Arroyo-Kalin, Manuel A., U. of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK - To aid research on 'The Historical Ecology of Landscapes: Geoarchaeological Approaches to the Anthropogenic Transformation of Cent. Amazonian Rainforests,' supervised by Dr. P.T. Miracle
MANUEL A. ARROYO-KALIN, then a student at Cambridge University, Cambridge, England, was awarded funding in December 2002 to aid research on 'the historical ecology of the Central Amazon region: geoarchaeological approaches to anthropogenic landscape transformation,' supervised by Dr. P.T. Miracle. This doctoral project studied sediments and anthrosols from the interfluve between the Negro and Solimões rivers (state of Amazonas, Brazil) -- the research area of the Central Amazon Project (CAP) -- both to examine if anthrosols dated to the first millennium A.D. could be characterized as correlates of intensive pre-Columbian land-use practices and to understand site formation processes associated to a preceramic site. Both aims required developing geoarchaeological data to understand how site formation processes were intertwined with historical processes of human occupation, soil formation, and landscape evolution in the tropical lowlands. Fieldwork consisted in sampling soils within and between archaeological sites by collecting undisturbed block and bulk samples from fourteen soil profiles. Samples were analysed using a suite of techniques to characterise soil micromorphology, texture, isotopic (13C) and elemental composition, magnetic susceptibility, and pH. Microscopic charcoal was extracted from three samples collected at one site in order to date the most stable charcoal pool in the soils and compare it to the CAP macroscopic charcoal chronology. The research revealed that whilst anthrosols from first-second millennium A.D. age sites might have formed as unintended consequences of past populations' reliance on aquatic resources, they in turn likely fuelled the formation of intensive settlement agriculture, enabling high population densities to develop along riparian bluffs. The research also provided data to show that the Archaic age occupation, located in a now podzolized ferralsol and sealed by alluvial sedimentation, was sufficient to produce some phosphate enrichment of the fine clay fraction, suggesting some degree of site permanence.
Dzenovska, Dace, U. of California, Berkeley, CA - To aid research on 'From Multi-Ethnic Socialism to Multicultural Europe: Difference and European Integration in Latvia,' supervised by Dr. Alexei Yurchak
DACE DZENOVSKA, then a student at University of California, Berkeley, Califonia, was awarded funding in November 2005 to aid research on 'From Multi-Ethnic Socialism to Multicultural Europe: Difference and European Integration in Latvia,' supervised by Dr. Alexei Yurchak. The research set out to examine how the European present and the Soviet past constitute contemporary forms of liberalism and multiculturalism in Latvia. It suggested that rather than arriving in Latvia fully formed, it is in Latvia that Europe, liberalism, and multiculturalism are made. Ethnographic research focused on discourses and practices of tolerance and immigration control, while the former aim to incite individuals to reflect on the boundaries they draw between themselves and others and to cultivate a particular ethical disposition towards difference, the latter police the borders of the territory and the national body. Research findings suggest that Europe, multiculturalism, and liberalism are highly contested and heterogeneous sets of practices. While exhibiting liberal inclinations, dicourses and practices of tolerance and multiculturalism are also shaped by the influential articulation of state legitimacy with the integrity and sovereignty of the cultural nation and understandings of good life grounded in a particular way of life. Further analysis will consider how liberal practices, both state and non-state, are enabled by and themselves enable particular ways of life. How does one engage with nationalism as a particular way of life without either rendering it as fundamentally problematic or becoming complicit in its troubling renditions of difference?
Dzenovska, Dace, 2010. Making 'The People' Political Imaginaries and the Materiality of Barricades in Mexico and Latvia. Laboratorium (3):5-16.
Dzenovska, Dace. 2010. Public Reason and the Limits of Liberal Anti-Racism in Latvia. Ethnos 75(4):425-454.
Dzenovska, Dace, and Ivan Arenas. 2012. Don't Fence Me In: Barricade Sociality and Political Struggles in Mexico and Latvia. Comparative Studies in Society and History 54(3):644-678.
