Reid, David Aaron, Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago, IL - To aid research on 'Roads, Waystations, and Llama Caravans: The Political-Economy of Wari State Expansion in Southern Peru,' supervised by Dr. Patrick R. Williams
Preliminary abstract: This project investigates the role of infrastructure (i.e. the built networks of communication, travel, and commerce) in the expansion of one of the earliest state-level societies in the Americas: the Wari of the Andean highlands, whose material culture and customs spread across much of Peru during the Middle Horizon (A.D. 600-1000). Despite considerable research of Wari administrative centers in provincial settings, the mechanisms underlying Wari expansionism remain poorly problematized. This research takes a multi-scalar approach to examine a network of Middle Horizon roads and waystations that served as the conduits of Wari influence between the Ocoña and Majes Valleys of southern Peru. Archaeological excavations at three road waystations will examine how colonial entanglements between state and local societies coproduced new social contexts in a state periphery and borderland. Innovative compositional analyses of archaeological materials will provide data on processes of craft production and inter-regional trade/exchange in association with GIS-based spatial analyses. As such, this project utilizes interdisciplinary approaches to investigate the intersection of political and economic processes related to caravan-based mercantilism, formal state infrastructure, and expansionary strategies of empire.
Greenfield, Dana Emily, U. of California, San Francisco, CA - To aid research on 'Crossing the 'Valley of Death': Biomedical Innovation and Entrepreneurship in a Public University,' supervised by Dr. Vincanne Adams
DANA E. GREENFIELD, then a graduate student at University of California, San Francisco, California, was awarded a grant in October 2013 to aid research on 'Crossing the 'Valley of Death:' Biomedical Innovation and Entrepreneurship in a Public University,' supervised by Dr. Vincanne Adams. The project was subsequently retitled 'Homo experimentus: Digital Health, Technologies of the Quantified Self, and Emergence of New Experimental Subjects.' The Quantified Self (QS) movement emerged as a user-group in late 2000s in the San Francisco Bay Area, at the intersection of a personal computing counterculture and the rise of digital health technologies, most notably wearable devices and applications that enable biometric self-tracking. These networks and communities are populated by a diverse group of actors, who gain meaning from personal data in different ways. For some, self-quantification is about challenging official modes of clinical accounting, enabling patient empowerment and self-care. For others, personal data represents a medical and technological frontier (a 'high-definition human') where much is to be learned about human biological particularity, leading to the promise of precision medicine. This project investigates the implications and impact of the rise of practices, technologies, and forms of life that encourage self-tracking of health parameters and the domestication of clinical technologies for the home. Homo experimentus emerges out of these various sites as a kind of person and a kind of patient who lives life in experiment, with an eye towards continuous improvement and innovation.
Walker, Alexis Kalilah, Cornell U., Ithaca, NY - To aid research on 'After Privatization: Economic Sciences, Development Banks, and Global Health in Guyana,' supervised by Dr. Saida Hodzic
Preliminary abstract: Development banks had almost no involvement in the field of international health just a few decades ago, but today they wield immense power over the lives of millions of people by shaping global health priorities and implementing health programs. In the context of neoliberal governance, 'innovative finance,' and the shift from international to global health, key actors and approaches in this field have shifted, and what counts as relevant expertise in global health has also been called into question. The proposed research examines relationships of power and knowledge in the health work of development banks--examining what comes to count as relevant knowledge, who gets to use it, and with what social and political consequences. It does so by bringing together ethnographic research of two development bank-coordinated projects in Guyana with interview and archival research at the headquarters of the banks that finance and oversee these projects: the Inter-American Development Bank and the World Bank. This research investigates the construction of authority across networks of sites and people involved in the health work of development banks. The focus of the proposed study is to examine how actors use knowledge and methods from economics and finance in bank health work, and whether other forms of expertise--such as clinical experience or expertise in local health systems--are being sidelined in the process. In doing so, I am examining relationships among knowledge and the power to govern health amidst contemporary configurations of global health and neoliberal governance.
