch quadruped, and Rudapithecus hungaricus, which is hypothesized to be suspensory. As expected, this study found that Rudapithecus would have had hip mobility similar to suspensory taxa whereas Proconsul had more limited hip mobility. This project provides the first evidence for suspensory behavior in a fossil ape based on hindlimb joint mobility.
Hammond, Ashley S. 2014. In Vivo Baseline Measurements of Hip Joint Range of Motion in Suspensory and Nonsuspensory Anthropoids. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 153(3):417-434
Hammond, Ashley S., J. Michael Plavcan, and Carol V. Ward. 2013. Precision and Accuracy of Acetabular Size Measures in Fragmentary Hominin Pelves Obtained Using Sphere-Fitting Techniques. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 150(4):565-578.
Zovar, Jennifer Montgomery Johnson, Vanderbilt U., Nashville, TN - To aid research on 'Post-Collapse Formations of Community, Memory, and Identity: The Archaeology of Pukara de Khonkho, Bolivia,' supervised by Dr. John Wayne Janusek
JENNIFER M. ZOVAR, while a student at Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee, was awarded a grant in May 2008 to aid research on 'Post-Collapse Formations of Community, Memory, and Identity: The Archaeology of Pukara de Khonkho, Bolivia,' supervised by Dr. John W. Janusek. The goal of the investigation was to use the large, densely populated settlement of Pukara de Khonkho as a test case to examine community development following the collapse of the Tiwanaku state, specifically considering the roles of population movement and intercommunity interaction. This phase of research focused on intensive ceramic analysis of excavated material from Pukara de Khonkho and nearby sites. Vessel form, paste, decoration, finish and use wear were recorded. A comparison of the results illustrates that the inhabitants of Pukara de Khonkho shared a common ceramic style that was dissimilar from neighboring communities, and it is suggested that these differences represent one example of the material manifestation of distinct community identities. The results of additional laboratory tests, including ICPMS analysis of ceramic sherds, strontium isotope analysis of human bone, and radiocarbon dating will help to, respectively, provenience ceramic production, identify first generation migrants, and situate the Pukara de Khonkho in regional chronology.
Mahadev, Neena, Johns Hopkins U., Baltimore, MD - To aid research on 'Buddhist and Christian Ethical Endeavors: Charitable Works, Conversions, and Unstable Religious Commitments in Post-Tsunami Sri Lanka,' supervised by Dr. Veena Das
NEENA MAHADEV, then a student at Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland, was awarded funding in October 2008, to aid research on 'Buddhist and Christian Ethical Endeavors: Charitable Works, Conversions, and Unstable Religious Commitments in Post-Tsunami Sri Lanka,' supervised by Dr. Veena Das. The rise in global Pentecostal Christianity has begun to affect Sri Lanka over recent decades, inciting Buddhist nationalists to revive their efforts to protect against the possibility that Christianity will supplant Buddhism as the majority religion of the country. This research attended to the discourses and practices involved in protecting Theravada Buddhism, as well as to new practices of evangelism and charismatic Christianity in Sri Lanka. The fieldwork considered sub/urban religious landscapes where conversions to charismatic Christianity have been relatively concentrated within certain socioeconomic demographic groups, in contrast to predominantly Buddhist tsunami-affected areas where conversions have been gradual, limited, and dispersed across southern districts. In the crosscut between Buddhist nationalism and Pentecostal evangelism in Sri Lanka, this project took up the following ethnographic tasks: 1) to study the events that have caused a resurgence of exclusivist religious doctrines and practices, exacerbating Buddhist-Christian discord in Sri Lanka; 2) to study the impacts of heightened tensions on Buddhist and Christian institutions and individuals; 3) to gain knowledge about the workings of both harmonious and discordant inter-religious relationships; and 4) to understand how experiences of belonging within families and within village communities did or did not match ideologies of exclusivity promoted by religious authorities.
