Ruette, Krisna, U. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ - To aid research on 'Law-Making Processes of Indigenous and Afro-Descendent Movements in Falcon Venezuela,' supervised by Dr. Ana Maria Alonso
KRISNA RUETTE, then a student at University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona, received funding in October 2006 to aid research on 'Law-Making Processes of Indigenous and Afro-Descendent Movements in Falcon, Venezuela,' supervised by Dr. Ana Maria Alonso. Dissertation fieldwork was conducted between January-December 2007 in Falcon and Yaracuy, Venezuela, in order to examine how law-making processes shape the discourses and practices of social movements competing for state resources. By conducting archival research, participant observation, household surveys, and semi-structured interviews, this comparative study illustrates how members of an Afro-descendant and an indigenous movement: use, articulate, and circulate different definitions of legal multiculturalism and ethnicity; employ distinct political and legal strategies for negotiating resources with state institutions; enact divergent representations of political agency; and transform their ethno-racial identities as they mobilize. Ethnographic data showed that members of the Afro-descendant movement have developed a wider range of verbal and bodily practices for negotiating access to land in spite of their ethno-racial legal marginality. In contrast, members of the indigenous movement have not been successful in accessing land, even when the state has recognized indigenous peoples land rights. Instead, the indigenous movement has focused on developing strategies for obtaining cultural resources and political visibility. In sum, this study shows how neo-socialist multicultural legislations and state definitions of ethnicity-race shape social movements capacity to access both, material and cultural resources.
Harmansah, Rabia, U. of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA - To aid research on 'Social Forgetting in Post-Conflict Landscapes in Cyprus,' supervised by Dr. Robert M. Hayden
RABIA HARMANSAH, then a student at University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, received a grant in April 2011 to aid research on 'Social Forgetting in Post-Conflict Landscapes in Cyprus,' supervised by Dr. Robert Hayden. The research investigated the practice of social forgetting by relating it to the selective construction of history and to the human interactions with the commemorative and religious landscape. Social forgetting was taken as practices of disremembering, misremembering, omitting, distorting, or silencing past events/experiences and their traces, in order to shape the collective memory. The research, conducted in Republic of Cyprus and Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus in 2011-12, entailed multi-sited ethnographic fieldwork, semi-structured and unstructured interviews with Greek/Turkish Cypriots and immigrant Turks, participant observation, archival research, and examination of patterns of transformations in built landscape. The research demonstrated that the local perceptions of the past have been shaped not simply by the official discourses, but by various complex cultural processes, personal experiences and active engagement of ordinary people with landscape in the process of memory and history. The research addressed theoretical and analytical issues of understanding social forgetting not only as a negation, neglect, failure of remembering, or unintended social amnesia, but as a positive process through which a certain kind of knowledge of the past is produced deliberately and actively by obscuring material evidence of what others wish to have remembered.
Williams, Leanne Judith, U. of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA - To aid research on 'Moral Visions in Uncertain Times: How Urban Baptists in Zimbabwe Negotiate the Future in a Context of Change,' supervised by Dr. Rupert Stasch
Preliminary abstract: The project investigates how people's moral lives shape and are shaped by instances of major political and economic change. Responses to Zimbabwe's recent contested political elections indicate that the nation continues to experience the kind of persistent uncertainty that characterizes much of post-colonial sub-Saharan Africa. Despite the lack of certainty, urban Christians in the nation's capital city construct a vision of a plausible everyday future through engaging in moral debate. This project focuses on moral discussion in order to uncover what kinds of culturally informed morality emerge in post-colonial settings where people struggle to make connections between their actions in the present and future outcomes. I will explore how Hararean Baptists create and assess their actions in relation to a moral narrative that is informed by their religious commitments to where divine and human agency are located.In so doing, this proposed research utilizes anthropological approaches to the study of morality, particularly as it relates to temporality, to investigate the links between religious perspectives on time and human choices, and the kind of morality that emerge as significant for people in settings of major political, social and economic change.
Mahaffey, Erin Elizabeth, U. of California, Berkeley, CA - To aid research on 'Publicity, Secrecy, and Medical Confidentiality in Zanzibar, East Africa,' supervised by Dr. Cori P. Hayden
ERIN E. MAHAFFEY, then a student at University of California, Berkeley, California, received funding in May 2007 to aid research on 'Publicity, Secrecy, and Medical Confidentiality in Zanzibar, East Africa,' supervised by Dr. Cori P. Hayden. This research project explored the interface of U.S.-led HIV prevention programs utilizing marketing strategies with gendered, ethical, and politico-economic forms in the semi-autonomous Islamic archipelago of Zanzibar, Tanzania. Where public health professionals based in the mainland commercial capital of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania perceived market-based strategies to provide technical solutions to the problem of HIV, Muslim faith-based organizations and government offices in Zanzibar read these public health programs as producing negative ethical, political, and health consequences in the archipelago. At stake for faith-based groups was how the practice of marketing within public health produced publics as markets -- an effect that re-configured post-Socialist governments as businesses through privatization and public-private partnership policies and constituted markets as de-politicized technical instruments of public health set apart from ethical questions regarding economic and gendered practice. To explore these controversies, ethnographic research focused on the technical practices of social marketing and market-based public health within offices in Dar es Salaam and its implementation in Zanzibar, as well as the political spaces emerging in Zanzibar at the edge of public health's marketing of condoms for HIV prevention.
