O'Reilly, Jessica, U. of California, Santa Cruz, CA - To aid research on 'Policy and Practice in Antarctic Specially Managed Areas,' supervised by Dr. Hugh Raffles
JESSICA O'REILLY, then a student at University of California, Santa Cruz, California, received funding in October 2005 to aid research on 'Policy and Practice in Antarctic Specially Managed Areas,' supervised by Dr. Hugh Raffles. What are the practices -- discursive or otherwise -- through which scientists and other Antarctic community members succeed at making Antarctica a model of environmentalism as well as a place of 'peace and science'? Research activities involved twelve months of fieldwork in Christchurch, New Zealand, working with an Antarctic scientific research expedition, observing conferences, meetings, and workshops, and conducting ethnographic interviews. This project is based upon an analysis of the relationships between scientists and policy makers at the McMurdo Dry Valleys Antarctic Specially Managed Area (ASMA). However, the people involved in the Dry Valleys ASMA are also intensely involved in other emerging Antarctic environmental issues. Therefore, this project examines articulations of policy and practice not only in ASMA management plans and implementation, but also in the histories of Antarctic environmental practices, competing strategies about non-native species in the Antarctic, and the ways in which Antarctic experts engage with non-experts over the science and politics of climate change. The resulting dissertation will analyze the ways in which Antarctic science and policy complicate each other and the ways in which scientists, policy makers, Antarctic lifeforms and object, data, and paperwork are arranged to influence environmental management on the continent.
Danusiri, Aryo, Harvard U., Cambridge, MA - To aid research on 'Sufi Bikers and Arab Saints: Islam, Media, and Mobility in Urban Indonesia,' supervised by Dr. Mary Steedly
Preliminary abstract: A striking new phenomenon in Indonesia since the fall of Suharto (1998) is the heightened public visibility of different Islamic groups, which vie with each other in the national capital, Jakarta, and elsewhere for attention. This project focuses on the Sufi-inspired voluntary study groups led by scholars of Arab Hadrami descent. The groups' weekly multimedia performances, which started in 2003, unfold in Jakarta's streets, taking advantage of the perpetual traffic jams by engaging passers-by and halted cars. These motorcades move across and around Jakarta's streets, parks, and other public places, attracting ten of thousands of young adherents. The followers of this movement are highly mobile, using motorbikes and Internet and mobile communication technologies. Remarkably, these weekly events celebrate the Maulid or birthday of the Prophet Muhammad, which until recently, was an annual event sponsored by the State as well as celebrated through a range of vernacular religious rituals. I examine the link between mobility and the formation of (1) an emerging Islamic public; (2) religiously coded public spaces; (3) and urban vernacular networks. I ask the following questions in this project: how do these practices of circulation shape religious experience and address the political interests of the participants? What tactics do study groups utilize to navigate the spatial, social, and political landscapes of Jakarta? What kind of local, national and transnational networks do they have to support this strategy of preaching? By focusing on the mobility of mawlid's people, media, and commodities, I am reinstating the centrality of media and the materiality of religious practices in the process of community making -- something that has been overlooked in the study of religion and media.
Styles, Megan Anne, U. of Washington, Seattle, WA - To aid research on 'Global Production in a Contested Local Landscape: The Conflict Surrounding Cut Flower Farming in Kenya,' supervised by Dr. Kalyanakrishnan Sivaramakrishnan
MEGAN A. STYLES, then a student at University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, received funding in October 2006 to aid research on 'Global Production in a Contested Local Landscape: The Conflict Surrounding Cut Flower Farming in Kenya,' supervised byDr. Kalyanakrishnan Sivaramakrishnan. Cut flower exports play a critical role in the Kenyan economy. Roses, carnations, and other familiar flower varieties are now the nation's second largest foreign exchange earner, and an estimated 50,000 workers and their dependents rely on jobs within the industry. However, the success of floriculture is often tempered by allegations of environmental degradation at sites of production. The vast majority of Kenyan flowers are grown along the shores of Lake Naivasha, a critical freshwater body located in the Rift Valley that provides a lifeline for local communities and habitat for an impressive number of species. Because of the sensitive and contested nature of the landscape surrounding Lake Naivasha, the potential environmental effects of floriculture are particularly controversial in this locale. This project explores the ways that people living and working in the vicinity of Lake Naivasha view the environmental effects of floriculture and the strategies that they use to address these perceived effects. Although consumer (or buyer-driven) activism has played a vital role in reforming labor conditions and environmental practices in the flower industry, local actors are also a driving force in developing regulatory pathways and conceptualizing new forms of environmental governance in the lake area.
