Murney, Maureen A., U. of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada - To aid 'Navigating Motherhood and Medicine: A Case Study of Fetal Alcohol Syndrome in Ukraine,' supervised by Dr. Michael Lambek
MAUREEN MURNEY, while a student at the University of Toronto in Toronto, Ontario, received funding in September 2004 to aid research on the intersection of addiction, stigma, reproduction and healthcare in western Ukraine, while under the supervision of Dr. Michael Lambek. Specifically, Murney's research explores the relationship between discourses of normative behaviour, health-seeking practices within and outside official healthcare institutions, and the daily lived experiences of Ukrainian women who are addicted to alcohol, especially women of reproductive age. The project is based upon twelve months of ethnographic fieldwork in Ukraine with healthcare providers, development staff, social scientists, and women and men who self-identify as alcoholics; fieldwork began just prior to the Orange Revolution in 2004. Most of the research was conducted in large urban settings, though some attention was paid to the particular challenges faced by people living in rural villages. Fieldwork indicates that in western Ukraine, the traditional seat of Ukrainian nationalism and religion, the multiple discourses on values and social change emphasize references to the pagan goddess Berehynia and the Christian Virgin Mary, in order to characterize an explicitly anti-Soviet role for the 'authentic' Ukrainian woman as protector of family and nation. Accordingly, women who become addicted to alcohol are seen to have consciously rejected the essence of Ukrainian womanhood. As such, alcohol dependent women are far more reluctant than men to 'confess' and seek treatment, particularly in official healthcare institutions; alternative healing strategies are often considered to be more effective, modern, democratic, and/or confidential.
Cunningham, Craig Andrew, U. of Dundee, Dundee, United Kingdom - To aid research on 'Ontogenetic Analysis of the Internal Architecture of the Human Pelvic Complex,' supervised by Dr. Susan Margaret Black
CRAIG A. CUNNINGHAM, then a student at University of Dundee, Dundee, Scotland, was awarded funding in May 2007 to aid research on 'Ontogenetic Analysis of the Internal Architecture of the Human Pelvic Complex,' supervised by Dr. Susan M. Black. The pelvic complex is an area of skeletal dynamics that is poorly understood, with few studies having considered its growth as a discrete entity. As such, the way in which the pelvic form changes throughout specific temporal periods has been largely undocumented. The principle objective of this research was to identify gross internal trabecular signatures and external morphological features of natural progressive physical maturation, such as sitting, locomotor behavior, puberty, and sex differences. To fulfill these objectives computed tomography scans from deceased juvenile individuals were obtained and, through the use of three dimensional reconstructions, gross architectural patterns and surface morphology could be quantified in relation to bone size. These observations will allow for an assessment of the biomechanical influences that inherent functional demands have on the growing pelvic complex. This project will contribute to the increased understanding of the pelvic skeletal form and the major architectural changes that it must undergo throughout life. Conducting the study, firstly in man, will assist in investigating evolutionary principles associated with adoption of a bipedal stance. The research will have particular relevance in maturity status evaluation of archaeological and fragmented pelvic specimens.
Sheridan, Derek Randall, Brown U., Providence, RI - To aid research on 'The Ambivalence of Ascendance: Chinese Migrant Entrepreneurs and the Production of Trust and Value in Dar es Salaam,' supervised by Dr. Catherine Lutz
Preliminary abstract: The ascendance of 'China-in-Africa' has unsettled existing assumptions about geopolitical hierarchies. However, in Tanzania, as in other places, Chinese migrant entrepreneurs there say they are vulnerable because they are Chinese. Although there is a legacy of discourses about Sino-African solidarity and mutual respect in Tanzania, many Chinese say they do not trust Tanzanians, and many Tanzanians say they do not trust the quality of Chinese goods. Based on 12 months of fieldwork among Chinese businesses in Dar es Salaam, this project looks at the relationship between emerging connections among Chinese and Tanzanians, and the shifting positions of 'China' and 'Africa' in the global hierarchy of value. My project shifts the discussion on 'China-in-Africa' to the practices and discourses of the people producing these new connections. In Dar es Salaam, everyday concerns about interpersonal trust and the quality of goods and people are way in which Chinese and Tanzanians are thinking through the meaning of being 'African' and 'Chinese'. This project traces how Chinese migrant entrepreneurs and their Tanzanian customers and employees evaluate each other and come to value/trust/mistrust each other and the commodities that move between them. It aims to understand how geopolitical imaginations shape and become shaped everyday relationships.
Hefner, Claire-Marie, Emory U., Atlanta, GA - To aid research on 'Shaping Muslim Subjectivities: Gender, Piety, and Modernity in Indonesian Islamic Boarding Schools,' supervised by Dr. Michael Gates Peletz
CLAIRE-MARIE HEFNER, then a student at Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia, received funding in April 2011 to aid research on 'Shaping Muslim Subjectivities: Gender, Piety, and Modernity in Indonesian Islamic Boarding Schools,' supervised by Dr. Michael G. Peletz. How do young Indonesian Muslim school girls learn and engage with what it means to be a proper, pious, and educated woman? How do differences in understandings of proper Muslim femininity reflect broader variations in Indonesian associations, educational traditions, and social values? These are the broad questions that frame this comparative study of two Islamic boarding schools for girls in Yogyakarta, Indonesia. The focus of the investigation is two prominent Islamic boarding schools (pesantren): Pesantren Krapyak Ali Maksum and Madrasah Mu'allimaat Muhammadiyah. Each school is run, respectively, by one of the two largest Muslim social welfare organizations in the world: the 'traditionalist' Nahdlatul Ulama (NU) and the 'modernist' Muhammadiyah. These two schools were selected because of their national reputations and because of the critical role they play in molding future NU and Muhammadiyah female kaders (cadres). At a time when many scholars suggest that the distinctions between NU and Muhammadiyah are no longer relevant, this study questions that assertion through the optics of developments in Indonesian Islamic education, evaluating what it means for these young women to be members of these organizations. As private institutions with strong academic reputations, Mu'allimaat and Krapyak also cater to the needs and desires of the new Indonesian Muslim middle-class. Through ethnographic observations, a multivariate student survey, over 100 interviews, and media analysis, this study examines girls' engagement with 'gendered' aspects of curricula, extracurricular practices, and informal socialization within and outside of school.
