Murphy, Melissa S., U. of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA - To aid ' An Assessment of Health at Puruchuco-Huaquerones' supervised by Dr. Alan E. Mann
MELISSA S. MURHPY, then a student at the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, received funding in June 2001 to aid research on 'An Assessment of Health at Puruchuco-Huaquerones,' supervised by Dr. Alan E. Mann. This project examined different aspects of health from the socially stratified community interred at the cemetery of Puruchuco-Huaquerones, which is located in the Rimac Valley on the central coast of Peru. Members of this cemetery population witnessed the rise, apogee, and collapse of the Inca Empire (Late Horizon AD 1438-1535); therefore, with increasing social stratification and craft specialization at the provincial center of Puruchuco-Huaquerones, there will be differentiation in the health of different classes. Some classes may have experienced deteriorating health that probably resulted from a constellation of factors, including unsanitary conditions, high population densities, differential access to high quality foods and nutrients, and heavier work loads with increasing state demands. Approximately 150 individuals underwent an osteological investigation that included age and sex determination and the recording and analysis of pathologies and disease. Preliminary results reveal that the people from Puruchuco-Huaquerones suffered from different types of nutritional deficiencies and infectious diseases. Dental disease of varying degrees of severity was also prevalent in the population. Members of this population also show evidence of both antemortem and perimortem trauma. Future investigations will continue the osteological examination of the human skeletal remains and resume the radiographic survey of mummies and funerary bundles.
Murphy, Melissa S., Catherine Gaither, Elena Goycochea, John W. Verano, and Guillermo Cock. 2010. Violence and Weapon-Related Trauma at Puruchuco-Huaquerones, Peru. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 142(4):636-649.
Williams, Jocelyn S., and Melissa S. Murphy. 2013. Living and Dying as Subjects of the Inca Empire: Adult Diet and health at Puruchuco-Huaquerones, Peru. Journal of Anthropological Archaeology 32(2):16j5-179.
Cody, Francis P., U. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI - To aid research on 'Language Ideology and Grassroots Literacy in Tamil Nadv, India,' supervised by Dr. Webb Keane
FRANCIS P. CODY, then a student at the University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, received funding in January 2004 to aid research on the 'Language and Ideology and Grassroots Literacy in Tamilnadu, India,' supervised by Dr. Webb Keane. Ethnographic fieldwork in a village in Pudukkottai District of Tamilnadu showed how literacy practices - not available to all - play a crucial mediating role, which conditions people's access to basic forms of knowledge, state services, and the main means of production (agricultural land). The hierarchically organized, polyglossic sociolinguistic character of Tamil consistently works in contradiction to humanist and state ideologies of equality and transparency in communication. Yet such ideologies are working in changing the very linguistic structure of written Tamil in certain contexts as well as opening new quasi-utopian social spaces in which new norms of communication are being worked out among villagers at the social and economic peripheries. The ethnography of a government literacy program known as Arivoli Iyakkam ('The Light of Knowledge Movement'), and also of other reading and writing practices such as newspaper production/consumption, petition filing, and private property registration, was used in this research to deve1op a political-economic approach within linguistic anthropology. Furthermore, this research investigated the meaning and practices of 'enlightenment' (arivoli, in Tamil) as lived and interpreted in a small-village context.
Cody, Francis. 2009. Inscribing Subjects to Citizenship: Petitions, Literacy Activism, and the Performativity of Signature in Rural Tamil India. Cultural Anthropology 24(3):347-380.
Smith, Benjamin K., U. of Chicago, Chicago, IL - To aid research on 'Language and the Development of Self in Aymara Middle Childhood,' supervised by Dr. John Lucy
BENJAMIN K. SMITH, then a student at University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois, was awarded funding in November 2005 to aid research on 'Language and the Development of Selfhood in Aymara Middle Childhood,' supervised by Dr. John Lucy. The dissertation project is a study of how the Aymara-speaking (Peru) child's acquisition of those language resources that have systematic implications for a speaker's 'creditability' help a child to leverage those locally salient authority relations that enable more effective modes of instrumental selfhood. The linguistic focus of the project -- 'creditability' -- is on those forms that, in certain referential contexts, have systematic implications for the status of the speaker as an agent (e.g., whether she takes responsibility for the action). The ethnographic focus of the project -- 'authority relations' -- is on those role-relationships in which the child's responsibility for some social actor (in particular, younger siblings, and the child herself) licenses her to 'control' that actor's behavior. The psychological focus of the project -- instrumental selfhood -- is on the sense in which the successful inhabitance of an 'authority relation' enables new, higher possibilities for socially coordinated task execution. Preliminary evidence suggests that the acquisition (from 6.5-7.5 years of age) of the language forms in question (as measured through linguistic experiments) does help the child to leverage authority relations as a more effective means of task execution (as measured through performance in games and through informal ethnographic observation).
