Ditto, Emily Cubbon, U. of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC - To aid research on 'Cosmological Caches: Organization and Power at Chaco Canyon, New Mexico (A.D. 850-1150),' supervised by Dr. Vincas P. Steponaitis
Preliminary abstract: My dissertation focuses on Chaco Canyon, New Mexico, where clear indications of social differentiation in the Pueblo world first appeared during the 9th-11th centuries. Though research has been conducted since 1896, many central questions, such as the distinct nature of Chacoan organization and leadership, have been difficult to solve. Recently, many scholars have argued convincingly for strong ritual components. One key question concerns the roles of dual organization (moieties) and ritual sodalities (non-kin groups). Current evidence for dualism is biological and architectural. Artifacts, especially details regarding their contexts, and what they reveal about ritual and power, have been underemphasized in recent Chaco research. In addition, two conspicuously elaborate groups of burials found in Pueblo Bonito (the largest great house, in the canyon center) are often cited as the most unmistakable evidence for Chacoan social differentiation. Despite their widely recognized importance and potential to address difficulties understanding the roles of Chacoan leaders, no systematic study of artifact distributions relative to skeletal remains has been conducted. My research will use artifacts to investigate whether dualism was represented in Chacoan organization by analyzing patterns of variation among ritual caches and comparing the contents and symbolic associations of the two Pueblo Bonito burial assemblages.
Kowalewski, Miguel M., U. of Illinois, Urbana, IL - To aid research on 'Subgrouping Patterns and Cooperative Strategies in Howler Monkeys in Argentina,' supervised by Dr. Paul A. Garber
MIGUEL M. KOWALEWSK, then a student at the University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois, received funding in July 2003, to aid research on 'Subgrouping Patterns and Cooperative Strategies in Howler Monkeys in Argentina,' supervised by Dr. Paul A. Garber. This research addressed questions concerning the evolution of primate sociality and factors that determine and constrain the size, composition, cohesiveness, and interactions among primates living in a social group. A detailed 24-month field study of subgrouping patterns, social affiliation and ecology in two neighboring groups of Alouatta caraya was conducted (7-15 individuals) on Isla Brasilera, 290 ha, 27º 20' S and 58º 40' W in northern Argentina.. A series of hypotheses concerning how factors such as social dominance, individual spacing, feeding competition, changes in food availability, partner preferences, and the development of nonkin social bonds was tested. Vegetation studies included the construction of 226 quadrants (20 x 20 m), in which 8371 individual trees were registered (2160 were marked and mapped) and 79 vine-patches were studied. The phenology of 28 plant species was analyzed in order to build an availability index for food patches. The two groups were followed five days a month, totaling 4450 individual focal hours and 8890 scan samples for each group across seasons. Home ranges were 5.6 ha and 4.3 ha, with an 85% of overlapping with other groups. Preliminary analysis of this research show evidence of weak within-group competition, and mild levels of between-group competitions mainly related to the protection of estrous females. The grantee also found more time invested in social affiliative interactions such as grooming, huddling, cooperative defense, within group tolerance of copulation, between-group playing interactions mainly by infants, juveniles, and subadult individuals, than expected based on previous studies of howlers.
Walker, Christopher, U. of Chicago, Chicago, IL - To aid research on 'The Social Life of Open-Source Software in Tibet,' supervised by Dr. John D. Kelly
CHRISTOPHER E. WALKER, while a student at the University of Chicago, was awarded a grant in August 2003 to research the social conditions of Tibetan language software development, under the supervision of Dr. John D. Kelly. Central to the research was a study of the Tibetan block of 'Unicode,' the de facto standard for encoding the world's natural languages in computer systems. More than a decade ago, Tibet University in Lhasa (China) played a central role in this emergent and powerful standard. This feat has been celebrated by the Chinese press, which often highlights any state support of science and technology within minority areas. Curiously, however, the study of more recent technical proposals and computer projects involving Tibetan language reveal that China has mixed reactions to the very standard it helped create. Contrary to the philosophy of Unicode, namely that every language should have only one set of codes, China has recently used the 'private use area' of Unicode to define a second, competing standard for Tibetan. The official reasons given for creating two standards for Tibetan language are mainly technical and pragmatic. A deeper analysis has revealed that economic pressure, educational background, and the social environment play a pivotal role in the development of Tibetan information technology in China.