Hollis-Brown, Lisa A., U. of California, Davis, CA - To aid research on 'Individual Differences in the Antipredator Behavior of Captive Rhesus Monkeys,' supervised by Dr. Richard G. Coss
LISA A. HOLLIS-BROWN, then a student at the University of California, Davis, California, received funding in December 2002 to aid research on 'Individual Differences in the Antipredator Behavior of Captive Rhesus Monkeys,' supervised by Dr. Richard G. Coss. A first step toward determining the adaptiveness of individual differences is to find predictors of such differences. This research investigated the individual variation in the responses of captive rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) to models of a leopard (Panthera pardus) and a python (Python molurus). In particular, this study examined whether or not individual differences were consistent across contexts, and if maternal status, age, or social behaviors were predictors of these differences. A preliminary study showed that the leopard and python models were effective in eliciting antipredator behaviors from the captive monkeys. In a second study, females with or without infants did not respond differently to the leopard. An exploratory analysis of these subjects showed that sociable and subordinate behaviors were correlated with responses to the leopard. In a third study, a principal components analysis of directly observed social behaviors revealed the components Excitable, Sociable, and Inactive. These components predicted some of the female monkeys' responses to the python model, but not to the leopard model. Individuals were mostly consistent in their behaviors toward the two types of models. The consistency of individuals' behaviors toward different types of threats indicates that an inherent characteristic of individuals mediates individual variation in antipredator behavior. These studies also provide some evidence that social behaviors, but not maternal status or age, are linked to individual differences in the antipredator behaviors of primates.
Moffett, Elizabeth Ann, U. of Missouri, Columbia, MO - To aid research on 'Effect of Cephalopelvic Proportions on Anthropoid Pelvic Morphology and Integration,' supervised by Dr. Carol V. Ward
Preliminary abstract: Although birth selection is thought to be one of the most important pressures shaping the pelvis, it remains unclear if and how obstetric selection produces consistent changes in pelvic form among primates with rigorous birth demands in comparison to species with relatively easy labors. This is a significant problem, as there is a discrepancy between the hypothesized importance of birth in shaping the pelvis and what we know about the effects of obstetric demand on pelvic morphology. What are the patterns of dimorphism in the shapes and sized of the birth canal within primate species, and do these patterns correspond to obstetric demand? What patterns of dimorphism in the birth canal, if any, are shared by species with large cephalopelvic proportions? How do patterns of dimorphism in the birth canal correspond to patterns of dimorphism in the non-obstetric pelvis? How does obstetric demand shape integration patterns in the primate pelvis? These gaps significantly hinder the interpretations we can make about functional pelvic morphology in extant and extinct primates, including hominins. This study aims to explore the effects of birth-related selection on the morphology of the primate bony pelvis using three dimensional landmark coordinate data from the birth canal and non-obstetric pelvis within both obstetrically constrained and obstetrically unconstrained anthropoid species. Enhanced understanding of the effects of obstetric demand on pelvic form will provide valuable contributions to several theoretical areas, including the evolution of large cephalopelvic proportions among hominins and other primates, and form-function relationships in the anthropoid pelvis.
Ceron Valdes, Mario Alejandro, U. of Washington, Seattle, WA - To aid research on 'Epidemiology and the Everyday Life of the Right to Health in Post-war Guatemala,' supervised by Dr. Janelle Sue Taylor
ALEJANDRO CERÓN, then a student at University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, received funding in May 2010 to aid research on 'Epidemiology and the Everyday Life of the Right to Health in Post-War Guatemala,' supervised by Dr. Janelle Taylor. This project is a study of the everyday practice of epidemiology in Guatemala and how it shapes and is shaped by the notion of the right to health. Much of the research on the relationship between public health and human rights adopts either a critical position towards public health as a potential human rights violator, or an uncritical assumption that what is good for public health is good for human rights, without an examination of how that relationship happens. However research findings indicate that the human rights impact of epidemiological practice is not unidirectional but is influenced by the concrete configuration of transnational and local forces (political, economic, bureaucratic, scientific and symbolic) mediated by social relations in which the epidemiologist plays a moderating role. This study introduces the notion of 'fourth-world epidemiology' (alternatively 'post- neo-colonial epidemiology,' and 'magic realism epidemiology') to synthesize the ways in which these forces take shape in the Guatemalan context. To complete this research the grantee spent twelve months doing fieldwork in Guatemala and carried out archival work, accompanied epidemiologists in their work, and interviewed public health officials, human rights activists, international health officers, and people affected by epidemics or the work of epidemiologists.
Seshia Galvin, Shaila, Yale U., New Haven, CT - To aid research on 'State of Nature: Agriculture, Development and the Making of Organic Uttarakhand,' supervised by Dr. Michael R. Dove
SHAILA SESHIA GALVIN, then a student at Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut, was awarded funding in October 2007 to aid research on 'State of Nature: Agriculture, Development and the Making of Organic Uttarakhand,' supervised by Dr. Michael Dove. On 9 November 2000, Uttarakhand became the newest state of the Indian Union. Shortly after its formation, the government of this Himalayan state actively strategized to develop organic agriculture as a key component of rural development. The promotion of organic agriculture in Uttarakhand expresses an agrarian utopianism that initially appears counter-intuitive in relation to the modernist projects of India's Green and 'gene' revolutions. Yet, as architects of the policy claim that agriculture in Uttarakhand is 'organic by default' and emphasize the persistence of indigenous traditions and seed varieties, systems of contract farming, agricultural extension, and organic certification are put in place to integrate the region's mountain farmers into domestic and global supply chains. This project examines changes wrought in the agrarian landscape of Uttarakhand by exploring the bureaucratic, regulatory and agrarian practices called into being in the process of becoming organic. By asking why organic agriculture has become important for Uttarakhand, it aims to unravel the tensions and paradoxes forged at the juncture of locally situated yet globally ambitious processes of place-making and agrarian practice.