Smith, Benjamin. 2012. Language and the Frontiers of the Human: Aymara Animal-Oriented Interjections and the Mediation of Mind. American Ethnologist 39(2):313-324.
Hassett, Brenna R., U. College London, London, UK - To aid research on 'Child Health and Developmental Defects of Enamel in Post-Medieval London,' supervised by Dr. Simon Hillson
BRENNA R. HASSETT, then a student at University College London, London, United Kingdom, received a grant in October 2007 to aid research on 'Child Health and Developmental Defects of Enamel in Post-Medieval London,' supervised by Dr. Simon Hillson. The health of children in London from 1550-1850 is studied by means of interruptions to normal tooth development, which are visible on the tooth surface as circumferential grooves. These result from systematic disruptions to dental enamel growth, a condition termed 'enamel hypoplasia,' which can be caused by malnutrition, infection, and disease. The evidence of these disruptions is compiled from five different archaeological sites across London during the Post-Medieval period in order to compare the experiences of children in wealthy parishes and poor parishes, boys and girls, and children of different age classes. By looking at enamel hypoplasia using microscopic techniques, very detailed information is gathered on how enamel hypoplasia affects these different groups; including information on timing and duration of growth disruptions. This will provide a large body of data on the development and health of London children during a period of considerable demographic and environmental change.
Mauxion, Aurelien, Northwestern U., Evanston, IL - To aid research on 'From Irrigation to Elections: Agricultural Intensification and Local-level Politics in Gabero, Northern Mali, supervised by Dr. Robert G. Launay
AURELIEN MAUXION, then a student at Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois, was awarded a grant in October 2007 to aid research on 'From Irrigation to Elections: Agricultural Intensification and Local-level Politics in Gabero, Northern Mali,' supervised by Dr. Robert G. Launay. This research investigates local-level mechanisms of democratization in northern Mali, West Africa. In the 1990s, a vast reform of administrative decentralization created hundreds of locally elected municipal councils to which the government transferred much of its prerogatives and power. The goal of this reform was to promote better governance and the accountability of local officials. Ethnographic research in northern Mali reveals a sharp contrast between these principles and the actual functioning of decentralized administration. Patron-client networks heavily influence municipal politics, corruption practices are widespread, and historically marginalized social groups are under-represented in the local councils. This research explores the gap between the theoretical model of decentralization and the way it is practiced by the local populations. It suggests that the local governance that results from the decentralization reform is best understood as the collective production of an original political and regulatory framework. Clarifying this production requires situating the democratization process in broader historical perspective and analyzing how local socioeconomic and political factors shaped democratic practices and public affairs management. By providing detailed ethnographic investigations of democratization processes, this dissertation offers empirical foundations for a comprehensive conceptual approach to postcolonial states and their institutions.
Buier, Natalia Cornelia, Central European U., Budapest, Hungary - To aid research on 'Past Remembered, Present Opposed: Historical Memory and Labor Contention in the Spanish Railway Sector,' supervised by Dr. Don Kalb
Preliminary abstract: The acceleration of the process of privatization of the Spanish railways is situated at the critical intersection of the current debt-collecting pressures affecting the country and the historical transformations of the public utility model. Starting with the current workers' opposition to the privatization of the railways, I aim to reconstruct the post-Francoist history of labor protest in the railway sector. The focus of this historical ethnography is on the way in which plural representations of the past condition, enable and also appropriate contemporary expressions of working class opposition. With the railways as a key symbol of modernization under Franco, but also as a later showcase of the political discourses built around the image of a Spain that needs to correct its deviation from the 'European path', the history of the railway sector articulates some of the most important symbols in the contemporary history of the country. The main theoretical contribution of my research comes in the form of a proposal for applying the insights of the anthropology of memory and contestation to the anthropological study of labor politics. In this I aim to advance the exploratory direction of an anthropology of labor fundamentally concerned with social memory practices. Equally though, the historical ethnography of labor struggle in the Spanish railways constitutes itself as an avenue towards understanding the way in which national labor forces respond to and interact with the pressures of European neoliberalism and capital's disciplinary instruments within the new 'Europe of austerity'.