Ozgen, Zeynep, U. of California, Los Angeles, CA - To aid research on 'Schooling, Islamization, and Religious Mobilization in Turkey,' supervised by Dr. Rogers Brubaker
ZYNEP OZGEN, then a student at University of California, Los Angeles, California, was awarded a grant in April 2011 to aid research on 'Schooling, Islamization, and Religious Mobilization in Turkey,' supervised by Dr. Rogers Brubacker. This ethnographic and historical project analyzes the relationship between rapidly growing religious education sites and mobilization efforts by Islamic movements in Turkey. The dissertation concentrates on the period from Turkey's 1980 military coup through the present to explain how Islamic movements have appropriated the secular vision of social engineering through education to reach, recruit, and organize followers. It also explores the consequences of a renewed emphasis on religious education for the perception and practice of Islam in everyday life. Through a combination of ethnographic field notes, interviews with key local and national actors, and analysis of archival documents the dissertation traces how religious education becomes the focal point of local and national struggles to inspire mobilization and advance an agenda of sociocultural Islamization.
Bauernfeind, Amy Lynn, George Washington U., Washington, DC - To aid research on 'Metabolic Supply and Demand: A Study of Energetic Strategy in the Brain,' supervised by Dr. Chet C. Sherwood
Preliminary Abstract: While the human brain is more energetically costly to grow and maintain than that of the other primate species, it is still unknown which cellular and biochemical modifications are especially responsible for this increased metabolic demand. The proposed study aims to elucidate the distribution of metabolic resources in the brain in light of two important considerations: (1) the amount of energy needed to support the brain is dynamic over the course of the lifetime, and (2) the cerebral cortex of primates contains a heterogenous composition of neurons which are certain to show diversity in their energy utilization due to their variation in size and connectivity. The proposed study will use matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI) mass spectrometry to investigate interspecific variability in metabolic supply and demand by linking molecules known to participate in metabolic processes to structural maturation and neuronal variability. The spatial specificity of this new proteomic method will be used to anatomically map the distribution of structural and metabolic proteins and to identify the specific contributions of neuronal subtypes and cortical layers in driving the energetic demand of the brain. This information will help us understand the functional consequences of energy allocation toward metabolically expensive neural tissue.
Coleman, Leo C., Princeton U., Princeton, NJ - To aid research on 'Private Power: The Privatization of Electricity and Citizenship in Delhi, India,' supervised by Dr. Carol J. Greenhouse
LEO CHARLES COLEMAN, then a student at Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey, was awarded a grant in April 2005 to aid research on 'Private Power: The Privatization of Electricty and Citizenship in Delhi, India,' supervised by Dr. Carol J. Greenhouse. This project studied urban citizenship and the political and social consequences of privatization in Delhi, India, with an ethnographic focus on consumer and citizen mobilizations in response to the partial privatization of electricity provision in 2002. The research reveals the internal strains and external constraints on the development of a self-described 'middle-class' in Delhi today, and describes the recent emergence in Delhi of class-homogenous territorially- and residentially-based political groups. Alongside national transformations in economic governance, novel practices of citizenship and urban inclusion and exclusion have emerged in Delhi, expressed in mobilizations for better electricity service and fairer rates, and citizen demands for slum clearance, urban renewal, and expansion of urban services. The mobilizations studied agitated for local control of 'public' goods and were informed by an ideology of consumer-citizenship which equates democracy with transparency, and the latter with local territorial sovereignty. These are the unexpected consequences of a privatization process deeply imbued with the neo-liberal orthodoxy of absolute individual autonomy, but which has produced, ironically, new territorial collectivities. Through joint archival and ethnographic research, the project also traces the continued, albeit submerged, relevance for political action of long-standing foci of communal identification and urban division, including citizenship and caste.
Johnson, Jennifer Lee, U. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI - To aid research on 'Comfortwork, Commerce, and Control in a Cosmopolitan African Artisanal Fishery,' supervised by Dr. Rebecca D. Hardin
JENNIFER L. JOHNSON, then a student at the University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, was awarded a grant in January 2011 to aid research on 'Comfortwork, Commerce, and Control in a Cosmopolitan African Artisanal Fishery,' supervised by Dr. Rebecca Hardin. Traversing national boundaries and international networks of commerce, control, and expertise, Lake Victoria has long been a crucible for transformative social dynamics characterized by the littoral -- literally the shoreline. It is a place of heightened prospects for actual and economic mobility, alternative moralities of sexual and economic exchange, and competing valuation of space and resources for leisure, protein, and politically strategic purposes. Guided by the overarching proposition that women are vital to sustaining local, regional, and intercontinental fisheries-based economies, though their work is often overlooked, this research examined gender, intimacy, and marginality within Uganda's southern mainland and island-based fisheries. By following fish, people, and ideas about fish and people as they circulated within and between fishing beaches, fish-smoking 'covers,' industrial processing plants, markets of various kinds, restaurants, homes, managerial institutions, spiritual sites, and archives, this research demonstrated that women (and men) sustain these fisheries through species- and form-specific activities that are also suffused with kinship, sexual, and spiritual connections. Furthermore, their work mitigates possibilities for the kind of spectacular triumph or failure featured in dominant popular narratives and the more narrowly defined criteria for managerial success in Lake Victoria, and instead sustain a socially and ecologically cosmopolitan Nyanja.