Brown, Laura C., U. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI - To aid research on 'Tipping Scales with Tongues: Language Use in Thanjavur's Petty Shops,' supervised by Judith T. Irvine
LAURA C. BROWN, then a student at University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, received funding in April 2005 to aid research on 'Tipping Scales with Tongues: Language Use in Thanjavur's Petty Shops,' supervised by Dr. Judith T. Irvine. Roadsides in India bloom with small grocery shops, mali kada, where goods, advertisements, and news from distant locations mix with products and persons who spend most of their time within a single neighborhood. Because they are primary sites for household consumption and expenditure, meetings between friends and interactions between neighbors who are unlikely to speak in other settings, these shops are critical sites for the enactment and negotiation of multiple kinds of affiliation, obligation, and trust. Focusing on conversations in and around three such shops in Thanjavur, India this project explores the ways in which communication about different forms of debt and obligation -- in cash, kind, action, and affection -- relates to ideas about the correctness, economic value, and morality of Tamil language use. Recordings of conversations in shops, examinations of account books, interviews with product suppliers, and explicit discussions of ways of speaking suggest that people doing business in such shops often stress the quantity and regularity of talk, as opposed to its form or content, as critical to the maintenance of relationships
Rice, Kathleen Frieda, U. of Toronto, Toronto, Canada - To aid research on 'Purity, Propriety and Power: Negotiating Lobola and Virginity Testing as Sites of Gendered and Generational Power among Xhosa South Africans,' supervised by Dr. Janice Boddy
KATHLEEN F. RICE, then a student at University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada, was awarded a grant in April 2011 to aid research on 'Purity, Propriety, and Power: Negotiating Lobola and Virginity Testing as Sites of Gendered and Generational Power among Xhosa South Africans,' supervised by Dr. Janice Boddy. This project draws on sixteen months of ethnographic fieldwork conducted in a rural Bomvana community in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa. The research addresses the following question: In the community under study, what cultural institutions are mobilized to reinforce and/or contest moral discourses and values relating to kinship, sexuality, and reproduction, and how is this accomplished? Particularly, this research examines embodied and/or symbolic forms of moral discourse, and to how these discourses spark anxieties and contests at the fault-lines of gender and generational power. Through focusing on issues such as bridewealth, abduction marriage, sexuality, and patterns of alcohol consumption, this research shows that significant intergenerational and intergendered anxieties are sustained, negotiated, and produced through contests over the meaning and value of human rights, gender equality, and access to money. These intergenerational and intergendered tensions are rendered especially acute due to the double burden of poor economic prospects alongside the HIV/AIDS epidemic.
Girard- Buttoz, Cedric, German Primate Centre, Goettingen, Germany - To aid research on 'Costs of Mate-Guarding in Wild Long-Tailed Macaques (Macaca fascicularis),' supervised by Dr. Antje Engelhardt
CEDRIC GIRARD-BUTTOZ, then a student at the German Primate Centre, Goettingen, Germany, was awarded a grant in October 2008 to aid research on 'Costs of Mate-Guarding in Wild Tong-Tailed Macaques (Macaca fascicularis),' supervised by Dr. Antje Engelhardt. Little is known so far about how primate males cope with the costs arising from mate-guarding females in multi-male groups. The aim of the project therefore was to quantify these costs using long-tailed macaques as a model species. The study was carried out during two reproductive seasons on three groups living in the Gunung Leuser National Park, Indonesia. Research combined behavioral observations and non-invasive measurements of c-peptides as an indicator of male energetic status. Results indicate that males counterbalance reduced energy intake deriving from decreased feeding time and fruit consumption by decreasing their vertical locomotion and thus energy expenditure. Accordingly, no effect of mate-guarding on energetic status was found in the males studied. Results thus far are surprising in that they show alpha male long-tailed macaques do not monopolize all available females even when it may be possible. One explanation may be that results include rare empirical evidence of the concession model in primates. The constraints shaping the evolution of male reproductive strategy in primates might strongly differ between non-strictly seasonal species (such as long-tailed macaques) and strictly seasonal species and further studies on both ends of the spectrum are needed.
Welker, Marina, U. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI - To aid research on 'Industry as Aid: Mining, Development, and Moral Conflict in Sumbawa, Indonesia,' supervised by Dr. Webb Keane
MARINA WELKER, while a student at the University of Michigan in Ann Arbor, Michigan, received funding in November 2001 to aid research on mining, development, and moral conflict in Sumbawa, Indonesia, under the supervision of Dr. Webb Keane. Welker considered the incorporation of a new business paradigm, 'corporate social responsibility' (CSR), in the transnational mining industry. During eighteen months of data collection in Indonesia, she combined long-term village research on community development projects carried out by Newmont Nusa Tenggara near the Batu Hijau copper and gold mine in Sumbawa with two months of comparative research in Jakarta and at other mine sites. Primary methods included participant observation, interviews, and archival research (corporate documents and newspapers). Welker focused on transformations in the risk management strategies mining companies applied to groups they recognized as 'stakeholders': farmers, businesspeople, mothers, the state, developmentalist nongovernmental organizations (NGOs), and advocacy NGOs. She found that under the CSR paradigm, corporations were attempting to substitute a market rationality construing local communities as autonomous and independent for the gift logic that served as the conventional basis of corporate-community relations. By examining how new flows of material and discourse between companies and stakeholders were constituted and contested, Welker approached CSR as an extension of corporate power and knowledge. She found both stakeholder groups and companies transformed through their participation in negotiations over the proper relationship between mining companies and mine-affected communities.
