Hammond, Ashley Suzanne, U. of Missouri, Columbia, MO - To aid research on 'Fossil Evidence for Hip Joint Mobility and the Evolution of Suspensory Locomotor Abilities in Hominoids,' supervised by Dr. Carol V. Ward
ASHLEY S. HAMMOND, then a graduate student at University of Missouri, Columbia, Missouri, was awarded a grant in October 2012 to aid research on 'Fossil Evidence for Hip Joint Mobility and the Evolution of Suspensory Locomotor Abilities in Hominoids,' supervised by Dr. Carol V. Ward. Suspensory behaviors are thought to be key locomotor behaviors to understanding extant great ape morphology, and figure into most scenarios of great ape and human evolution. It is assumed that suspensory behaviors are associated with increased ranges of joint mobility, particularly range of abduction at the hip joint, although there are no empirical data on hip mobility available. This project tested the hypothesis that suspensory primates have an increased range of motion at the hip joint compared to non-suspensory anthropoids in anesthetized animals (in vivo), and investigated the utility of modeling joint mobility digitally for application to fossil hominoids. The study found support for the hypothesis that suspensory primates have significantly increased range of hip abduction. Simulations of hip abduction revealed that there is also a consistent relationship between the digital approach and range of abduction measured in vivo, providing a framework for interpreting fossil hominoids. Range of abduction was then simulated in fossil hominoids Proconsul nyanzae, hypothesized to be an above-branch quadruped, and Rudapithecus hungaricus, which is hypothesized to be suspensory. As expected, this study found that Rudapithecus would have had hip mobility similar to suspensory taxa whereas Proconsul had more limited hip mobility. This project provides the first evidence for suspensory behavior in a fossil ape based on hindlimb joint mobility.
Hammond, Ashley S. 2014. In Vivo Baseline Measurements of Hip Joint Range of Motion in Suspensory and Nonsuspensory Anthropoids. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 153(3):417-434
Hammond, Ashley S., J. Michael Plavcan, and Carol V. Ward. 2013. Precision and Accuracy of Acetabular Size Measures in Fragmentary Hominin Pelves Obtained Using Sphere-Fitting Techniques. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 150(4):565-578.
Whitt, Clayton Abel, U. of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada - To aid research on 'Climate Change and Spatial Transformations in the Bolivian Highlands,' supervised by Dr. Gaston R. Gordillo
CLAYTON A. WHITT, then a graduate student at University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada, was granted funds in April 2013 to aid research on 'Climate Change and Spatial Transformations in the Bolivian Highlands,' supervised by Dr. Gaston R. Gordillo. This project employed ethnographic methods to explore the day-to-day, on-the-ground experience of climate change in a Quechua-speaking sheep-, dairy-, and quinoa-producing community in the western highlands of Bolivia, located at 12,000 feet of elevation. Climate change is already causing major impacts in the high Andes, including higher temperatures and a shorter, more intense, rainy season. The grantee lived in the research community for twelve months and explored-through daily interactions with local people, participation in community work and cultural events, and interviews-how different people perceive and experience such changes on a daily basis, what kinds of emotional impacts climate change has on different people, and how other local problems identified by community members relate to or are made worse by the changing climate. Farmers described anxiety over major shifts in the rainfall cycle that result in diminished crop production and damage from dryness during crucial planting periods and rain that interrupts harvests. Spatial transformations related to climate change also influence people's daily emotions, whether through annoyance and anxiety caused by deep mud and local floods or even fear from intense and at times fatal electrical storms. As a social problem, climate change intersects with and is complicated by other issues such as water pollution, perceived mismanagement in the local government, and crumbling infrastructure.
Lynch, Damon Frederick, U. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN - To aid research on 'Time Frameworks and Peacebuilding in Tajikistan, ' supervised by Dr. William O. Beeman
Preliminary abstract: My anthropological research is on the time frameworks Tajiks use as they build peace after the 1992-97 civil war in Tajikistan. War typically forcefully penetrates subjective time imaginaries and experiences, affecting what people do long after the physical violence has ended. Who among a postwar population use which time frameworks? Surprisingly little is known about this. Scholars have identified time frameworks prevalent during and after war, but what we do not know are the ways in which these and other time frameworks occur within a postwar population. Can we identify any patterns? For example, are non-combatant widows more likely to use a particular framework compared to ex-combatants? Theoretically I combine cutting-edge research on spatial time concepts from cognitive science with a concept of self found across the social sciences dating back to William James that distinguishes between I and Me. This combination is innovative, and is likely genuinely unique among contemporary approaches to the anthropology of time. My research has implications for our understanding of conflict transformation and peacebuilding, trauma, memory, and the anthropology of violence. It also promises new directions in the study of time in the social sciences.