Hamada, Shingo, Indiana U., Bloomington, IN - To aid research on 'Network, Biotechnology, and Cultural Consensus in Conservation Projects in Coastal Fishing Communities in Northern Japan,' supervised by Dr. Richard R. Wilk
SHINGO HAMADA, then a student at Indiana University, Bloomington, Indiana, received a grant in April 2011 to aid research on 'Network, Biotechnology, and Cultural Consensus in Conservation Projects in Coastal Fishing Communities in Northern Japan,' supervised by Dr. Richard R. Wilk. Examining herring restoration efforts in northern Japan as a case study, this research focuses on consensus and variation in the perceptions and practices concerning conservation. Sea ranching projects, fisheries scientific researches, and community-based reforestation efforts for ecosystem recovery have developed in coastal fishing communities in the last two decades, despite the economic and ecological uncertainty of harvests from restoration projects. This ethnographic research describes under what conditions humans engage in conservationist behaviors after experiencing a crisis in coastal common pool resources. This research applied Actor-Network Theory to navigate in and not through a priori defined 'fishing communities,' and it examines how inshore fishers, fisheries managers, fisheries scientists, and seafood buyers interpret local resource issues and restoration and values of conservation. The researcher used qualitative text analysis and questionnaires to understand how fishery techno-sciences influence actors' decision-making processes concerning fisheries management. Ultimately, this research explores how the acts of cultivating seascape through transplanting fish species blurs the boundary between the natural and cultural while becoming an anti-politics machine that blurs locations of environmental stewardships among different social groups.
Maidhof, Callie Elizabeth, U. of California, Berkeley, CA - To aid research on 'A House, a Yard and a Security Fence: Settlements and the Domestic Life of the Israeli State,' supervised by Dr. Charles Hirschkind
Preliminary abstract: My dissertation project will explore what I call state domesticity, or the domestic life of the state, in the Israeli settlement enterprise in the border regions of the West Bank. In contrast with the settlements of the national-religious settler movement, which dominate both scholarly and popular discussions on the topic, my research will focus primarily on what are known as the 'non-ideological' settlements, but which I will refer to as secular suburban settlements or normative settlements. These communities crowd the Green Line, making up the overwhelming majority of settlement activity in the West Bank. Through ten months of ethnographic field research--including participant observation, interviews, and archival research--I will examine how the Israeli state operates both through the production of a depoliticized domestic space, and how the domestic in turn factors into the making of the state. The political violence of the normative state settlement project proceeds through a radical depoliticization which renders the majority of settlement activity invisible to both Israelis and the international community, and produces the settlements as thinkable, desirable spaces of domesticity for secular, liberal Israelis. By shifting the emphasis to this population, my research brings domesticity to the foreground of debates about the state and processes of settler-colonialism, and highlights the historical contiguity between pre-state Zionist settlement in Palestine and contemporary state expansion, as well as the complicity of the Israeli secular middle class in this project.
Bonilla, Yarimar, U. of Chicago, Chicago, IL - To aid research on 'Labor Struggles and the Search for a Local Politics on the Island of Guadeloupe,' supervised by Dr. Jean Comaroff
YARIMAR BONILLA, while a student at the University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois, was awarded a grant in July 2003 to aid research on the role of labor struggles in the political landscape of Guadeloupe, under the supervision of Jean Comaroff. The research explored labor movements as sites of social struggle wherein the form, content, and meaning of Guadeloupe's postcolonial relationship to France become negotiated and redefined. It sought to look at how French traditions of syndicalism are transformed in the postcolonial space of the outre-mer and how labor movements are emerging as the inheritors of failed anti-colonial and nationalist struggles. Using participant observation, targeted interviews and archival research, Bonilla conducted research among labor activists, local bosses, government officials, and members of the local media in order to interrogate the privileged role of labor unions in the Guadeloupean public sphere. The research focused on how the regulation of labor, and the struggle for the application of French labor laws, becomes an important site where the contradictions and tensions of the French postcolonial project become materially evident. Bonilla investigated the ritualistic and performative aspects of labor strikes and negotiations, as well as the tactical strategies that inform these practices, such as the manipulation of fear, violence, myth, rumor, and memory. The project also explored how the violence of the past informs present-day contestations of the symbols of social order and legal authority, in order to understand how and why in Guadeloupe a labor demonstration can become a civil riot.