Bridges, Elizabeth Jane, U. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI - To aid research on 'Regional Political Authority Under the Vijayanagara Empire: Archaeology of the Keladi-Ikkeri Nayakas,' supervised by Dr. Carla M. Sinopoli
ELIZABETH BRIDGES, then a student at University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, received a grant in April 2008, to aid research on 'Regional Political Authority Under the Vijayanagara Empire: Archaeology of the Keladi-Ikkeri Nayakas,' supervised by Dr. Carla M. Sinopoli. This project investigated the Keladi-Ikkeri Nayakas, regional kings who ruled under the Vijayanagara Empire from 1500 to 1614 and as independent sovereigns from 1614 to 1763. This project is based on archaeological survey at the first and second capitals of the Nayaka kings, occupied in the imperial and early independent periods. Archaeological fieldwork was conducted during three seasons between 2007 and 2009; Wenner-Gren funding supported the completion of fieldwork in the final season and subsequent analysis of artifacts. Archaeological fieldwork was conducted at the sites of Keladi and Ikkeri in Shimoga District, Karnataka State, India. A full-coverage survey over 18 square kilometers comprising the former urban cores at both sites located and documented a total of 238 sites. Support also funded archival research on historical sources held in the British Library; the documents examined included unpublished translations of relevant literature, and early colonial survey and census data relevant to establishing site chronology. These and other lines of evidence indicate that while the empire was instrumental in supporting the development of Nayaka power, regional rulers were functionally highly autonomous. This picture represents a contrast to many other archaeologically known empires whose processes of regional integration relied on relations of domination and resistance.
Ruiz, Yesenia, City U. of New York, Graduate Center, New York, NY - To aid research on 'From Poor Campesinos to Tortilla Kings: Mexican Migrant Elites and Transnational Class Formation,' supervised by Dr. Marc Edelman
YESENIA RUIZ, then a student at City University of New York Graduate Center, New York, New York, received a grant in April 2011 to aid research on 'From Poor Campesinos to Tortilla Kings: Mexican Migrant Elites and Transnational Class Formation,' supervised by Dr. Marc Edelman. This research project analyzed an emerging transnational Mexican migrant elite as a new social and economic group that has emerged not from established elites or from privileged backgrounds but from poor peasant families. The majority of these (male) entrepreneur-migrants entered the United States without documents and worked in unskilled jobs for extended periods. Eventually, they began to establish their own businesses in the states of New York and New Jersey and within a twenty-year period have accumulated unprecedented amounts of wealth. Successful in both the US and Mexico, these entrepreneurs are distinct from other transnational migrant groups. They have constructed transnational forms of class mobility, and new notions of ethnicity, citizenship, nationality, as well as innovative socio-economic, political, and solidarity networks shaped by neoliberalism. This research was based on ethnographic research carried out in the Mixteca region of the state of Puebla and New York as well as in New Jersey. It examined the ways in which these transnational entrepreneurs became part of such recent emerging elite in both the US and Mexico. Furthermore, these entrepreneur migrants have established political relations with local politicians in both Mexico and the US. In the last twenty years, members of this entrepreneur group have supported former governors (as well as the current one), senators, and politicians throughout their campaigns in Puebla and in New York. These entrepreneur migrants have gone from being an undocumented worker to becoming 'Tortilla Kings' and millionaire importers of Mexican goods.
Gogel, Leah Pearce, Teachers College, Columbia U., New York, NY - To aid research on 'Diagnosis Postponed: Ethnographic Perspectives on the Mental Health of Female Youth in Court-placed Residential Treatment,' supervised by Dr. Charles Harrington
LEAH PEARCE GOGEL, then a student at Teachers College, New York, New York, was awarded funding in May 2010, to aid research on 'Diagnosis Postponed: Ethnographic Perspectives on the Mental Health of Female Youth in Court-Placed Residential Treatment,' supervised by Dr. Charles Harrington. This ethnographic study provides an analysis of the how psychiatric diagnoses, including Disruptive Behavior Disorders and Bipolar Disorder, are located in a residential treatment center for female youth in the juvenile justice system. Fieldwork was conducted for twelve months with residents and staff at a facility in New York State. In particular, the project sought to explore how juvenile justice gatekeepers, youth, and other members of the residential community invoke, embrace, and/or challenge diagnostic categories. Data generated from participant observation and interviews suggests that there are meaningful contradictions in how psychiatric diagnoses operate in this environment. On the one hand, mental health concerns remain relatively muted in the daily lives of residents, who face myriad challenges related to histories of child abuse, domestic violence, sexual coercion, and school failure. On the other hand, the assignment of a psychiatric disorder to specific individuals, whether by self-labeling or by consensus among peers or staff, functions both to forgive and discredit; youth who acknowledge diagnoses can purchase leniency from peers and adults but only at the cost of being perceived as somehow broken. Ethnographic data is integrated with literature on the historical transformation of adolescent psychiatric disorders in order to examine how diagnoses like Conduct Disorder and Bipolar Disorder become a currency of value for various actors with different end goals.