Leon, Melanie, Stanford U., Stanford, CA - To aid research on ''Pretty and They Know It': Security, Sex Trafficking, and Humanitarianism in the Mexico-Guatemala Borderlands,' supervised by Dr. Liisa Malkki
Preliminary abstract: My research brings together two subjects of increasing global concern: national security and sex trafficking. Through an ethnographic study of sex trafficking of undocumented Central American migrants in the border cities of Tapachula, Mexico and Tecun Uman, Guatemala, I investigate the connections between migrant exploitation and security practices in the region. I explore the mechanisms by which Mexico and Guatemala's security regimes target and produce migrants as 'threats' to the nation in order to understand how migrant vulnerability to violence and exploitation is produced at the state level. I also analyze the role of gender in shaping migrant experiences of (in)security, and how the intersection of gender with security discourses renders certain migrants more vulnerable to different forms of exploitation, such as sex trafficking. Lastly, I study the impact of security policies and discourses on local anti-trafficking advocacy. This illuminates the ways in which security policies and discourses not only produce insecurity in the lives of migrants, but also impact their ability to make claims to victimhood and access humanitarian resources.
Braun, David R., Rutgers U., New Brunswick, NJ - To aid research on 'Ecology of Oldowan Technology: Koobi Fora and Kanjera South,' supervised by Dr. John W.K. Harris
DAVID R. BRAUN, then a student at Rutgers University, New Brunswick, New Jersey, received funding in December 2003 to aid research on 'Ecology of Oldowan Technology: Koobi Fora and Kanjera South,' supervised by Dr. John W.K. Harris. The ultimate goal of this project was to determine if the archaeological record of Oldowan tool use could be used to determine the impact of stone tool use on hominid adaptive strategies. The two sites investigated in this study (Kanjera South and two localities from the KBS member of the Koobi Fora Formation) are particularly relevant for a description of the significance of stone tool manufacture because of their varied environmental and geographic context. We examined Oldowan technology through three major avenues: 1) experimental and archaeological studies of flaking patterns used by early hominids to extend the use-life of their tools; 2) geochemical and engineering analyses to determine the effect of raw material availability and quality on artifact production and discard in the terminal Pliocene; and 3) comparison of how these factors influenced the industries found in these two different contexts in northern and western Kenya. The synthesis of these three avenues of study have shown that Pliocene hominids were possibly adept at selecting high quality raw materials and may have preferentially transported rocks that had particular physical properties that made them ideal for making stone artifacts. Furthermore, these behaviors seem to be reflected in both basins of varying ecological context, suggesting that this may be an underlying pattern found in the earliest archaeological traces.
Braun, David R., Michael J. Rogers, John W.K. Harris, Steven J. Walker. 2008. Landscape-scale Variation in Hominin Tool Use: Evidence from the Developed Oldowan. Journal of Human Evolution 55(6):1053-1063.
Mr. Gaerrang, U. of Colorado, Boulder, CO - To aid research on 'Alternative (to) Development on the Tibetan Plateau: The Case of the Anti-Slaughter Campaign,' supervised by Dr. Emily T. Yeh
GAERRANG, then a student at the University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado, received funding in April 2008, to aid research on 'Alternative (to) Development on the Tibetan Plateau: The Case of the Anti-Slaughter Campaign,' supervised by Dr. Emily T. Yeh. In the 1990s, seeing an increasing slaughter rate of livestock from Tibetan households and the suffering of livestock in transportation to Chinese markets, the influential Tibetan Buddhist teacher, Khenpo Jigme Phuntsok (1933-2004), began the anti-slaughter movement. Tibetan pastoralists across the Tibetan Plateau, including those in the study site of Rakhor Village, Hongyuan County, Sichuan, took multiple years' pledges to stop selling livestock to markets. This took place at the same time as the Chinese state was seeking to intensify its economic development agenda in Tibet, trying to shape its citizens to become rational market actors who prioritize commodity production, including by encouraging pastoralists to sell more livestock. This resulted in the negotiation by herders of two very different views of what constitutes development. The grantee conducted ethnographic fieldwork on lamas' motivations and herders' decision-making about the campaign, in order to shed light on the culturally specific, religious idioms through which development is negotiated, and the relationship between markets, subjectivity, and religious revival.