Campbell, Jeremy Michael, U. of California, Santa Cruz, CA - To aid research on 'The Social Life of an Amazonian Highway,' supervised by Dr. Anna Lowenhaupt Tsing
JEREMY M. CAMPBELL, then a student at University of California, Santa Cruz, California, was awarded a grant in May 2007 to aid research on 'The Social Life of an Amazonian Highway,' supervised by Dr. Anna Tsing. This study asks how settlers and natives along an unpaved Amazonian highway live with the layered history of property-making along the frontier, and reveals how land-reformers, ranchers, and native Amazonians are participating in the most recent state visions for sustainable development in the region. Research reveals that, over the past 40 years, a diverse array of migrants to the region have put into place improvised land tenure regimes based on conflicting and confused signals from the state. In response to recent promises to pave the highway, distinct practices of property and territory --ranging from collective squatting to land grabbing -- have emerged as key mechanisms for roadside residents to articulate their emerging subject-positions in debates over the future of the Amazonian frontier. By focusing on vernacular property-making projects along the road, this project shows how current plans to reverse past development failures become enmeshed with local idioms of race, class, labor, and nature that have developed over the past 40 years along the unpaved highway. The study analyzes both the design and reception of Brazil's newest plans to pave the highway, and argues that poor and rich colonists alike have worked to reposition their speculative practices (e.g. forgery, corruption, and violence) as legitimate and environmentally sustainable.
Price, Tabitha Kate, Gottingen U., Goettingen, Germany - To aid research on 'Variation in Vervet Vocalisations: Insights into Mechanisms of Call Production and Call Perception,' supervised by Dr. Julia Fischer
TABITHA K. PRICE, then a student at Gottingen University, Goettingen, Germany, was awarded funding in April 2011 to aid research on 'Variation in Vervet Vocalizations: Insights into Mechanisms of Call Production and Call Perception,' supervised by Dr. Julia Fischer. The alarm call system of the East African vervet constitutes the textbook example of 'functionally referential' signals, with the adult male bark proposed as a functionally referential leopard alarm call. During a six-month field season at Loskop Dam Nature Reserve in South Africa, this study focused on the bark vocalization of the adult male South African vervet. Leopard models were presented to elicit vocal responses, spontaneous barks were recorded, and playback experiments of conspecific and heterospecific barks carried out. The main objectives of this study were to assess referential specificity, multi-level acoustic variation, and perception of acoustic variation within the bark vocalization. Preliminary results suggest that South African vervets produce barks in alarm and non-alarm contexts, while graded differences in call structure exist between contexts it is unsure how these are perceived by conspecifics. The alarm barks of South African vervets differ in temporal features to the barks of East and West African vervets, and the barks of all three populations can be split into structurally different subunits, each of which demonstrate population specific acoustic features. Playback experiments do not offer conclusive evidence of whether population differences are relevant to conspecifics. Acoustic and statistic analyses continue in order to confirm these results.
Glotzer, Louis Daniel, U. of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA - To aid research on 'Diffeomorphic Analysis of Human Prenatal Neuroanatomy: A Quantitative Assessment of Morphogenetic Patterns in the Developing Neocortex,' supervised by Dr. Theodore Schurr
LOUIS D. GLATZER, then a student at University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, was awarded funding in November 2006 to aid resarch on 'Diffeomorphic Anlysis of Human Prenatal Neuroanatomy: A Wuantitative Assessment of Morphogenetic Patterns in the Developing Neocortex,' supervised by Dr. Theodore Schurr. The aim of this project is to investigate the spatio-temporal pattern of cell proliferation (morphogenesis) that partitions the human neocortex, pre-natally, into what is understood post-natally, as functionally distinct cortical divisions. A developmental delineation of these units is central for understanding how the neocortex was transformed evolutionarily, and how evolved cognitive-behavioral adaptations are mapped-out in its architecture. This project develops an innovative digital, histology-based, 4-dimensional model that reveals, visually and mathematically, the morphogenesis of the embryonic brain. 40 serially sectioned embryonic specimens were acquired at high resolution from the National Museum of Health and Medicine. Specimens have been reconstructed, computationally, in three dimensions. Custom image registration algorithms have been used to detect and mathematically characterize morphogenesis between specimens at different stages of development, and to graphically recover the assumed developmental trajectory between disjointed different stage specimens. A demonstration of this approach, with preliminary results for both quantification and interpolation, was presented at the 2007 American Association of Physical Anthropology Meeting. Final analysis of the data is currently underway and will be published in due time.