Swart, Patricia L., New School U., New York, NY - To aid research on 'Film Practices, Globalization, and the Public Sphere in Kerala, India,' supervised by Dr. Rayna Rapp
PATRICIA L. SWART, while a student at New School University in New York, New York, was granted an award in December 2002 to aid research on film practices, globalization, and the public sphere in the state of Kerala, India, under the supervision of Dr. Rayna Rapp. Swart examined the ways in which globalization processes had transformed the portrayal of women in popular and art films and women's spectatorship of films in Kerala. Changes in film texts and spectatorship were found to be linked to shifts in gender identity, concepts of citizenship, and the shaping of the public sphere-all unique reactions to globalization in Kerala. Although the state had a long history of global trade and cultural assimilation, the newest wave of globalization had inspired violent protests and demonstrations. The Malayalam-language cinema of Kerala responded to global changes by making films that reverted from formerly more liberal and enlightened portrayals of women to a kind of traditionalism that glorified patriarchal behaviors and attitudes. Swart conducted fieldwork in several primary areas: spectatorship practices, film institutions, and film texts. Interviews, participant observation, and a study of archival sources indicated that despite Kerala's reputation as a model of development, women in the state were subjected to increasing restrictions on their mobility and participation in public events and to increasing violence and sexual harassment. Research on film and gender showed the links between globalization, inequality, and repression by revealing some of the tensions extant in Kerala, including high unemployment, increasing consumerism, and a high rate of suicide among women.
Janssen, Brandi Jo, U. of Iowa, Iowa City, IA - To aid research on 'Producing Local Food and Local Knowledge: The Experience of Iowa Farmer,' supervised by Dr. Michael S. Chibnik
BRANDI JO JANSSEN, then a student at University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa, received a grant in October 2010 to aid research on 'Producing Local Food and Local Knowledge: The Experience of Iowa Farmers,' supervised by Dr. Michael S. Chibnik. The growing demand for local food can be seen in national increases in farmers markets attendance and Community Supported Agriculture memberships. The local food movement, often framed in terms of consumers, has implications for agricultural production in the US, particularly in states like Iowa with strong connections to large-scale, industrialized agriculture. Local food production is significantly different than most conventional, industrialized farming in that it requires producers to grow, market, and distribute a variety of products. Because producers of local food engage in different activities than conventional farmers, they also need different kinds of knowledge to be successful. This project examined how producers of local food in eastern Iowa use and apply the various sources of knowledge available to them. Iowa's long agricultural history contributes to many sources of agricultural knowledge including scientific based extension services, farming organizations, and historic family knowledge. Applying a variety of ethnographic methods, including in-depth interviews and participant observation, this project viewed the local food system in Iowa from the producers' perspective. In particular, this study examined the process of 'scaling-up' to meet larger, institutional markets, the challenges associated with obtaining adequate labor, and the relationships that local food farmers have with their industrial neighbors.
Myers, Dusty, Michigan State U., East Lansing, MI - To aid research on 'Inclusive Rights or Exclusive Gains?: Negotiating Access to Timber in Ashanti Ghana,' supervised by Dr. William Derman
DUSTY MYERS, then a student at Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan, was awarded a grant in October 2007 to aid research on 'Inclusive Rights or Exclusive Gains? Negotiating Access to Timber in Ashanti Ghana,' supervised by Dr. William Derman. Longstanding conflict between Ghanaian farmers, the state, and loggers has led many farmers to destroy timber trees and saplings that grow in their fields. This situation is one of many that contribute to forest loss in an area of the world recognized for its environmental importance. Though there is a wide-ranging debate on the causes of deforestation, little attention is paid to how timber is accessed and used and the implications this has on forests, fields, and the people managing them. This project examined how men and women in the Ashanti Region of Ghana negotiated access, control and use of timber in the context of reforms that promote the participation of farmers in timber management. Given the attention paid to the 'rural poor' in Africa, the research results will contribute to assessing if and how processes of farmer participation in timber management are leading to more or less rural poverty and disempowerment.
D'Avella, Nicholas John, U. of California, Davis, CA - To aid research on 'From Banks to Bricks: Architecture, Finance, and Neighborhood Life in Buenos Aires, Argentina,' supervised by Dr. Donald L. Donham
NICHOLAS J. D'AVELLA, then a student of University of California, Davis, California, received a grant in October 2008 to aid research on 'From Banks to Bricks: Architecture, Finance, and Neighborhood Life in Buenos Aires, Argentina,' supervised by Dr. Donald L. Donham. Between January 2009 and April 2010, the grantee conducted research aimed at understanding how architects and neighborhood residents work to utilize, resist, or redirect the effects of new real estate investment practices that are remaking the material landscape of Buenos Aires. Fieldwork in the Architecture school at the University of Buenos Aires consisted of: interviews with practicing architects and real estate developers; observation of professional real estate seminars and interviews with associated market experts; interviews with several small investors who were purchasing or considering the purchase of real estate as investments; and observation and in-depth interviews with the members of various neighborhood groups working to change the city's building code or influence state regulations in their respective neighborhoods. Research findings indicate a series of disjunctures between various conceptions of what a building should be. Each group of actors had their own culturally distinct way of relating to buildings, and these differing cultures surrounding the same objects generated conflicts over the form that urban construction should take. By studying these various ways of thinking about and relating to buildings, this project attempts to better illustrate the forces which contribute to the formation of the urban environment.
