Liebmann, Matthew J., U. of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA - To aid 'The Guadalupe Mesa Archaeological Project: An Archaeological Examination of Pueblo Revitalization, 1680- 1696,' supervised by Dr. Robert W. Preucel
MATTHEW J. LIEBMANN, while a student at the University of Pennsylvania in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, received a grant in June 2003 to aid archaeological research on seventeenth-century Pueblo revitalization at ancestral Jemez sites in north-central New Mexico, under the supervision of Dr. Robert Preucel. The research was carried out in collaboration with the Pueblo of Jemez Department of Resource Protection and consisted of a noninvasive study of two ancestral Jemez villages of the Pueblo Revolt era (1680-96 c.e.). Ceramic and architectural data were collected in order to evaluate the material manifestations of Pueblo revivalism (the introduction of cultural practices thought to have been characteristic of previous generations but not recently present in a society), nativism (the elimination of foreign influences from a culture), and changes in leadership that followed the revolt of 1680. Analysis of the ceramic assemblages from these sites indicated that Jemez potters did not return to the production of earlier ceramic types but instead created new styles of pottery during this turbulent time. Architectural data showed evidence for nativism and revivalism as well as strong, centralized, community-wide leadership in the early years following the revolt. The architecture of the later revolt era, however, suggested a deterioration of centralized leadership and the dissipation of the revitalization movement by 1694.
Liebmann, Matthew. 2008. The Innovative Materiality of Revitalization Movements: Lessons from the Pueblo Revolt of 1680. American Anthropologist 110(3):360-372
Beck, Raymond Kelly, U. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT - To aid research on 'The Molecular Genetics of Prehistoric Marine Mammal Hunting on San Miguel Island, California,' supervised by Dr. Jack M. Broughton
RAYMOND K. BECK, then a student at University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah, received funding in April 2009 to aid research on 'The Molecular Genetics of Prehistoric Marine Mammal Hunting on San Miguel Island, California,' supervised by Dr. Jack M. Broughton. Zooarchaeologists interested in the complex relationships between prehistoric hunters and their prey routinely work to develop population histories of exploited taxa. Commonly, such histories are inferred from indexes that describe the relative abundances of different animals present in an assemblage based on bone counts. Relative abundance indexes, however, are sensitive to a number of archaeologically common problems and are indirect proxies for prey population histories. Fortunately, animals maintain a molecular record of their histories. Ancient DNA methods, coupled with theoretical insight from population genetics, provide access to this record and offer a more direct measure of prehistoric prey population history. This project used the genetic record of Guadalupe fur seals (Arctocephalus townsendi) from Middle and Late Holocene assemblages recovered during excavation at four archaeological sites on California's San Miguel Island to confront a longstanding debate in California archaeology about the effect of prehistoric hunting of these animals. Preliminary analysis of eighteen provisional DNA sequences obtained from these faunal assemblages suggest that marine mammal populations were initially small during the Middle Holocene, growing in size and importance to subsistence hunters around 1500 years ago, and thereafter suffering significant hunting pressure and declining in size through the Late Holocene to historic contact.
Raspberry, Kelly A., U. of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC - To aid research on 'A Cultural Analysis of Assisted Reproduction Practices in Argentina,' supervised by Dr. Judith B. Farquhar
KELLY A. RASPBERRY, while a student at University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, received funding in July 2002 to aid research on 'A Cultural Analysis of Assisted Reproduction Practices in Argentina,' supervised by Dr. Judith B. Farquhar. The focus of this research was to examine the roles of local circumstances and histories in the production of and public demand for knowledge and practices of assisted reproduction technologies in Argentina. By exploring how reproductive technologies are transformed according to local conditions of practice, this research addressed the common assumption that global 'technology transfer' is a culturally neutral process. Fieldwork for this project involved 15 months of ethnographic interviews and archival research, primarily conducted in Buenos Aires from November 2002 until January 2004. These ethnographic methods have provided data on, (a) current understandings of infertility and reproductive technologies in relation to constructions of family, the moral status of an embryo, and the global commerce of medicine; (b) the social, economic and political factors involved in the production and reception of assisted reproduction services in Argentina. Preliminary findings indicate that local conditions of the practice of assisted reproduction in Argentina - such as claims for modernity and legitimacy, restrictive Catholic values, and economic instability - produce local forms of science, medicine and choice. These findings will provide insight into how the production and consumption of assisted reproduction in Argentina, as an example of a rapidly-growing medical technology, is both a 'local' and a 'global' process.
