Winchell, Mareike, U. of California, Berkeley, CA - To aid research on 'The Politics of Ayllu Justice: Translations of Tradition and Law among Quechua Activists in Cochabamba, Bolivia,' supervised by Dr. Charles Hirschkind
MAREIKE WINCHELL, then a student at University of California, Berkeley, California, received a grant in October 2010 to aid research on 'The Politics of Ayllu Justice: Translations of Tradition and Law among Quechua Activists in Cochabamba, Bolivia,' supervised by Dr. Charles Hirschkind. Research focused on the ways recent legal reforms reshape existing practices of historical consciousness and ethical subjectivity in Bolivia, with emphasis on the frictions between the Bolivian state's vision of revolutionary change, on the one hand, and rural experiences of state reform among Quechua and Spanish-speaking descendents of landowners, and servants in ex-hacienda regions on the other. Through research with land reform officials and rural Quechua-speakers, the study shed light on: 1) how emergent ideals of revolutionary citizenship and temporal change become institutionalized; and 2) the ways institutional efforts coexist uneasily with a set of vertical relational practices that rural residents imbue with ethical significance.
Lacombe, Dr. Sebastien, U. of California, Berkeley, CA - To aid research on 'Raw Material Mobility and Prehistoric Societies: New Archaeopetrographical Approaches to Paleolithic Flint Assemblages from South-West Europe'
Aporta, Claudio, U. of Alberta, Edmonton, Canada - To aid research on 'Inuit Navigation and Technological Change in the Eastern Canadian Arctic,' supervised by Dr. Eric S. Higgs
CLAUDIO APORTA, while a student at the University of Alberta in Edmonton, Alberta, received an award in August 2001 to aid research on Inuit navigation and technological change in the eastern Canadian Arctic, under the supervision of Dr. Eric S. Higgs. Field research conducted in Igloolik, territory of Nunavut, Arctic Canada, in the summer of 2002 provided significant data about Inuit wayfinding methods during boat travel on the open sea. During the crossing of a large extent of sea known in Igloolik as Ikiq (Fury and Hecla Strait on official topographic maps of Canada), Inuit hunters set courses and made spatial decisions by making precise readings of the horizon and employing thorough knowledge of the relationships among tidal action, prevailing winds, and waves. Aporta conducted several interviews with Inuit elders on topics related to spatial orientation, knowledge and use of routes and trails, and use of new technologies for travel and orientation. Through interviews with knowledgeable hunters and analysis of data about search-and-rescue operations, he established patterns regarding age groups and situations involving Inuit hunters getting lost in the Igloolik area. The extensive geographic data collected in Igloolik during four years of research were analyzed and represented through the use of Geographic Information Systems (GIS). Place-names, traditional routes, and recurrent features of the sea ice were plotted on maps as layers of a database that permitted an appreciation of these complex aspects of Inuit knowledge and of different patterns of land use over generations.
Piel, Alex Kenneth, U. of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA - To aid research on 'Localizing Long Calls: Applied Acoustics to Understand Savanna Chimpanzee Sociality in Ugalla, Tanzania,' supervised by Dr. James J. Moore
ALEX K. PIEL, then a student at University of California - San Diego, La Jolla, California, received funding in April 2008, to aid research on 'Localizing Long Calls: Applied Acoustics to Understand Savanna Chimpanzee Sociality in Ugalla, Tanzania,' supervised by Dr. James J. Moore. In traditional human societies, the functions of loud calls vary, ranging from inviting neighboring groups for rituals to threatening them with attack. Considerably less is known about the function of chimpanzee loud calls (pant hoot) with hypotheses suggesting these vocalizations coordinate dispersed parties. These calls are likely particularly important in chimpanzees that live in savanna habitats, where individuals may range more than ten times further than forest chimpanzees. To examine the role of loud calls in savanna chimpanzees, a custom designed acoustic localization system that provided streaming, real-time continuous data on chimpanzee caller locations -- across an area more than 25 sq-km -- was deployed in Ugalla, Tanzania. Hypotheses were tested on chimpanzee use of pant hoots to facilitate these reunions at nest sites and also whether nest site selection is influenced by the acoustic features that facilitate long distance communication. This acoustic surveillance system is the first known of its type for the study of wild primates, allowing researchers to monitor areas otherwise logistically difficult to survey, and providing information on chimpanzee presence in multiple geographic areas simultaneously. Analysis and localization of chimpanzee loud calls will inform on the ecological context and function of this behaviour in unhabituated chimpanzees living in savanna woodland.
Eng, Carolyn Margaret, Harvard U., Cambridge, MA - To aid research on 'Exploring the Function of the Human Iliotibial Band and the Implications for Human Locomotor Economy,' supervised by Dr. Daniel E. Lieberman
Preliminary abstract: Bipedalism is a major behavioral and anatomical innovation of the human lineage. Although many adaptations for efficient bipedal locomotion have been identified and tested (Abitbol 1988; Alexander and Bennet-Clark 1977; Ker et al. 1987; Lieberman et al. 2006; Rolian et al. 2009; Sockol et al. 2007), the human iliotibial band (ITB) has remained an enigma. The ITB is a unique structure in the human lower limb that is not present in other apes and thus almost certainly evolved during hominin evolution. This study integrates cadaveric analyses and a computer model of the lower limb to refine and test a new model of ITB function. The model described and tested here is that the ITB's anatomy and material properties together with kinematics and muscle activity evolved in humans to improve locomotor economy through energy storage and recovery. If the ITB stores and recovers substantial energy in walking and running, this study will support the hypothesis that natural selection modified structures in the human lower limb to improve locomotor economy in both gaits.
