Blair, James Joseph Allen, City U. of New York, Hunter College, New York, NY - To aid research on 'Extracting Indigeneity: Self-Determination and Energy in the Falkland Islands (Malvinas),' supervised by Dr. Marc Edelman
PROVIDE A GENERAL DESCRIPTION OF YOUR PROJECT IN PLAIN ENGLISH (UNFORMATTED -- WITHOUT BULLETS OR NUMBERED LISTS -- 200 WORD MAXIMUM).
This ethnographic and historical project examines how the British settlers of the Falkland Islands (In Spanish, Malvinas) are constructing themselves as natives, as they stake their claim to energy resources. Thirty years after the 1982 military conflict that cemented the South Atlantic archipelago's British status, oil has been discovered near the islands, and Argentina has renewed its sovereignty claim. In response, the islands' settlers held a March 2013 referendum on the right to self-determination in which 99.8% voted 'Yes' to remaining British. Unlike colonies where native peoples have claimed self-determination to restore sovereignty, no precolonial population inhabited the islands, nor do descendants today. To understand how the settlers are reinventing themselves as natives with resource rights, this project examines: (1) how they are packaging self-determination as a sign of stability for oil partners; (2) to what extents debates around infrastructure are forming new local power relations; and (3) how the dispute orients experts assessing environmental impact. Research incorporates observations and interviews with multiple stakeholders, including: government officials, oil executives, scientists, migrants, townspeople and shepherds. With analysis of colonial reports, the project considers how the present moment of oil development is an outcome of historical relations of resource governance.
Robbins, Jessica Choate, U. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI - To aid research on 'Making and Unnmaking Polish Persons: Aging and Memory in Postsocialist Poland,' supervised by Dr. Gillian Feeley-Harnik
JESSICA C. ROBBINS, then a student at University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, received funding in October 2007 to aid research on 'Making and Unnmaking Polish Persons: Aging and Memory in Postsocialist Poland,' supervised by Dr. Gillian Feeley-Harnik. This research investigated how experiences and ideals of aging relate to changing formations of nation and state through the study of contemporary practices of memory in Wroc?aw and Pozna?, Poland. This research sought to understand how older persons become transformed through practices of memory in personal, familial, and national contexts (e.g., telling life histories, creating photo albums and other material evidence, or following public debates on pension reform). To understand how current interpretations and ramifications of the last century's large-scale changes matter in the lives of aging Poles, and how the oldest generations matter to the Polish nation and state, this research consisted of an ethnographic study of aging Poles' gendered practices of reminiscence in a variety of social, political, religious, and economic contexts (e.g.,a church-run rehabilitation hospital, a state-run home for the chronically ill, a day care center for people with Alzheimer's disease, and Universities of the Third Age). This research demonstrated that experiences and ideals of aging are deeply gendered, and that older people's practices of memory are intimately bound up with transformations of persons, collective memory, and nationalisms, and tied to national practices of remembering Poland's past and creating the proper future path of state and nation.
Garcia Sanchez, Inmaculada, U. of California, Los Angeles, CA - To aid research on 'Multiple Worlds, Multiple Languages: The Lives of Moroccan Immigrant Children in Spain,' supervised by Dr. Elinor R. Ochs
INMACULADA GARCIA SANCHEZ, then a student at University of California, Los Angeles, California, received funding in May 2006 to aid research on 'Mulitple Worlds, Multiple Languages: The Lives of Moroccan Immigrant Children in Spain,' supervised by Dr. Elinor R. Ochs. The last two decades, with its unprecedented proportions of Muslim immigration into both rural and urban European centers, have witnessed the emergence of strong diasporic communities that are pushing the boundaries of traditional notions of democracy, citizenship and identity. In this context, in which the new 'politics of belonging' are shaking the very foundations of societal structures and institutions, understanding the socio-cultural and linguistic lifeworlds of immigrant children has become one of the most challenging dilemmas for policy-makers and social-scientists alike. This ethnographic and linguistic study investigates the lifeworlds of Moroccan immigrant children in Spain in relation to the extent to which these children are able to juggle languages and social practices to meet different situational expectations and are able to develop a healthy sense of social and personal identity against the backdrop of rising levels of tension against immigrants from North Africa and the Muslim world. During 2005- 2006, fieldwork was conducted in a south-western Spanish town with 37% of immigrant population overwhelmingly of Moroccan origin. The grantee documented the ecology of the lives of six focal Moroccan immigrant children (8 to 11 years-old), three males and three females. The data collection was conducted in two phases: 1) a nine-month period of participant observation and video documentation of daily interactional practices; and 2) a six-month period of collection of children's narratives of personal experience. Through an integrated examination of children's narratives of personal experience and of language socialization practices related to intergenerational use of Arabic and Spanish linked to home, peer group, and educational institutions, this dissertation research attempted to illuminate: 1) the ways in which the complex relationship between Moroccan immigrant children and their multiple languages and cultures is intertwined with the multifaceted identities they have to negotiate in different arenas of social interaction; and 2) to what extent Moroccan immigrant children perceive cultural discontinuities across different settings, and how, in turn, they attempt to manage discrepant expectations and distinct socio-cultural world views in actual social interactions.