Shimmin, Jessica Ann, New York U., New York, NY - To aid research on 'A Safe Place: Gender, Safety, and Place Making in a Shelter for Battered Women,' supervised by Dr. Bambi B. Schieffelin
JESSICA SHIMMIN, then a student at New York University, New York, New York, received funding in April 2008 to aid research on 'A Safe Place: Gender, Safety, and Place Making in a Shelter for Battered Women,' supervised by Dr. Bambi Schieffelin. This research investigates the production of culturally legible safe space for battered women and children. Using ethnographic data gathered from Massachusetts' human service systems and shelter network, the grantee analyzes and compares the ideological, material, and systemic architectures domestic-violence professionals construct to create security. Funding supported the second phase of this research including: participant observation at a shelter campus operated at a published location; interviews with domestic-violence experts and building professionals; and participation in workshops and public awareness events, as well as tours and photography in emergency shelters. This line of inquiry uncovered an engagement with space shared by professionals across the spectrum of domestic-violence intervention. Strong beliefs and differences of opinion highlighted a semiotics of women's safety that emphasizes personal interiors, domestic routines, and familial intimacy. By mapping the social resources professionals use to sustain emergency-shelter programs, this study situates emergency shelters in a bureaucratic network that enables and regulates victims' access to services as well as their success or failure. Emphasizing the cultural and institutional framework of emergency shelters, this dissertation will contribute an empirical analysis of the gendered space of personal safety, as well as of the transition domestic-violence professionals make available to abused women and children.
Hendy, Katherine Marie, U. of California, Berkeley, CA - To aid research on 'Drugs on Trial: Science, Bureaucracy and Activism in Clinical Trial Research with Psychedelic Drugs,' supervised by Dr. Corinne Hayden
KATHERINE HENDY, then a student at the University of California, Berkeley, California, was awarded funding in November 2010 to aid research on 'Drugs on Trial: Science, Bureaucracy and Activism in Clinical Trial Research with Psychedelic Drugs,' supervised by Dr. Corinne Hayden. The grantee undertook research with Northern California drug activists and researchers who have been working to legalize psychedelic drugs for use in psychotherapeutic settings. In contrast to other legalization efforts that have focused on state-based legislation or civil rights lawsuits, this movement organizes and funds clinical trials, which study the therapeutic benefits of psychedelics as a gateway to federal legalization as prescription pharmaceuticals. The research ethnographically tracked how the aspirations for the legalization of psychedelics combined with the on-the-ground practice of clinical trial research. The dissertation explores how the concerns of various regulatory agencies with issues of safety and drug diversion shape the form and practice of clinical trial research and consequently the kinds of pharmaceutical knowledge that emerge therefrom. Given that clinical trials are used to produce scientific research and to regulate the pharmaceutical industry, this dissertation will argue that they provide an important point of entry into the contemporary relationship between science and politics in the United States.
McCoy, Jack T., Rutgers U., New Brunswick, NJ - To aid research on 'Ecological & Behavioral Implications of New Archaeological Occurrences from Koobi Fora, Kenya,' supervised by Dr. John W.K. Harris
JACK T. MCCOY, then a student at Rutgers University, New Brunswick, New Jersey, was awarded a grant in December 2005 to aid research on 'Ecological and Behavioral Implications of New Archaeological Occurrences from Koobi Fora, Kenya,' supervised by Dr. John W.K. Harris. Decades of investigations in Upper Burgi Member exposures (2.2 to 1.9 Ma) by many prominent paleoanthropologists have produced more than three dozen hominin body fossils but virtually no stone tools or other evidence of behavior has been reported. These exposed sediments preserve an archive of fossils that can reveal a great deal about the ecology, environment, and changing foraging behaviors of the earliest members of the genus Homo. Through the collection and analysis of the fossils of terrestrial vertebrates, it is possible to reconstruct ancient animal communities and offer hypotheses about the changing ecological niche that early human ancestors occupied. The addition of significant quantities of meat and marrow into the diet of early hominins is also visible in the fossil record. Cut marks and percussion marks are preserved on fossil bones and this evidence of hominin presence and behavior was collected during this field research along with the oldest stone tools yet discovered at Koobi Fora. This research makes it possible to construct testable hypotheses about hominin habitat and changing foraging behaviors at this critical juncture in human evolution.