Zhang, Amy Qiubei, Yale U., New Haven, CT - To aid research on 'Recycled Cities: Remaking Waste in Post-reform Urban China,' supervised by Dr. Helen F. Siu
Preliminary abstract: China's post-reform cities have transformed from centers of production to centers of consumption, and large urban centers like Guangzhou and Beijing currently face a mounting waste crisis as official treatment facilities near capacity. This project follows the circulation of waste objects as they move through official schemes of Waste-to-Energy (WTE incineration), formal recycling programs, protests, and informal scavenging practices and uncovers the entangled values, aspirations, and desires of three groups of actors in their divergent but intersecting attempts to transform waste into something of value in urban China. By examining the debate over how waste is handled by waste experts, waste activists, and the resourcefulness of informal scavengers in their efforts to manage waste, this project addresses what state technological projects, grassroots environmental initiatives, and everyday survival practices suggest about how the urban environment is being remade in contemporary China and in the rapidly developing cities of the global south. This project will inquire into the following three questions: (1) What are the diverse forms of material engagements, meanings, and values (for livelihood and the environment) implicit in various strategies of waste management? (2) How do state-driven waste management schemes, such as WTE incineration and the formalization of recycling, draw on scientific knowledge to win public support, and how do alternative ways of knowing waste challenge these claims? (3) What can the interactions between waste experts, activists, and informal scavengers tell us about governance, ingenuity, and contestation in the re- making of China's urban environment?
Lessing, Shana Abigail, City U. of New York, Graduate Center, New York, NY - To aid research on ''In Service of Those Who Serve: Psychologists, Ethics, and the Care of Soldiers,' supervised by Dr. Vincent Crapanzano
Preliminary Abstract: Amidst growing public attention to soldier suicides, rising rates of posttraumatic stress disorder, and the psychological hardships of involuntary redeployments, clinical military psychologists have become the focus of vocal public concerns as to the proper psychological care of U.S. troops. At the same time, the 'War on Terror' has brought forth new criticisms concerning the militarization of psychological expertise, and the ethical question of whether military psychologists can serve in the interests of both patient-soldiers and military institutions. Against this background, my project examines how military psychologists themselves articulate, evaluate, and inhabit 'professional ethics,' by approaching professional ethics not only as principles and codified guidelines, but also as questions and problems that are situated, figured, and confronted in particular settings and conditions. Combining archival research, interviews with current and former military psychologists, and ethnographic study at two military psychology training programs, my research also offers new perspectives on the militarization of psychological knowledge and practice, as it examines how the psychological care of the citizen-soldier has historically served not only to further military objectives, but also to enable new public contestations of militarism and national community.
Bartelink, Eric J., Texas A&M U., College Station, TX - To aid research on 'Emerging Diet and Health Patterns in Prehistoric Central California,' supervised by Dr. Lori E. Wright
ERIC JOHN BARTELINK, then a student of Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas, was awarded a grant in June 2004 to aid research on 'Emerging Diet and Health Patterns in Prehistoric Central California,' supervised by Dr. Lori E. Wright. Diet and health trends in late Holocene (4950-200 B.P.) central California have been the subject of much recent debate. This research used data gleaned from human skeletal remains to investigate temporal and regional variability in human diet and health patterns in the prehistoric lower Sacramento Valley and San Francisco Bay area of central California. Previous research in the area indicates a shift from the use of high-ranked fauna to the intensified use of lower-ranked resources, such as smaller fauna and acorns. Between May 2004 and January 2005, the grantee examined 511 burials for evidence of skeletal and dental pathology. A subset of the main study sample (n=111) was used to examine dietary patterns through stable carbon and nitrogen bone isotope analysis. Paleopathological indicators suggest a pattern of declining health conditions through time in the Valley, but no change in health in the Bay Area. The stable isotope data from human bone collagen and apatite also indicate significant inter-regional differences between the Bay and Valley. In the Bay, diets shifted from high trophic level marine foods to a more terrestrially focused diet over time. In the Valley, there are no significant dietary trends observed in the data.