Sampat. Preeti, City U. of New York, Graduate Center, - To aid research on 'Right to Land and the Rule of Law: Special Economic Zones in India,' supervised by Dr. David Harvey
PREETI SAMPAT, then a student at City University of New York Graduate Center, New York, New York, received funding in April 2011 to aid research on 'Right to Land and The Rule of Law: Special Economic Zones in India,' supervised by Dr. David Harvey. The Special Economic Zones Act 2005 was enacted by the Parliament of India in two days amid total political consensus. Within two years, intense conflicts over land and resources erupted in SEZ areas across the country between corporate developers, the state, and peasant and citizens groups. The federal government designated SEZs' 'public purpose,' enabling forcible acquisition of land and resources; peasants and citizens groups contested transfers of land and resources to private developers. In the ensuing furor, Goa state unprecedentedly revoked its SEZ policy suspending thirteen approved SEZs, three with construction underway. Amid raging debates and accusations of corrupt real estate deals, the federal government attempted a new land acquisition policy. And the Ministry of Finance retracted critical financial incentives for SEZ investors. The enthusiasm for SEZs declined, from a whopping 747 approved SEZs in 2010 to 637 in 2013. This ethnographic and archival study of SEZs in India examines their legal genesis and evolution, successful peasant and citizen resistance to them in Goa, and emergent Indian jurisprudence around land and resources. It analyzes contemporary capital accumulation processes, development policy, property relations, social movements and negotiations of citizenship and the state refashioning the 'rule of law' in India's 'liberalizing' democracy.
Zykowski, Kathryn Cook, U. of Washington, Seattle, WA - To aid research on 'New Muslim Identities: Student Migration, Local Negotiations, and Indian Universities,' supervised by Dr. Sareeta Amrute
Preliminary abstract: India is increasingly becoming a hot spot for international education and as of 2012 ranked second only to the United States in terms of the number of foreign students attending universities. These educational migratory paths towards India have received little scholarly attention though migration from India to the West for education, and to the Gulf Countries for labor, has been well documented. Hyderabad, the site of my research, is a cosmopolitan city known for its Information Technology educational and employment opportunities. As a result, in the last decade, international student migration to Hyderabad has increased each year. Since India's Independence, the Muslim minority has been marginalized socially, economically, and culturally. What are the effects of a growing international Muslim student population at Indian universities, and of the attendant transnational flows of ideas, bodies, and objects? This project hypothesizes that, although the notion of Hyderabad as a center of global Muslim community is produced primarily through the city's visibility as a destination of study for diasporic Muslim students, this idea is co-constructed with and taken up by the local Muslim population, who mobilize it to build opportunities for travel, economic ventures, and educational support.
Lin, Emily Xi, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA - To aid research on 'Disability's Star-Children: Autism and the Remaking of Urban China's Moral Order,' supervised by Dr. Stefan Helmreich
Preliminary abstract: This project examines how autism has emerged in contemporary China after 1978, moving from being a disorder with no indigenous counterpart, to a disorder, translated as guduzheng or zibizheng, now fairly ubiquitous in urban China. Through my fieldwork with the help of psychiatrists, nongovernmental organizations, parents and other professional caregivers, Beijing, Handan and Shenzhen, I hope to test out my hypothesis that the a 'moral crisis' is a necessity condition for the successful uptake of a foreign disorder. Beyond the comparative value it holds for the social analysis of autism cross-culturally, my study also intervene in anthropological concerns with human kind-making, the influence of culture on psychopathology, and the use of disease classifications in the production of citizen and nation-state.