Fotta, Martin, U. of London, London, United Kingdom - To aid research on 'Gypsies in the Market: Nomadic Economic Strategies of the Calons in Brazil,' supervised by Dr. Roger Sansi-Roca
MARTIN FOTTA, then a student at University of London, London, United Kingdom, was awarded a grant in April 2009 to aid research on 'Gypsies in the Market: Nomadic Economic Strategies of the Calons in Brazil,' supervised by Dr. Roger Sansi-Roca. This study explores the functioning of the nomadic economy across the interior of Bahia, Brazil, where the Gypsies -- the Calons -- have become important moneylenders. The grantee investigates how the Calons earn their living, develop a social organization of subsistence and create value through this recognized niche. The research has shown that the Calons embrace the instability characteristic for socio-economic conditions of northeast Brazil. It is into this setting where moneylending fits: it is seen as a demonstration of skills and luck, and a way to perform one's masculinity. The major organizational principle for such moneylending is violence and not a search for perfect information about one's customers. Unlike other moneylenders in the area, the Calons do not search to transform debts into patronage. Violence also prevents development of fixed social structure, and is one of the main reasons for constant mobility and rearrangements of camps. This research shows how the indigenous form of credit functions in the interface of various local economies, while remaining on the outside of official economy and localized social relations. Such exploration from the point of view of an endogamous community of service providers offers an opportunity to examine alternative adaptation of subaltern people's unequal and unstable economic conditions and the functioning of the rural credit institutions.
Weiss, Erica, Princeton U., Princeton, NJ - To aid research on 'The Social Life of Conscience: The Case of Israeli Refuseniks,' supervised by Dr. Abdellah Hammoudi
ERICA WEISS, then a student at Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey, received funding in April 2008 to aid research on 'The Social Life of Conscience: The Case of Israeli Refuseniks,' supervised by Dr. Abdellah Hammoudi. Fieldwork was done with conscientious objectors in Israel, following how they encountered, socially and legally, the Israeli military and society. Conscientious objectors, also known as 'refuseniks', refuse to take part in the military and its operations for reasons of conscience, most often because of moral objections to the occupation of the Palestinians, though sometimes for religious or feminist reasons. This refusal to participate in the military is seen as an affront to a basic moral good in Israeli culture, and the central organizing institution of secular Israeli life. This might suggest that conscientious objectors would be summarily ostracized, however, at the same time, Jewish tradition and Israeli culture holds respect and value for the obligations of conscience, even when it speaks against authority. Therefore, there is the possibility for discussion. This research project investigated the places and contexts where this discussion coalesces, and the way that disparities in understanding and belief with regard to fundamental notions such as community and the proverbial 'neighbor,' the obligations of sacrifice, and the articulation of the self that are revealed. The results of this fieldwork also provided rich ethnographic data with regard to the place of sacrifice through military service in Israeli society.
Weiss, Erica. 2012. Principle or Pathology? Adjudicating the Right to Conscience in the Israeli Military. American Anthropologist 114(1):81-94.
Klein, Laura Danielle, Harvard U., Cambridge, MA - To aid research on 'Impacts of Maternal Disease Ecology on Milk Immunofactors and Infant Immune System Development,' supervised by Dr. Katherine J. Hinde
Preliminary abstract: Mothers' milk provides crucial immunological protection to the infant during early life. However, little is known about how the immune molecules that are present in milk vary among women living in vastly different nutritional, disease, and cultural ecologies. This project will use a longitudinal study in a population of small-scale agriculturalists at the Mogielica Human Ecology Study Site in southern Poland to investigate how aspects of the local environment, including diet and disease exposure, relate to the variation in composition of immune factors in breast milk within a population. This project will also examine how variation in mothers' milk might influence infant immune system development by taking advantage of a regularly schedule vaccine that mimics a natural immune challenge.
Aciksoz, Salih Can, U. of Texas, Austin, TX - To aid research on 'Broken Sons of The Nation: Masculinity, Disability, and Nationalism in Turkey' supervised by Dr. Kamran Asdar Ali
SALIH CAN ACIKSOZ, while a student at the University of Texas, Austin, Texas, was awarded funding in October 2006 to aid research on 'Broken Sons of the Nation: Masculinity, Disability, and Nationalism in Turkey,' supervised by Dr. Kamran Asdar Ali. Aciksoz examined subjectivity and political agency formation among the disabled veterans of the Turkish Army, who fought against the outlawed Kurdistan Workers' Party (PKK) as conscripted soldiers. The research explored the nationalist signification, embodied experiences, and political practices of disabled veterans through the analytical lens of gender to account for the recent emergence of a politics of revenge, which targeted particularly dissident and minority intellectuals. Research findings indicate that the political agency of disabled veterans, which mimetically reproduces state violence, can only be understood in relation to the tension between the nationalist investment in disabled veteran body and the everyday experience of being a disabled man in Turkey. This tension is strongly articulated and violently exploited by a novel ultra-nationalist political culture, which provides disabled veterans both an intelligible account of their everyday suffering and sites of revenge. Fieldwork was conducted in Istanbul and Ankara, Turkey, where the grantee carried out archival research, collected life histories, and did participant observation in disabled veterans' associations.