Tacey, Ivan Charles, U. Lumiere Lyon II, Lyon, France - To aid research on 'Transformations to Space and Place: A Case Study of the Batek of Peninsular Malaysia,' supervised by Dr. Lionel Obadia
IVAN C. TACEY, then a student at University Lumiere Lyon II, Lyon, France, received a grant in April 2012 to aid research on 'Transformations to Space and Place: A Case Study of the Batek of Peninsular Malaysia,' supervised by Dr. Lionel Obadia. This research examined place-making and processes of territorialization in contemporary Peninsular Malaysia among the Batek, an indigenous minority people. Research was also undertaken with government agents, NGOs, and lawyers working with indigenous peoples in Malaysia. Since the 1970s deforestation, tourism, mining, and illegal poaching have brought increasing numbers of outsiders into the Batek's world. Multi-sited fieldwork was undertaken to examine the complex interactions between the Batek and the wide array of actors who now move through their traditional territory. Methodologies used to gain data on how Batek links to landscape are made and transformed included: GPS mapping; the collection of historical and religious stories; ethnographic interviews; surveys; and participant observation. Initial research findings demonstrate how Batek society, religion, and connections to landscape are being radically altered by national and global pressures. The Batek are acutely aware of how landscape changes and intensification of transnational flows of people, objects, and ideas have transformed their environments and sacred places. This awareness has informed new figurations within their cosmology, social discourses, and symbolic worlds. A key research finding concerned the emergence of Batek topophobia and 'tropes of fear:' dynamic, figurative manifestations of collective anxieties about unrelenting and uncontrollable global processes.
Msoka, Colman T., U. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN - To aid research on 'Informal Market Spaces and Urban Development in Dar-Es-Salaam, Tanzania,' supervised by Dr. Ronald Aminzade
COLMAN T. MSOKA, while a student at the University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota, was awarded funding in September 2002 to aid research on 'Informal Market Spaces and Urban Development in Dar-Es-Salaam, Tanzania,' supervised by Dr. Ronald Aminzade. The objectives of the dissertation field research were to identify the social forces responsible for the growth of informal markets in Dar Es Salaam, to understand their sociocultural dimensions, and their relationship to urban development. In addition to exploring factors that explain the rise of informal markets, the research examined how space is used in such areas. Data collection was done for ten months using anthropological and archival techniques. Interviews were conducted with the city mayor, municipal employees, petty traders, and the adult residents of the city. Preliminary findings indicate that the informal market sub-sector is large and a substantial sector in the economy of the city. It ranges from the daily essential commodities to the less essential ones. Although the city government is attempting to control the growth of informal markets, the sector has continued to get support from the public and some politicians despite the various drawbacks that are frequently mentioned. Vendors in the informal markets are positioned strategically and they have produced a pattern that has policy implications for urban planners and authorities. It was noted that control over public space is empowering, and vendors have gained extra power after accessing public spaces. Further, informal business at nights and early morning transacts in secure streets (front stage) with more people and lights for security. During the day informal traders tend to do business with more concern for city authority disapproval. Preliminary findings of the study challenge the contemporary urban planning process in Tanzania, and it is argued that there is a need to introduce a participatory approach and reconnect to the local.
Abe, Yoshiko, State U. of New York, Stony Brook, NY - To aid research on 'Butchery and Skeletal Element Transport among the Evenki of Siberia,' supervised by Dr. Curtis W. Marean
YOSHIKO ABE, while a student at the State University of New York in Stony Brook, New York, received funding in August 2002 to aid ethnoarchaeological research on large-mammal butchery and skeletal element transport among the Evenki of Siberia, under the supervision of Dr. Curtis W. Marean. This year-round field study of a group Evenki cold-forest hunter-gatherers was designed to test a key assumption made in zooarchaeology: that carcass use can be inferred from the placement and frequency of butchery marks. Abe aimed to develop a more comprehensive model of the relationship between butchery marks and their behavioral meaning through close observation of the butchery process, using videography and a new method of recording butchery marks using GIS. Data were collected on both butchery activity and actual marks on bones for two species-wild reindeer (Rangifer tarandus) and musk deer (Moschus moschiferus). More than 61 successful hunts were observed, and 4 reindeer and 29 musk deer were followed through all stages of butchery and consumption. Analysis of the data was expected to provide a comparative framework from which to address questions about relationships between butchery marks and their behavioral meanings, relationships between skeletal element use and utility, and processing costs for individual skeletal elements.