Wind, Steven, U. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ - To aid research on 'A Reconsideration of Child Labor in the Contexts of Household Economics and Community Norms,' supervised by Dr. Mark A. Nichter
STEVEN WIND, while a student at University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona, received funding in January 2003 to aid research on 'A Reconsideration of Child Labor in the Contexts of Household Economics and Community Norms,' supervised by Dr. Mark A. Nichter. The research examined household and community perspectives on child labor in Mysore, India. A sample of households having working children was visited over a one-year period and interviewed on a range of subjects including children's work, health, education, risk, and community problems. Although in some cases children's economic contributions were found to be vital to household survival, the reasons for children's initiation into paid labor often transcended mere economic rationalism with complex roots in community social problems, government policies, and local cultural values. Parents' narratives of why their children had begun working commonly included accounts of poor quality primary education, corporal punishment in classrooms, extended periods of cutting classes, the bad influence of anti-social peers, and the serious illness or death of a breadwinner. Parents and working boys saw risk as inherent in many kinds of work and gave more importance to whether an occupation offered a good future. In the case of girls, cultural moral prescriptions continue to motivate some parents to withdraw their daughters from school at menarche and limit them to work that is done in or near the home, ends at a reasonable hour, and has a safe moral environment. Parents, NODs, and government servants charged with eradicating child labor were in general agreement regarding children's right to attend school rather than work. However, many poor parents were against the government's strong eradication approach unless the families of working children are provided economic aid and other programs to help them survive without their children's income.
Pile, James S., Princeton U., Princeton, NJ - To aid research on 'Beyond the Clan: Fighting Networks of the Layapo-Enga,' supervised by Dr. Rena Lederman
JAMES S. PILE, while a student at Princeton University in Princeton, New Jersey, was awarded a grant in June 2003 to aid research on fighting networks among the Layapo-Enga of Papua New Guinea (PNG), under the supervision of Dr. Rena Lederman. From June 2003 to May 2004, Pile conducted research in the Lai Valley of Enga Province and elsewhere in PNG, including fieldwork with the Ambulyini clan, interviews with bigmen, war leaders, and gunfighters from tribes and clans throughout Enga Province, and archival research in Wabag, Mount Hagen, and Port Moresby. The work with the Ambulyini clan produced a detailed case study of two gun wars, enabling Pile to document and analyze the mechanisms through which war was declared, the internal politics that shaped the way war was prosecuted, and how the decision to end war was arrived at and put into effect. The interviews and archival research resulted in a regional account of feud relations and patterns of warfare alliance and enmity from contact to the present; a history of how factory-made shotguns and rifles, locally manufactured firearms, and, most recently, assault rifles had been incorporated into tribal fighting; and an analysis of the consequences of gun wars for social, economic, and cultural institutions. Finally, Pile documented how ambitious young men in the Lai Valley innovated on the most archaic traditions in the novel contexts of gun wars to gain control over assault rifles, create new relationships with other gunfighters, and effectively challenge the clan- and tribe-based moral and political foundations of Enga warfare.