Welker, Marina. 2014. Enacting the Corporation: An American Mining Firm in Post-Authoritarian Indonesia. University of California Press: Berkeley and Los Angeles.
Welker, Marina. 2012. The Green Revolution's Ghost: Unruly Subjects of Participatory Development in Rural Indonesia. American Ethnologist 39(2):389-406.
Welker, Marina A. 2009. 'Corporate Security Begins in the Community:' Mining, The Corporate Social
Responsibility Industry, and Environmental Advocacy in Indonesia. Cutlural Anthropology 24(1):142-179.
Langergraber, Kevin E., U. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI - To aid research on 'Kinship and Social Behavior of Chimpanzees, ' supervised by Dr. John C. Mitani
LANGERBRABER, KEVIN E., while a student at the University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, received a grant in July 2004 to aid research on 'Kinnship and Social Behavior of Chimpanzees,' supervised by Dr. John C. Mitani. The grant provided funds for the genotyping of wild chimpanzees living in the Ngogo community in Kibale NationaIPark, Uganda. Fecal samples were collected non-invasively from individually identified chimpanzees and analyzed in the laboratory to determine how the 150 members of the Ngogo community are related to one another genetically. Behavioral data were also collected to determine patterns of affiliation and cooperation between chimpanzees. When combined, the genetic and behavioral data will answer whether genetically related chimpanzees preferentially affiliate and cooperate. These results will add to our understanding of the role that nepotism plays in the evolution of cooperation among animals and humans.
Bazylevych, Maryna Y., State U. of New York, Albany, NY - To aid research on 'Ukrainian Women Physicians at a Post-Socialist Crossroad: Negotiating New Roles,' supervised by Dr. Gail Heidi Landsman
MARYNA Y. BAZYLEVYCH, then a student at State University of New York, Albany, New York, was awarded a grant in November 2007 to aid research on 'Ukrainian Women Physicians at a Post-Socialist Crossroads: Negotiating New Roles,' supervised by Dr. Gail H. Landsman. This project sought to understand the factors and implications of increasing participation of women in the biomedical profession in post-socialist Ukraine while their numbers in other previously female-dominated fields were decreasing. Research activities included comparative investigation of the medical professionals in private and state health care facilities in the capital city of Kyiv and the peripheral city of Vinnytsia in central Ukraine. In-depth interviews, free listing, focus groups, life histories, and participant observation were used as methodology. Through investigation of rapidly changing biomedical field and its actors, the researcher found that the concept of professional prestige is deeply gendered and contextualized. Perception of prestige in an unstable society with transforming value system depends on a wide range of factors, including a person's experience, education, family, gender, media, etc. It is also conditioned by a broader context of lack of trust between the newly emerged state and individuals. Furthermore, the relationship between private and public spheres is not dichotomous, and the boundaries between these two loci of the biomedical employment are blurred. The study suggests that this complex interplay of broader social issues provides a well-informed explanation for women's appropriation of the biomedical field as a suitable venue for income earning and self-actualization.
Pettit, Matthew David, U. of Toronto, Toronto, Canada - To aid research on 'The Free Life: Healing the Alcoholic Self in Paris,' supervised by Dr. Michael Lambek
Preliminary abstract: A research project investigating Vie Libre, a mutual-aid association for alcoholics in Paris, France. Over 10 months, I will use participant observation to examine how the group's understanding of healing ('guérison') and the healed alcoholic ('buveur guéri') is changing through their increasing subjection to new social and material conditions. These include various forms of precariousness and isolation, the perceived decline of the public ethos of solidarity, as well as new patterns of alcohol consumption (e.g. binge drinking among the young, co-morbid dependencies). My focus is on concrete instances of self-definition and relation, particularly in their weekly 'talking groups,' but including outreach efforts at hospitals and schools and their participation in public events. This perspective will include the ways in which medical and psychological treatments and strategies enter into my informants' lives as core tools in their self-making. The research centres on the two Parisian chapters of the group, and combines person-centred approaches, namely, long-form interviews and participant-observation of the daily lives and organizational initiatives of the group members, with an analysis of broader social phenomena. These include the history and shifting role of 'associations' in French civic society, increasing material precariousness due to short-term contracts and unemployment, and the rhetorics that shape, sustain and limit demands on the state and its citizens.