Weinberg, Miranda Jean, U. of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA - To aid research on 'Schooling Languages: Indigeneity and Language Policy in Jhapa District, Nepal,' supervised by Dr. Asif Agha
Preliminary abstract: Nepal, a country with incredible ethnic and linguistic diversity, is in the midst of writing a new constitution. This constitution may divide the country into federal states along ethnic and linguistic lines. The possibility of special state provisions for certain groups has been met with calls by various groups for indigenous rights, including education in indigenous languages. Simultaneously, migration within Nepal and internationally has led to increased use of Nepali and English, and growing demands for schooling in those languages. Through twelve months of ethnographic research centered on two government primary schools in the southeastern district of Jhapa, this project explores the cultural production of educated ways of speaking and changing social categories, such as citizenship and indigeneity. Through interviews and participant-observation with students, teachers, bureaucrats, and activists, as well as archival research, I seek to understand the role played by education and language policies in creating new concepts of citizenship, and new categories of citizens. What social categories emerge as salient in daily life and everyday talk? What signs and ideologies construct such categories and make them part of lived experience? How are such categories represented at various levels of educational and language policies, including at school?
Logan, Amanda Lee, U. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI - To aid research on 'Practicing Change, Remembering Continuity: Incorporating Global Foods into Daily Routines in Banda, Ghana, AD 1000 - Present,' supervised by Dr. Carla M. Sinopoli
AMANDA L. LOGAN, then a student at University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, was awarded funding in October 2010 to aid research on 'Practicing Change, Remembering Continuity: Incorporating Global Foods into Daily Routines in Banda, Ghana (AD 1000 to Present),' supervised by Dr. Carla M. Sinopoli. This study examined how global pressures impacted daily life in West Africa through the lens of food and domestic architecture. Research focused on Banda, a region in west central Ghana that has seen sustained archaeological work that has documented shifts in political economy over the last 1000 years. Investigations focused on how people incorporated new crops into daily practice during each of these shifts, and whether or not dietary continuities and changes corresponded with changes in domestic architecture. People relied mostly on indigenous grains pearl millet and sorghum for much of the last millennium. Maize, a high yielding American crop, arrived quickly in Banda (c. 1660), but did not become a staple until the 1890s under conditions of political and economic duress associated with the shift to market economies and colonial rule. These data point to the political underpinnings of food insecurity, and suggest that in the Banda area such problems did not emerge until quite late. Shifts in house form and construction techniques also hint at shifts in standard of living as Banda moved from an important node in Niger trade to a periphery in the modern world system.
Burt, Nicole Marie, U. of Alberta, Edmonton, Canada - To aid research on 'Reconstructing Juvenile Diet In Medieval York Using a New Method of Dentine Stable Isotope Analysis,' supervised by Dr. Sandra Garvie-Lok
NICOLE M. BURT, then a student at University of Alberta, Edmonton, Canada, was awarded funding in April 2011 to aid research on 'Reconstructing Juvenile Diet in Medieval York Using a New Method of Dentine Stable Isotope Analysis,' supervised by Dr. Sandra Garvie-Lok. The diet of children changes throughout early childhood from birth, through breastfeeding and weaning. In past populations, weaning was a critical period because it was stressful and often resulted in infant death. By analyzing collagen preserved in human remains using the stable isotope analysis of nitrogen and carbon it is possible to reconstruct these diets. Deciduous tooth dentine is useful for this because it begins forming prenatally and is completed in early childhood. This research created a stable isotope microsampling method to trace the changing dietary signals in the teeth. This method was used to reconstruct juvenile diet at Fishergate House (14th - 16th century) York. The dietary data were compared with growth and pathological data from the skeletons to analyze overall health. The results show that weaning was usually complete by 2 years. Variation in practice was seen looking at individuals. It appears that children with health problems may have been breastfed longer in an attempt to improve health. Childhood health at the site appears to have been average for the period despite its urban location and low socioeconomic class. High levels of marine proteins such as fish in the diets of children and adults likely account for this.