Carruth, Lauren Elizabeth, U. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ - To aid research on 'Bad Medicine: Risk, Rumor, and Humanitarian Relief in the Shinile Zone of Ethiopia,' superivsed by Dr. Mark A. Nichter
LAUREN E. CARRUTH, then a student at University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona, was awarded funding in October 2008 to aid research on 'Bad Medicine: Risk, Rumor, and Humanitarian Relief in the Shinile Zone of Ethiopia,' supervised by Dr. Mark A. Nichter. The most common causes of death in humanitarian emergencies are infectious diseases, and these are largely treatable with a short course of antibiotics. Consequently, millions of people benefit from the distribution of antibiotic medications during humanitarian relief operations in disasters and conflicts around the world. Yet, although pharmaceuticals are central to humanitarian interventions, and although there is extensive research on the effects of humanitarian interventions on people's health, most studies fail to account for the lasting effects temporary humanitarian relief on local healthcare systems and health behaviors. Therefore, this dissertation project asks, 'What effect does the temporary provision of free medications to underserved populations have on their health-seeking behaviors, local social relations of illness and healing, local health systems, and transnational flows of unregulated pharmaceuticals?' More generally, what are the lasting effects of clinical humanitarian interventions? To address these questions, this research employs multi-sited ethnography in communities, clinics, and relief agencies in the northern Somali Region of Ethiopia-a hub of recurrent humanitarian crises, repeated clinical humanitarian interventions, and transnational contraband pharmaceutical trade.
Rahman, Rhea Bonita, New School U., New York, NY - To aid research on 'Translating Faith into Action: Islamic Relief in Mali,' supervised by Dr. Hugh Raffles
RHEA B. RAHMAN, then a graduate student at New School University, New York, New York, was awarded funding in October 2012 to aid research on 'Translating Faith into Action: Islamaic Relief in Mali,' supevised by Dr. Hugh Raffles. Defining development as motivated by the question of 'how best to live' in hopes of making a better future, this dissertation examines the ethical terrain of religiously motivated development. Moving beyond the recurring ideological debates endemic to analysis of Islam, this project (renamed 'Everyday Ethics of Islamic Development') is a multi-sited empirical study attending to the complexities, contingencies and contradictions of the everyday ethical practices of the UK-based global NGO, Islamic Relief. Based on over sixteen months of fieldwork conducted primarily in South Africa, but complemented with research with offices in the US, the UK, the Netherlands, and Mali, the overarching empirical question this dissertation explores is how the ideal futures of development and Islam are materialized in the everyday ethical practices of Islamic Relief. This is the first study to explore everyday Muslim ethical dilemmas ethnographically, illuminating the multiple sources and practical effects that constitute everyday ethics in the politically charged context of global Muslim charity. The project makes a significant contribution to the study of everyday ethics and contemporary Islam by analyzing the distinct ethical terrain of a Western-based Muslim NGO.
Gomez Linganzi, Vanessa, Northwestern U., Evanston, IL - To aid research on 'Making Gains from Industrial Scrap: Small-Scale Production in Burkina Faso,' supervised by Dr. Karen T. Hansen
VANESSA GOMEZ LINGANZI, while a student at Northwestern University in Evanston, Illinois, was awarded a grant in May 2002 to aid research on small-scale producers of items from industrial scrap in Burkina Faso, under the supervision of Dr. Karen T. Hansen. Linganzi's objective was to understand what people who produced utilitarian goods from scrap materials considered to be gainful outcomes, beyond economic profits. Through videotapes, photographs, and interviews, she documented the kinds of knowledge and practices used by producers of aluminum cooking pots, tin buckets, and tire sandals. She found that they indeed wanted money to feed their families and sustain their businesses. But the values and constraints that shaped the organization and management of their enterprises showed that these small-scale entrepreneurs were not looking only for monetary gain. They sought just as much to become 'respectable' men, socially and religiously. They worked in order to get married, support their close and extended families, and fulfill their religious duties. They dealt with two sets of aspirations and constraints: their work helped them fulfill a social role within the familial and religious realms, but they also had to manage their enterprises in the context of a global market economy that threw them into a regional circuit of raw materials over which they had little control. This brought competition among producers and created new consumer needs that were hard to satisfy. Emigrating to the West, to the 'Whites' place,' was for many the way to answer both of these ambitions, even if for many it remained an unfulfilled dream.