Van Deusen Phillips, Sarah B., U. of Chicago, Chicago, IL - To aid research on 'Cultural Bodies: Language, Enactment and Performance of Value in Linguistically Isolated Deaf Children,' supervised by Dr. Susan Goldin-Meadow
SARAH B. VAN DEUSEN PHILLIPS, while a student at the University of Chicago in Chicago, Illinois, received a grant in December 2001 to aid research on language, enactment, and performance of value in linguistically isolated deaf children, under the supervision of Dr. Susan Goldin-Meadow. It is widely accepted that engagement in narrative activities plays a key role in the socialization and maintenance of beliefs, values, and morality from one generation to the next. Therefore, telling stories is an important means by which children enter local meaning systems and encounter local versions of personhood. But an unspoken assumption in language socialization research is that children must share a language with their community in order to engage in and benefit from the socializing influence of narrative. Phillips's research represented one side of a comparative study focusing on populations of orally educated deaf children of hearing parents in the United States and Spain. Five Spanish deaf children, ages two to four years, and their families were the focus of ten months of interaction and observation using both ethnographic and experimental research methods. Phillips explore the ways in which these children learned to construct their contributions to local narrative discourse despite sharing no language in common with the hearing members of their communities. These profoundly deaf children had not been exposed to conventional sign language and instead communicated with the hearing members of their families using home sign, an idiosyncratic system of regularly ordered spontaneous gestures.
Kabamba, Patience S., Columbia U., New York, NY - To aid research on 'Trading in War: Conflict, Trade, and Ethnicity in the Democratic Republic of Congo,' supervised by Dr. Nicholas P. De Genova
PATIENCE S. KABAMBA, then a student at Columbia University, New York, New York, received funding in June 2005 to aid research on 'Trading in War: Conflict, Trade, and Ethnicity in the Democratic Republic of Congo,' supervised by Dr. Nicholas P. De Genova. This project argues that the collapse of public authority and the resulting conflict in the Democratic republic of the Congo have led to the emergence of new institutional arrangements between grassroots populations, armed actors and various 'elites' at the local and regional level that are fostering new strategies of social, economic and political integration. It examines how in the absence of effective state sovereignty and national government and in the presence of numerous armed contenders for power, ethnically organized networks of Nande traders managed to build and protect self-sustaining, prosperous transnational economic enterprises in eastern Congo. It demonstrates that in the gap left by state's retreat have emerged a from of governmentality in which non-state actors including an alliance of church officials, traders and the organized violence and coercion of the militia have taken on the 'art of governing' by providing safety, economic exploitation and a certain kind of political representation. An ethnic basis of communal solidarity and boundary reinforcement and refortification seem to be a pervasive foundation of post state-loyalties. It concludes that in the midst of an abundant anti-ethnic literature in African studies there may be a renewed effort to theorize the salience and continuing production of 'ethnic' difference in a manner that could problematize and challenge the notion that ethnicity was merely a devious and divisive invention of colonialism, pure and simple, and must be overcome.
O'Neill, Matthew C., Johns Hopkins U., Baltimore, MD - To aid research on 'Linking Laboratory and Field Studies of Primate Energetics,' supervised by Dr. Christopher B. Ruff
O'Neill, Matthew C. 2012. Gait Specific Metabolic Costs and Preferred Speeds in Ring-Tailed Lemurs (Lemur catta), with Implications for the Scaling of Locomotor Costs. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 149(3):356-364.
Daniels, Brian I., U. of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA - To aid research on 'Preserving Native American Culture by Bureaucratic Means,' supervised by Dr. Robert Preucel
BRIAN I. DANIELS, then a student at University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, received funding in November 2007 to aid research on 'Preserving Native American Culture by Bureaucratic Means,' supervised by Dr. Robert Preucel. This doctoral dissertation research investigated the relationship between bureaucratic practices in neoliberal, multicultural democracy and the use of indigenous culture to assert rights-based claims. Through a fourteen-month ethnographic and archival study of Klamath River Native American tribes in northern California, this project examined how cultural evidence enables novel forms of political debate and strategic organization. By tracing the venues where indigenous people assert legal claims, it has documented the many ways in which cultural evidence becomes valued. With nine Native American communities, all of whom are engaged in heritage work with different government bureaucracies, the Klamath River watershed provided a field site that was diverse in its institutional and indigenous constituencies and significant for its history of legal challenges to cultural heritage policy. This research demonstrated the central importance of estate probate and land tenure to indigenous consciousness, and identified how documentary paperwork reshapes ways of knowing culture and history, and what it means to possess a specific identity. It also uncovered evidence that some Native Americans in the study area hold active rights to a defunct reservation, which, because of this investigation, has become a focus of future community development and revitalization.
Stubbs, Matilda, Northwestern U., Evanston, IL - To aid research on 'Documenting Lives: The Material and Social Life of the Case File in the U.S. Foster Care System,' supervised by Dr. Helen Schwartzman
Preliminary abstract: This investigation focuses on the procedures of consent (Jacob 2007), compliance (Brodwin 2010), assessment, and auditing culture (Hetherington 2011; Strathern 2000) of the foster care 'system' in the United States. In this context, case files are the legal tool of administration - objects that create and facilitate relations between people and social resources. Here, documents are the materialization of bureaucratic labor and the objectification of case management. This kind of file contains personal data that describe and represent individual users (who become 'cases') in ways that render them lawfully ident