McCabe, Carl Wesley, U. of California, Davis, CA - To aid research on 'Informal Institutions and Cooperative Behavior: Motivations for Prosociality by Marketplace Vendors in Beijing, China,' supervised by Dr. Bruce Paul Winterhalder
CARL WESLEY MCCABE, then a student at the University of California, Davis, California, to aid research on 'Informal Institutions and Cooperative Behavior: Motivations for Prosociality by Marketplace Vendors in Beijing, China,' supervised by Dr. Bruce Winterhalder. The grantee conducted nearly a year of ethnographic fieldwork in an open-air marketplace in Beijing, China. During this period, research followed the activities of many of the market's vendors from the time the market opened in the morning until it closed in the evening. Beyond that, the project followed vendors as they conducted many other activities in their daily lives, including leisure and business-related activities. The grantee was able to collect several forms of datasets on individuals in the market, from market-wide surveys, to interviews focused on subsets of the market, to a suite of experimental games. The data collected will contribute to the grantee's investigation of prosocial behavior and models of salient economic, evolutionary biological, and cultural influences.
Cartelli, Philip Aaron, Harvard U., Cambridge, MA - To aid research on 'Marseille-J4: The (Re)production of Space in a French Mediterranean Port City,' supervised by Dr. Mary Steedly
PHILIP CARTELLI, then a student at Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts, received funding in October 2013 to aid research on 'Marseille-J4: The (Re)production of Space in a French Mediterranean Port City,' supervised by Dr. Mary Steedly. Confronting their increasingly peripheral role in trade networks, former industrial port towns around the world have sought to redefine themselves in order to attract outside investment and visitors. Such processes tend to involve superficial facelifts as well as more lasting changes in infrastructure and accessibility. The Euroméditerranée urban redevelopment project in Marseille, currently the largest of its type under way in Europe, is one such example of a multi-faceted development scheme, with a variety of positive and negative repercussions for Marseillais of different backgrounds and occupations. The dissertation explores the specific transformation of the J4, a waterfront esplanade in downtown Marseille, from a non-purposed common space to one housing two cultural institutions directed towards a largely middle-class public. Beginning before the J4's transformation in 2010 and culminating in 2014, one year after Marseille had assumed the title of European Capital of Culture, fieldwork unraveled competing exigencies of the J4's changing users and its newly imposed and institutionalized appropriate uses. The grantee accomplished this research through participating in the J4's daily life, conducting interviews with those in the echelons of institutional power, archival research, and considering the perspectives of daily and occasional users of the space.
Grill, Jan, U. of St. Andrews, Fife, United Kingdom - To aid research on 'On the Margins of the States: Contesting Roma Identifications and Belonging in the Slovak Borderlands,' supervised by Dr. Paloma Gay y Blasco
JAN GRILL, while a student at the University of St Andrews, Fife, United Kingdom, received a funding in April 2006 to aid research on 'On the Margins of the States: Contesting Roma Identifications and Belonging in the Slovak Borderlands,' supervised by Dr. Paloma Gay y Blasco. This project examined the making of Roma situated subjectivities at the margins of two states through ethnographic study of one village in eastern Slovakian borderlands and Roma labor migrants' networks in the industrial cities of Great Britain. By exploring Roma groups who find themselves largely excluded from the formal labor market and marginalized by the dominant societies, the research shows their migration mobility as a strategy enabling them to circumvent variously constraining social and symbolic orders, and to contest hegemonic racial and social categories historically placing them at the bottom of power hierarchies in the world defined by the dominant others. The research investigated how and to what extent various Roma actors and groupings embrace or resist the dominant public mis-representations of Gypsies and discourses of work ethic and morality interwoven within the imageries of 'proper' citizenship and sociality. The findings indicate how migrants reinvent the self's position through carving out a social space of their own by skilful maneuvering in between the two states' structures. The project ethnographically documents social conditions of migration and highlights the centrality of historically accumulated forms of capitals entrenched within the system of asymmetrical social differentiation both between the Roma and non-Roma, but also among the Roma themselves.
Yang, Xiaoliu, Sun Yat-Sen U., Guangzhou, China - To aid research on 'Making Participatory Poverty Reduction Chinese,' supervised by Dr. Daming Zhou
XIALIU YANG, then a student at Sun Yet-sen University, Guangzhou, China, received funding in January 2006 to aid research on 'Making Participatory Development Chinese,' supervised by Prof. Daming Zhou. The fieldwork was conducted in Meigu county, an impoverished, Nuosu ethnic region in Sichuan Province, Southwest China. The grantee did fieldwork from February to December 2006 to study how the Western 'participation' in China's rural poverty reduction is made Chinese. Research focused on three Western projects in a Nuosu village -- from the World Bank, the United Nations Children's Fund, and Germany's Misereor Foundation -- to observe how 'participation' is made Chinese at different stages of the project cycle. Support enabled a multi-level investigation to collect information identifying key stakeholders involved in the delivery of Western participatory aid, including state and local government, international aid organizations, Chinese scholars, and indigenous people.