Quinn, Colin Patrick, U. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI - To aid research on 'Inequality in the Presence of Death: Mortuary Rituals in Bronze Age Transylvania,' supervised by Dr. John O'Shea
Preliminary abstract: 'We are all equal in the presence of death' -- Publilius Syrus. Death, as a universal experience, has long been considered a great equalizer. However, mortuary rituals involved in death and burial are an important social context in which social inequalities are often materialized. My research examines how people use mortuary rituals to negotiate social relationships and influence the development of social inequality in Bronze Age Transylvania. My aim is to integrate perspectives of human agency and ideological systems with economic and political trajectories to better understand the tensions that produced dynamic shifts in social inequality in Bronze Age communities. Using demographic and material evidence from the Trascau Mountains and Mures River corridor in southwest Transylvania (Alba County, Romania) during the Early and Middle Bronze Ages (2500-1600 BC), I seek to address (1) how relationships of social inequality in these communities were materialized in mortuary contexts, (2) the rate and extent of change in mortuary rituals throughout the Early and Middle Bronze Age, and (3) whether changes in mortuary rituals, as ideological institutions, reflected or influenced changes in the scale and degree of social, economic, and political inequality in local communities.
Flack, Jessica, Emory U., Atlanta, GA - To aid research on 'Conflict Management and the Distribution of Social Power in Chimpanzee Society,' supervised by Dr. Frans de Waal
JESSICA FLACK, while a student at Emory University in Atlanta, Georgia, received funding in July 2002 to aid research on conflict management and the distribution of social power in macaque and chimpanzee societies, under the supervision of Dr. Frans de Waal. Flack undertook her study in the context of the larger issue of social system robustness, a property of all complex adaptive evolving systems that persist in time. Towards addressing questions of robustness in animal social organization, she and her colleagues identified factors such as distribution of social power that might account for variation in conflict management mechanisms across primate societies. They employed a framework of communication about status-which linked two levels of analysis, the relationship and system levels-to explain the observed covariation in conflict and conflict management mechanisms reported for the macaque genus and applied a modified version of it to chimpanzees. The team tested hypotheses about candidate status signals, relationships between the distribution of social power and conflict management, the importance of potential conflict management mechanisms to social cohesion, and the robustness of social networks in the face of perturbations that disable conflict management mechanisms. To investigate these questions in pigtailed macaques, they used 'knockout' methods (temporary removal of effective policers) to determine how conflict management affected social system dynamics. In chimpanzees, they approached these questions through a comparative study of two captive populations with apparently different distributions of social power.
Watkins, Tammy Y., U. of Georgia, Athens, GA - To aid research on 'Children's Subsistence Contributions to Pastoral Households in the Drylands of East Africa,' supervised by Alexandra Avril Brewis
TAMMY Y. WATKINS, then a student at University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia, received funding in April 2006 to aid research on 'Children's Subsistence Contributions to Pastoral Households in the Drylands of East Africa,' supervised by Alexandra Avril Brewis. This dissertation describes how and when children use subsistence strategies to contribute to livelihoods and the values and outcomes to themselves, their peers, and their households among pastoralists in the drylands of East Africa. Children's contributions to subsistence have been studied among agriculturalists and more recently, among hunter-gatherers. Children may begin to contribute to household livelihood at early ages, depending on the subsistence mode of their society and the environment in which they live. This dissertation addresses basic anthropological questions such as: What is the function of children's subsistence strategies? Who receives the benefits of them? In what environments do children practice their strategies? Which strategies do they practice and when? and What are the biological consequences of children's own actions and worldviews? This dissertation combines nutrition and health methodology and outcomes to evaluate biological variation and adaptation in children by building on the evidence that optimal foraging returns should be based not only on energy returns, but also on nutritional returns and health consequences within cultural and environmental contexts. Finally, meta-analyses of subsistence risk management research within Anthropology reveal a lack of empirical data with which to test models. This project uses empirical data to begin the process of rigorously testing hypotheses about children's roles within households and communities, why children forage, especially in non-foraging societies, and risk management. Results of this research will be valuable not only to Anthropology, but also to government and non-government organizations producing policy related to children, education, food security, livelihoods and development among dryland pastoralists.
Kikon, Dolly, Stanford U., Stanford, CA - To aid research on 'Blurred Borders: Unsettling the Hill/Valley Divide in Northeast India,' supervised by Dr. James G. Ferguson
DOLLY KIKON, then a student at Stanford University, Stanford, California, was awarded a grant in October 2009, to aid research on 'Blurred Borders: Unsettling the Hill/Valley Divide in Northeast India,' supervised by Dr. James G. Ferguson. Hill and valley occupy a critical place in the development of anthropological theory of societies in the eastern Himalayan region. Constructions of social histories and political identities have followed colonially created categories of hill and valley since the nineteenth century, and differences between the topographic locations have been the basis of organizing territorial borders in the region. This is most pronounced in Northeast India, where federal units often have internal borders that mime practices of international borders and where postcolonial legislation has been grafted onto colonial systems of governance. The research objective is to study how hill/valley spatial categories continue to influence and sustain historically contentious borders, laws, and citizenship regimes in Nagaland and Assam in Northeast India.