Tzib, Fernando Maximino, U. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI - To aid research on 'Land Tenure Discourses and Mayan Identity in Belize,' supervised by Dr. Frank Salomon
FERNANDO M. TZIB, then a student at University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin, was awarded funding in April 2008 to aid research on 'Land Tenure Discourses and Mayan Identity in Belize,' supervised by Dr. Frank Saomon. The study examined the discursive relationship between Maya customary land tenure and Belizean national statutory land tenure systems among the Mopan and Kekchi Maya in southern Belize. Study of Maya claims of rights to lands that Mayas have traditionally occupied and managed through customary land tenure systems demonstrates strong relationships between land tenure and Maya political and socio-economic structures and daily relations with the land and annual events such as ceremonies and festivals. These relationships with the land, the spirit world, the Government of Belize, and the Development Agencies also shape the construction of Maya identity. During conflicts over land use with the Belizean state, it was clear that Maya customary law is also constituted through broader networks of interactions with the state and the spiritual wor1fi. Tuulak in Kekchi and pulyah in Mopan are terms for a form of punishment that befalls a wrongdoer, a construct that reinforces the proscriptions of customary law. This construct is given weight by its perceived links with the ancient Maya, credited by both Mayas and non-Maya. Its temporally transcendent nature strengthens contemporary Mayan identity albeit at the cost of fomenting some social fears.
LaHatte, Kristin Margaret, U. of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA - To aid research on ''Don't Hand Your Stomach Over to Just Anyone:' Development Aid and Personal Social Relations in Haiti,' supervised by Dr. Ira Bashkow
KRISTIN LaHATTE, then a graduate student at the University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia, received funding in March 2011 to aid research on ''Don't Hand Your Stomach Over to Just Anyone:' Development Aid and Personal Social Relations in Haiti,' supervised by Dr. Ira Bashkow. Development aid advocates a normative ethos of professionalism that foregrounds equality between providers and recipients while discouraging personal relationships that could lead to accusations of corruption, nepotism, and dependency. These personal relationships are understood to undermine the inculcation of values such as transparency and accountability that are encouraged by development aid providers. And yet, in many of the places that development operates, recipients consider personal relationships-gift exchange, food sharing, and long-term commitments-not only appropriate, but also obligatory. A multi-sited project, this ethnographic research moved between multiple aid sites within the city of Port-au-Prince and the countryside of the Central Plateau to examine the role of personal social relations in the context of aid encounters within Haiti. Continued analysis of the data collected will focus on the articulation of morality and relationality within these contexts to better elucidate the ways in which differential systems of value are negotiated and understood by those who are the recipients of aid.
Bjork, Stephanie R., U. of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI - To aid research on 'Clan as Social Capital among Somalis in Finland,' supervised by Dr. Thomas M. Malaby
STEPHANIE R. BJORK, while a student at the University of Wisconsin in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, was awarded a grant in July 2003 to aid research on clan affiliation as social capital among Somalis in Finland, under the supervision of Dr. Thomas M. Malaby. Bjork's goal was to understand the changing dynamics of the Somali clan system and the way traditional kinship networks are remade in diaspora. During 16 months of fieldwork among Somalis living in Helsinki and the neighboring cities of Espoo and Vantaa, she collected data through participant observation, sociodemographic surveys of 200 Somali men and women representing the major clan families and two minority groups, and in-depth interviews. Challenging the traditional assumption that clan-based societies are egalitarian, Bjork documented the hierarchical structure of the Somali clan system through clan discourse, including everyday talk, stereotypes, and performance. She also investigated the ways in which Somalis gained access to work in both the Finnish formal economy and the Somali informal economy. She found that clan identity played a stratifying role for Somalis in everyday life and that clan affiliation shaped social networks and affected participation in the Somali informal economy. New networks formed in diaspora among Somalis from different clans (and to a lesser degree including Finns) through work, school, neighborhoods, and friendships helped shaped the informal economy as well as clan affiliation in everyday use and practice.
Bjork, Stephanie. 2007. Modernity Meets Clan: Cultural Intimacy in the Somali Diaspora. In From Mogadishu to Dixon: The Somali Diaspora in a Global Context. (A. Kusow and S. Bjork, eds.) Red Sea Press:Trenton, NJ
Bjork, Stephanie. 2007. Clan Identities in Practice: The Somali Diaspora in Finland. In Somalia: Diaspora and State Reconstitution In The Horn Of Africa. (A. Osman Farah M. Muchie, and J. Gundel eds.) Adonis & Abbey Publishers Ltd.
Pardue, Derek P., U. of Illinois, Urbana, IL - To aid research on 'Blackness and Periphery: A Retelling of Marginality in Hip-Hop Culture of Sao Paulo, Brazil,' supervised by Dr. Norman E. Whitten Jr.
DEREK P. PARDUE, while a student at University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois, was awarded a grant in December 2001 to aid research on 'Blackness and Periphery: A Retelling of Marginality in Hip-Hop Culture of Sao Paulo, Brazil,' supervised by Dr. Norman E. Whitten, Jr. The grant from Wenner-Gren complemented an already existing dissertation fieldwork grant from the Social Science Research Council (SSRC - Arts). The additional stipend significantly ameliorated general financial difficulties in Brazil caused by shifting currency rates and sudden price hikes in basic resources such as transportation, telephone service, and gasoline. The particular research conducted under th