Engelke, Christopher Robert, U. of California, Los Angeles, CA - To aid research on 'The Design and Use of Augmentative Alternative Communications Technologies,' supervised by Dr. Paul V. Kroskrity
CHRISTOPHER ENGELKE, then a student at University of California, Los Angeles, California, received funding in October 2010 to aid research on 'The Design and Use of Augmentative: Alternative Communications Technologies,' supervised by Dr. Paul V. Kroskrity. Current figures suggest that over 2 million Americans have a disability that compromises their speech intelligibility, requiring them to use a special form of assistive technology called augmentative alternative communications (AAC) devices in order to literally and figuratively have 'a voice.' This study examines the phenomena of embodiment, empathy, and intersubjectivity that manifest around the design and use of these augmentative communications devices by examining the ways in which individuals' embodied and ideological familiarities with the world are revealed in their engagements with these specialized communications technologies. By investigating the ways that able-bodied designers approach the task of developing AAC technologies, this study uncovers relationships between one's physical abilities, normative prescriptions for action, and the forms and limits of understanding others whose bodily abilities may be radically different from one's own. Moreover, by examining the ways that AAC users take up the features of their devices in everyday interactions, this study reveals the unique ways in which this technology is incorporated into bodily understandings of the 'self' and its location in the world.
Van Hoose, Jonathan E., U. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM - To aid research on 'Learning Lineages as Reflected in Ceramic Production in Early Historic Northwest New Mexico,' supervised by Dr. Ann F. Ramenofsky
JONATHAN VAN HOOSE, then a student at the University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, New Mexico, received funding in December 2003 to aid research on 'Learning Lineages as Reflected in Ceramic Production in Early Historic Northwest New Mexico,' supervised by Dr. Ann F. Ramenofsky. This project studied the dynamics of interaction throughout northern New Mexico between AD 1500-1750 by examining the flow of information about ceramic technology between Navajo populations in the Dinetah and northern Rio Grande Pueblo groups. While contact between Navajos and Pueblos is certainly of long standing, the nature and intensity of these contacts is debated. This study applied a concrete methodology for examining information flow and cultural interaction based on an explicit model of the ways that different learning modes are reflected in artifacts, and using a wide range of analytical approaches to quantify technological variation closely linked to actions and choices of potters. The data collected from 32 sites are beginning to paint a picture of broad macro-regional flow of easily transmissible information about potmaking (such as surface treatment), but relative isolation and restrictedness in the flow of more detailed information that would require a more intimate learning context (such as firing behavior, coil size, and the hand motions used in finishing vessels). This suggests long-term, constant contact between Navajo and Pueblo groups, but these relationships appear to be characterized by a relatively low level of intimate, close interpersonal contact between potters from different communities. These conclusions do not support the oft-cited 'refugee hypothesis' asserting a large influx of Pueblo refugees into the Dinetah during the Pueblo Revolt period, which would have been expected to result in some merging of Navajo and Pueblo ceramic-learning lineages. Finally, possible boundaries to information flow were also noted within the Navajo tradition itself.
Kaburu, Stefano Seraph Kiambi, U.of Kent, Canterbury, United Kingdom - To aid research on Grooming Reciprocity among Wild Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) of Mahale National Park, Tanzania,' supervised by Dr. Nicholas Newton-Fisher
STEFANO KABURU, then a student at University of Kent, Canterbury, United Kingdom, was awarded a grant in October 2010 to aid research on 'Grooming Reciprocity among Wild Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) of Mahale National Park, Tanzania,' supervised by Dr. Nicholas Newton-Fisher. This project aims to investigate the strategies and the social factors behind grooming reciprocity among wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), as model species to understand how the reciprocal exchange of social acts might have evolved between unrelated individuals within human societies. Detailed data on social behaviors (e.g. grooming, agonistic coalitions, meat sharing) were collected between January and October 2011 from eight adult males and seven adult females living in the M-group chimpanzee community of Mahale National Park (Tanzania) . Preliminary results show that males reciprocate grooming both across and within bouts when grooming each other and all males were part of at least one highly reciprocal grooming male-male pair. Conversely, no evidence for reciprocal exchange of grooming was found among females. Male-male grooming sessions show a more complex pattern with a combination of unidirectional and mutual grooming compared to female-female grooming bouts. Future analysis is needed to understand whether this difference is related to particular strategies employed by males to assure grooming reciprocity. Interestingly, although females do not match grooming time when grooming other females, they seem to direct grooming towards few specific grooming partners. Further analysis will shed light on the criteria behind partner choice both in males and females.
Kaburu, Stefano, and Nicholas E. Newton-Fisher. 2013. Social Instability Raises the Stakes during Social Grooming among Wild Male Chimpanzees. Animal Behavior 86(3):510-527.
Kaburu, Stefano, Sana Inoue, and Nicholas E. Newton-Fisher. 2013. Death of the Alpha: Within-Community Lethal Violence among Chimpanzees of the Mahale Mountains National Park. American Journal of Primatology 75(8):789-797.