Tallman, Melissa Christine, City U. of New York, Graduate Center, New York, NY - To aid research on 'Postcranial Variation in Plio-Pleistocene Hominins of Africa,' supervised by Dr. Eric Delson
MELISSA TALLMAN, then a student at City University of New York Graduate Center, New York, New York, received an award in April 2006 to aid research on 'Postcranial Variation in Plio-Pleistocene Hominins of Africa,' supervised by Dr. Eric Delson. One of the most interesting questions regarding human origins is the acquisition of bipedal posture, which is related to the degree of locomotor mosaicism present in Plio-Pleistocene hominins. This study is a comprehensive analysis including both unassociated and associated fossil postcranial remains. It addresses a series of important questions regarding human evolution in Africa during the Plio-Pleistocene including: 1) if there are postcranial difference that are characteristic of specific Plio-Pleistocene hominin species; and 2) what those differences indicate about types of locomotion that would have been used. Data were collected using three-dimensional geometric morphometrics (3D-GM). In 3D-GM, data is collected as a group of x,y,z, coordinate points (landmarks). The greatest advantages of 3D-GM as opposed to traditional linear measurements are that information is retained about the relationships among measurements in three-dimensional space, and shape changes can be visualized. Data were collected on all fossil humeri, radii, ulnae, femora, and tibiae dating from 3.5 - 1.5 Ma. These data will be compared to a number of extant samples, including: modern humans (four different populations), gorillas (G. g. gorilla and G. g. graueri), chimpanzees (P. t. schweinfurthii and P.t. troglodytes), and bonobos ( P. paniscus).
Kim, Jaeeun, U. of California, Los Angeles, CA - To aid research on 'Transborder National Membership Politics in Korea,' supervised by Dr. Rogers Brubaker
JAEEUN KIM, then a student at University of California, Los Angeles, California, received a grant in May 2008 to aid research on 'Transborder National Membership Politics in Korea,' supervised by Dr. Rogers Brubaker. Fieldwork was carried out in Japan (part of the multi-sited dissertation field research in Korea, Japan, and China), examining the Cold War competition between North and South Korea over the allegiance of the colonial-era Korean migrants to Japan. Based on extensive interviews and broad archival research, fieldwork demonstrated: 1) those who migrated between the Korean peninsula and the Japanese archipelago during the postwar and Cold War periods not only were subjected to, but also have actively shaped, the evolving interstate system across East Asia; 2) in extending their embrace to the population outside their respective territories, North Korea tried to construct a parallel institutional world for Koreans in Japan, replicating the corporatist social structure of the homeland, while South Korea tried to outstrip its counterpart by operating more effectively at the Interface between this transborder population and the outside world (e.g., securing the cooperation and support of the Japanese government, controlling Korean Japanese' connection to their home communities); and 3) the registration and documentation practices were not a mere instrument of the two competing 'homeland' states, but served as a cultural artifact through which some transborder population envisioned their belonging on multiple scales.
Kim, Jaeeun. 2014. The Colonial State, Migration, and Diasporic Nationhood in Korea. Comparative Studies in Society and History 56(1):34-66
Bauer, Kenneth M., Oxford U., Oxford, United Kingdom - To aid research on 'Land Use Change and Socio-Economic Transformations among Nomads in Porong, Central Tibet,' supervised by Dr. Laura M. Rival
KENNETH M. BAUER, then a student at Oxford University, Oxford, United Kingdom, was awarded a grant in September 2003 to aid research on 'Land Use Change and Socio-Economic Transformations among Nomads in Porong, Central Tibet,' supervised by Dr. Laura M. Rival. This field research investigated land use change and the impacts of government development policies among Tibetan pastoralists during the second half of the twentieth century. This work describes and analyzes the rhetoric and implementation of development policies by the Chinese government in the Tibet Autonomous Region (TAR). This history of land use dynamics, socio-economic change, and policy phases, is grounded in a case study of Porong Township (Nyelam County, Shigatse Prefecture, TAR, PRC). The grantee gathered several kinds of evidence, which will be interpreted using a multi-disciplinary approach. Support enabled the grantee to collect and translate historical texts describing land use and to interview pastoralists, government agents, and NGO workers, as well as work with local pastoralists to map historical and contemporary pasture boundaries.