van Vliet, Netta, Duke U., Durham, NC - To aid research on 'Israeli Security Corps: Citizenship, Population, and Militarism in Israeli National Identity Formation,' supervised by Dr. Diane Michelle Nelson
NETTA VAN VLIET, then a student at Duke University, Durham, North Carolina, received a grant in November 2006 to aid research on 'Israeli Security Corps: Citizenship, Population, and Militarism in Israeli National Identity Formation,' supervised by Dr. Diane Nelson. In 2002, Israel began constructing its controversial 'Security Fence.' More than 600 kilometers long, costing approximately 1.5 million dollars per kilometer, and complete with army patrols and watchtowers, the fence is an example of Israel's attempt to militarize and secure its borders while also consolidating its population as Jewish. The fence is emblematic of the two kinds of Israeli national security concerns -- demographic and militarized -- that are the focus of this research. This project examines security practices that link the production and defense of a specific collective to cultural and physical separation, incorporation, and reproduction of individuals. The research is based on three years (2006-2008) of ethnographic fieldwork focused on how Israeli state mechanisms aimed at producing a cohesive national Jewish-Israeli community shape the broader category of Israeli citizenship through social and biological reproductive processes framed in terms of securing a Jewish majority. This project examines how Jewish Israelis differently define and act on the values that inform their decisions to participate in, reproduce, and sometimes resist national security mechanisms, and how these definitions and practices shape their relations to and formations of wider socio-political contexts in terms of security, threat and war.
Larratt-Smith, Whitney Jane, U. of California, Davis, CA - To aid research on 'Of Water and Life: An Ethnographic Intervention in the Alberta Oil Sands,' supervised by Dr. Suzana Sawyer
Preliminary abstract: Through ethnographic fieldwork in Northern Alberta, this research examines the emergent forms and meanings of water among a diversity of actors, human and non-human, enrolled in the effects the Canadian oil sands industry. In particular, I investigate the relations informing First Nation's claims that water is more than what the State calls a natural resource, that it is a sacred, living being 'losing its soul' through industrial upgrading processes. As a crucial element for the oil sand upgrading process and an integral entity in ancestral lifeways in Fort Chipewyan, water is currently a medium through which scientific and non-scientific practices create different domains of articulation for enacting the harmful and/or benign impacts of industry. In this context, water is not a singular, pre-existing entity, its being is performed by diverse actors with various capabilities (Latour 1993, Law 2002). This research first asks: What is water across an array of techno-scientific and ancestral practices? What are its capacities, roles, and potentials, and how is it apprehended? Second, how is water related to the making of life in these heterogeneous practices? My points of entry to answer these questions in the Athabasca delta are threefold. By accompanying Fort Chipewyan hunters and fisherman, independent academic scientists, and government water quality monitoring researchers, I engage these actors as they enact the various capacities of water in its multiple emergences- tracing its roles in the making, refusing, and constraining of particular forms of life, illness and death for human and nonhuman beings. In particular, I ask how First Nation's practices to make life- some of which include themselves in symmetry with other living beings --witness the impacts of industry through their territorial engagements.
Bogart, Stephanie Lynn, Iowa State U., Ames, IA - To aid research on 'Insectivory and Savanna Apes: Tool Use and Diet of Fongoli Chimpanzees,' supervised by Dr. Jill Daphne Pruetz
STEPHANIE LYNN BOGART, then a student at Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa, was awarded a grant in April 2006 to aid research on 'Insectivory and Savanna Apes: Tool Use and Diet of Fongoli Chimpanzees,' supervised by Dr. Jill Daphne Pruetz. This research examined the ecology and behavior of Fongoli chimpanzees in southeastern Senegal from August 2006 to August 2008. Ecological data are essential to gain knowledge of the types of habitat at Fongoli, the availability of food resources, and the underlying ecological context of tool use and foraging. Fongoli is a mosaic habitat composed of grassland (47%), plateau (21%), woodland (16%), bamboo (10%), field (4%), forest ecotone (1%), and gallery forest (<1%) with a total rainfall of 674mm during this study. The only closed habitats available for chimpanzees within their 63km2 range are forest ecotone and gallery forest. Feeding trees are denser in these closed habitats; however, the Fongoli chimpanzees do not seem to lack fruit resources. Fongoli does not contain colobus monkeys, known to be the major prey species at other chimpanzee sites. The Fongoli chimpanzees consume termites all year, which is uncommon. This study explores the insectivorous diet and its potential as a nutritive resource for the Fongoli chimpanzees. Approximately 900 hours of behavioral data were collected in conjunction with 15 hours of video. Data obtained from observations and ecology will provide a qualitative and quantitative understanding of Fongoli's environment and its impact on the chimpanzees.
Bogart, Stephanie L., and Jill D. Pruetz. 2011. Insectivory of Savanna Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus) at Fongoli, Senegal. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 145(1):11-20.
Bogart, S.L., J.D. Preutz, L.K. Ormiston, J.L. Russell, A. Meguerditchian, and W.D. Hopkins. 2012. Termite Fishing Laterality in the Fongoli Savanna Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus): Further Evidence of a Left Hand Preference. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 149(4):591-598.