Burt, Nicole M. 2013. Stable Isotope Rtio Analysis of Breastfeeding and Weaning Practices of Children from Medieval Fishergate House York, UK. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 152(3):407-416.
Porter, Amy Marie, U. of California, Davis, CA - To aid research on 'Cooperation and Conflict in Two Socially Monogamous Primates: Red Titi Monkeys and Equatorial Saki Monkeys,' supervised by Dr. Lynn A. Isbell
AMY M. PORTER, then a student at University of California, Davis, California, received funding in April 2012 to aid research on 'Cooperation and Conflict in Two Socially Monogamous Primates: Red Titi Monkeys and Equatorial Saki Monkeys,' supervised by Dr. Lynn A. Isbell. This project investigates comparative aspects of pair-mate relationships and territorial behavior in red titi monkeys (Callicebus discolor) and equatorial saki monkeys (Pithecia aequatorialis), which differ in their degrees of paternal care, sexual dimorphism, and relative contributions of the sexes to territorial behavior. The goals of this research are to test the hypotheses that: 1) differences in direct paternal care and the potential costs of cuckoldry and/or abandonment are related to differences in pair-mate relationships and male/female mate-guarding strategies; and 2) vocal communication and scent-marking in titis and sakis are components of their mate-guarding strategies. The hypotheses are being tested with systematically collected behavioral data from four groups of Callicebus and three groups of Pithecia. Over 22 months, 3962 focal samples (Callicebus, n=2638, Pithecia, n=1324) were collected. Field observations have shown that pitheciine social systems range from pair-bonded monogamy in Callicebus to small multimale-multifemale groups in Pithecia, indicating that a great deal of behavioral plasticity can occur in socially monogamous primates. The behavioral data collected, specifically on grooming and proximity relationships, are being used to assess and differentiate relationships across stable and newly formed pair-mates.
Ghisleni, Lara Adriana, U. of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI - To aid research on 'Shifting Ground: Landscape and Mobility in Late Iron Age and Early Roman Southern England,' supervised by Dr. Bettina Arnold
Preliminary abstract: This research engages with intercultural contact, culture change, and the intersubjectivity of social process, exploring how movement through the spatial and temporal parameters of the landscape articulates socio-economic relations. The specific focus is production, mobility, and land tenure during the Late Iron Age (100 BC-AD 43)/Early Roman (AD 43-AD 150) transition in Dorset, southwest England, and the Middle Thames Valley, southeast England. The project investigates how activities and spatial configurations at seven Dorset settlements articulate with regional networks, tracing synchronic and diachronic patterns of landscape utilization and inter-connection. The Middle Thames Valley provides a comparison, as the southeast is typically identified as the focus of greater Roman influence. The type, intensity, and distribution of activities will be examined in relation to spatial contexts for interaction, manifested in settlements, field systems, enclosures, and Roman roads. Geographic Information Systems spatial analysis will identify patterns in settlement connectivity. The research analyzes the socio-economic networks defining movement and interaction in the landscape, including changes over time. The project contributes to broader anthropological conversations on intercultural interaction as well as relational and practice-based approaches to social processes, exploring how movement activates the contexts through which social networks and land use practices are articulated.