Açiksöz, Salih Can. 2012. Sacrificial Limbs of Sovereignty: Disabled Veterans, Masculinity, and Nationalist Politics in Turkey. Medical Anthropology Quarterly 26(1):4-25.
Pav, Brent Ryan, U. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI - To aid research on 'Social Relationships and Gestural Communication in Wild Chimpanzees,' supervised by Dr. John C. Mitani
BRENT RYAN PAV, then a student at the University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, was awarded funding in October 2008, to aid research on 'Social Relationships and Gestural Communication in Wild Chimpanzees,' supervised by Dr. John C. Mitani. Several theories exist about how, when, and why language evolved. One prominent theory suggests that the use of gestures played an important role in the evolution of language. Despite this hypothesis, few data exist regarding how our closest living relatives, chimpanzees, use gestures in their natural social and environmental settings. This project attempts to fill this gap in knowledge through a systematic study of wild chimpanzee gestural communication. Specifically, the kinds of gestures used by wild chimpanzees were documented, who used them, with whom, how frequently, and the responses that they elicited. A key component of this research is to test hypotheses designed to examine the effects of social relationships on gesturing behavior. Fieldwork was conducted at Ngogo, Kibale National Park, Uganda, where an unusually large community of chimpanzees resides. Focal animal sampling and ad libitum behavioral observations were used to obtain the requisite data. Results derived from this research provide some of the very first information about gestural communication by wild chimpanzees and furnish a basis for evaluating the gestural hypothesis of language origins.
Doughty, Kristin Conner, U. of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia PA - To aid research on 'The Past and Collective Belonging in Post-Genocide Rwanda,' supervised by Dr. Sandra T. Barnes
KRISTIN C. DOUGHTY, then a student at the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, was awarded a grant in May 2007 to aid research on 'The Past and Collective Belonging in Post-Genocide Rwanda,' supervised by Dr. Sandra T. Barnes. The grantee spent twelve months researching how Rwandans, whose lives are shaped by the conditions imposed by national and international law, use the past to rebuild their social worlds in the wake of political violence. Focusing in fieldsites in the South Province and in the capital of Kigali, she conducted participant observation with four legal forums: community-based trials of genocide suspects called gacaca; community mediation sessions; a Legal Aid Clinic; and the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda. This research data was supplemented with interviews and participant observation in daily life to identify how legal institutions are embedded in social life. Overall, data suggest that law is a powerful social force in contemporary Rwanda, shaping people's ordinary lives and social interactions, and therefore influencing how people rebuild their lives in the wake of decades of political violence. Data further suggest that the violent political past continues to permeate and influence present-day disputes, and that people use legal forums as a space in which to negotiate their understandings of the past as they aim to resolve disputes. These legal processes, in turn, mediate people's social interactions by constraining and enabling certain forms of compromise and resolution.
Thufail, Fadjar I., U. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI - To aid research on 'Confusion, Conversion, and Riot: Religious Anxiety and Mass Violence in Urban Indonesia, 1998,' supervised by Dr. Kenneth M. George
FADJAR I. THUFAIL, while a student at the University of Wisconsin in Madison, Wisconsin, was awarded funding in July 2001 to aid research on religious anxiety and mass violence in urban Indonesia in 1998, under the supervision of Dr. Kenneth M. George. Three central questions guided the field research: What conditions and forces prompted people to get involved in-or avoid-the Indonesian riots of May 1998 that led to President Suharto's resignation? How did perpetrators, victims, and witnesses differently understand these riots in light of contemporary political crises, talk about conversion to Christianity, and past events of anti-Chinese violence? And in what ways did the verbal and visual signs evoked during the rioting and in subsequent public discourse reflect the certainties and uncertainties of religious, ethnic, racial, and national identity? Thufail also devoted attention to representations of the riot and its political contestation. Some preliminary findings: Most respondents denied that the riots were religiously motivated. The absence of religious issues suggested that among certain groups of narrators, changes had taken place in the narrative appropriation of violence. Moreover, different state agents produced their own narratives. The official Fact Finding Team's narrative served as the higher-order narrative that shaped other narratives. Besides state agents, media institutions also shaped the ways in which people told their stories of the riots. As a consequence, the strong institutional agenda found in the riot narratives had overwhelmed most attempts to represent the narratives as stories of experience.