Kowalewski, Miguel M., U. of Illinois, Urbana, IL - To aid research on 'Subgrouping Patterns and Cooperative Strategies in Howler Monkeys in Argentina,' supervised by Dr. Paul A. Garber
MIGUEL M. KOWALEWSK, then a student at the University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois, received funding in July 2003, to aid research on 'Subgrouping Patterns and Cooperative Strategies in Howler Monkeys in Argentina,' supervised by Dr. Paul A. Garber. This research addressed questions concerning the evolution of primate sociality and factors that determine and constrain the size, composition, cohesiveness, and interactions among primates living in a social group. A detailed 24-month field study of subgrouping patterns, social affiliation and ecology in two neighboring groups of Alouatta caraya was conducted (7-15 individuals) on Isla Brasilera, 290 ha, 27º 20' S and 58º 40' W in northern Argentina.. A series of hypotheses concerning how factors such as social dominance, individual spacing, feeding competition, changes in food availability, partner preferences, and the development of nonkin social bonds was tested. Vegetation studies included the construction of 226 quadrants (20 x 20 m), in which 8371 individual trees were registered (2160 were marked and mapped) and 79 vine-patches were studied. The phenology of 28 plant species was analyzed in order to build an availability index for food patches. The two groups were followed five days a month, totaling 4450 individual focal hours and 8890 scan samples for each group across seasons. Home ranges were 5.6 ha and 4.3 ha, with an 85% of overlapping with other groups. Preliminary analysis of this research show evidence of weak within-group competition, and mild levels of between-group competitions mainly related to the protection of estrous females. The grantee also found more time invested in social affiliative interactions such as grooming, huddling, cooperative defense, within group tolerance of copulation, between-group playing interactions mainly by infants, juveniles, and subadult individuals, than expected based on previous studies of howlers.
Bernstein, Anna, New York U., New York, NY - To aid research on 'Transformations in Siberian Buddhism: Mobility, Visuality, and Piety in Buryat Worlds,' supervised by Dr. Bruce M. Grant
ANNA BERNSTEIN, then a student at New York University, New York, New York, received funding in May 2007 to aid 'Transformations in Siberian Buddhism: Mobility, Visuality, and Piety in Buryat Worlds,' supervised by Dr. Bruce M. Grant. This project explores the renovation of Siberian Buryat Buddhist practices through transnational, post-Soviet ties. It brings together field and archival study to bear upon three fields of inquiry: 1) the ethnography of Siberia; 2) cosmopolitan, transnational religious forms; and 3) material culture. In contrast to some scholars who have seen Buryats purely as 'native,' 'indigenous,' or even as a 'fourth-world' people, many Buryats have long viewed themselves as cosmopolitans who consider Buddhism as one of the most prominent markers of southern Siberia's expansive histories since its arrival in approximately the eighteenth century. Many today ask: Should Buryat Buddhism be understood as adhering to a 'Tibetan model,' one most recently advanced through pilgrimages by monks and well-funded lay persons to Tibetan monasteries in India? Or, as nationalists argue, should it downplay its international ties to assert itself as a truly independent 'national' religion? This project argues that the ways in which Buryats transform older cosmopolitanisms into contemporary socio-religious movements are key for understanding new geopolitical forms of consciousness, as long-held Eurasian ties are now being revived in the wake of Soviet rule. Based on twelve months of field research, this project tracks these issues ethnographically through a study of two Buryat monastic and lay religious communities located in Russia and in India. The focus on material culture engages specific case studies of how various material objects -- such as relics of famous monks, auspicious images found on rocks, and ritual implements buried underground during Soviet times -- are reinterpreted to create new sacred geographies, historiographies, and modes of religiosity.
Bernstein, Anya. 2011. The Post-Soviet Treasure Hunt: Time, Space, and Necropolitics in Siberian Buddhism. Comparative Studies in Society and History 53(3):623-653.
Ozgen, Zeynep, U. of California, Los Angeles, CA - To aid research on 'Schooling, Islamization, and Religious Mobilization in Turkey,' supervised by Dr. Rogers Brubaker
ZYNEP OZGEN, then a student at University of California, Los Angeles, California, was awarded a grant in April 2011 to aid research on 'Schooling, Islamization, and Religious Mobilization in Turkey,' supervised by Dr. Rogers Brubacker. This ethnographic and historical project analyzes the relationship between rapidly growing religious education sites and mobilization efforts by Islamic movements in Turkey. The dissertation concentrates on the period from Turkey's 1980 military coup through the present to explain how Islamic movements have appropriated the secular vision of social engineering through education to reach, recruit, and organize followers. It also explores the consequences of a renewed emphasis on religious education for the perception and practice of Islam in everyday life. Through a combination of ethnographic field notes, interviews with key local and national actors, and analysis of archival documents the dissertation traces how religious education becomes the focal point of local and national struggles to inspire mobilization and advance an agenda of sociocultural Islamization.