Al-Dewachi, Omar, Harvard U., Cambridge, MA - To aid research on 'The Professionalization of Iraqi Doctors in Britain: Citizenship, Sovereignty, and Empire,' supervised by Dr. Steven C. Caton
OMAR ALDEWACHI, then a student at Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts, was awarded funding in June 2005 to aid research on 'The Professionalization of Iraqi Doctors in Britain: Citizenship, Sovereignty, and Empire,' supervised by Dr. Steven C. Caton. This thesis was an historical and ethnographic investigation of the professionalization of Iraqi doctors in Britain. Through this multi-disciplinary approach, it explored the journey and mobility of the Iraqi medical doctor through the historical, political and institutional terrains of the medical profession. The historical component of the thesis explored the role of British doctors and British medicine under the British mandate (1919-1932) in the formation of the medical profession and education in Iraq. It revealed how British medicine became an extension of the Iraqi medical institutions and continued to shape the Iraqi medical profession during post-colonial nation building in Iraq. The ethnographic component examined the diasporic population of Iraqi doctors who currently reside and work in Britain in the face of on-going war in Iraq as well as the re-shaping of the British National Health Services (NHS). In examining the historical and ethnographic facets of the relationship between Iraqi doctors and Britain, the thesis aimed at demonstrating the larger transnational landscape of the medical profession and its embeddedness in empire building and the imagination of the modern Iraqi nation-state.
Stamos, Peter, Andrew, U. of California, Davis, CA - To aid research on 'Hominin Locomotion from a Developmental Perspective: A Comparative Analysis of the Dikika Child's Knee,' supervised by Dr. Timothy D. Weaver
Preliminary abstract: Walking upright is a hallmark of our lineage, and learning how and why this unique behavior evolved is of utmost importance for understanding human origins. In this study, we will look at the evolution of bipedal locomotion from a developmental and comparative perspective by studying how the knee joints of apes and humans grow in response to the stresses and strains of locomotion. With this understanding, we will then analyze the knee joints of the oldest juvenile skeleton of a human ancestor ever discovered, the 3.3 million-year-old Dikika Child. This will allow us to investigate when our ancestors came out of the trees and planted their feet firmly on the ground, and at what age ancient children learned to walk.
Boyle, Michael James, City U. of New York - Graduate Center - To aid research on 'Declining City, Born-Again Citadel: The Evangelical Reconstitution of Urban Life in Postindustrial America,' supervised by Dr. Donald Keith Robotham
MICHAEL JAMES BOYLE, then a student at City University of New York Graduate Center, New York, New York, was awarded a grant in April 2008 to aid research on 'Declining City, Born-Again Citadel: The Evangelical Reconstitution of Urban Life in Postindustrial America,' supervised by Dr. Donald Robotham. The forces and the constraints characteristic of neoliberal globalization have transformed class relations and intensified need in postindustrial American cities. At the same time, increasing numbers of Protestant evangelicals have come forward, both individually and collectively, to help ameliorate deteriorating urban conditions. This dissertation research examined-through multi-sited ethnography, interviews, and textual research-whether and how the efforts of evangelical social service ministries are serving to reconstitute class relations in the small postindustrial city of Canton, Ohio. In addition to representing valuable sources of aid to the hard-pressed, the flows of goods and services channeled through evangelical ministries constitute social relationships that cross the class lines dividing affluent from struggling sectors of the city. These flows and relationships have, however, developed in a geographically uneven manner, a fact inextricably linked to the persistence of racial segregation and the legacy of urban renewal in Canton. Moreover, the relationships that are constituted through the work of evangelical ministries embody characteristically neoliberal asymmetries of power. Rather than asserting a straightforward affinity between evangelical religiosity and liberal modernity, however, this dissertation argues that, in addition to comprehending contradictory tendencies, evangelical ministries are decisively animated and structured by secular premises.
Jewell, Benjamin Joseph, Arizona State U., Tempe, AZ - To aid research on 'Filling the Vacuum with Gardens: The Political Economy of Food Access in Detroit, Michigan,' supervised by Dr. Amber Elisabeth Wutich
BENJAMIN J. JEWELL, then a student at Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona, was awarded funding in April 2011 to aid research on 'Filling the Vacuum with Gardens: The Political Economy of Food Access in Detroit, Michigan,' supervised by Dr. Amber E. Wutich. In the midst of Detroit's ongoing social and economic challenges, local activists are using urban agriculture projects to counteract the inequalities of capitalism. While Detroit's current unemployment numbers triple the national average and public programs are perpetually underfunded, these urban agriculture projects provide services that are otherwise difficult to obtain. This project uses Detroit's urban agriculture projects as a backdrop to illuminate the class processes underlying these alternative economic endeavors. It argues that these projects' most important contribution is not the amount of food they produce, but their efforts to increase the political voice of disenfranchised communities in Detroit. In addition, it draws from archival resources to understand how Detroit's food environment evolved across the 20th century, providing a backdrop for the emergence of urban agriculture in recent years.
Whitehouse, Bruce, Brown U., Providence, RI - To aid research on 'Transnationalism among Sahelian Migrants in Brazzaville, Congo,' supervised by Dr. Daniel J. Smith
BRUCE WHITEHOUSE, then a student at Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island, received funding in September 2004 to aid research on 'Transnationalism among Sahelian Migrants in Brazzaville, Congo,' supervised by Dr. Daniel J. Smith. This project examined the causes and consequences of the migration flow between the contemporary states of Mali, in West Africa, and the city of Brazzaville in Congo, Central Africa. The study considered this migration stream both in contemporary and historical contexts, and situated it as one component of a multilocal and transnational social space. The project's goal was to learn how Brazzaville's West African population has maintained a culturally distinct identity in Brazzaville despite being integrated into community life for several generations. Using ethnographic research methods, the grantee studied the role of religious, national, and sub-national affiliations in the shaping of a shared identity among West African immigrants and their descendants as Muslims, as traders, and as strangers in Congolese society. The study identified a number of areas in which strangerhood is reproduced as a social, political and economic reality, including: the practice of sending children born abroad to grow up in the parents' communities of origin in Mali; the consolidation of a self-consciously Muslim identity inside a non-Muslim host society; and the exercise of transnational commerce and the resultant formation of a 'middleman minority' corresponding to groups of ethnic entrepreneurs in a wide variety of other geographic and cultural settings.
Ikeuchi, Suma, Emory U., Atlanta, GA - To aid research on 'Brazilian Birth, Japanese Blood, and Transnational God: Identity and Resilience among Pentecostal Brazilians in Japan,' supervised by Dr. Chikako Ozawa-de Silva
Preliminary abstract: This study engages Brazilian migrants in Japan, both Pentecostal and non-religious, and asks the following question: Can religious networks, practices, and commitments promote a more resilient sense of self by resolving the ambiguity of multiple ethnic identities and national belonging? The majority of Brazilians in Japan hold 'long-term resident' visas, which are available only to Japanese emigrants and their second- and third- generation descendants. Although the legal structure regards them as at least partially Japanese based on descent, the Japanese majority typically does not view them as fully or authentically Japanese. This is because the society tends to define national belonging as the complete convergence of Japanese blood, culture, and language. In this context, many are converting to Pentecostal Christianity in Japan. This project focuses on the religious participation of such converts through the conceptual lens of resilience. The ability to resist stress and overcome adversity, or resilience, is a solid construct in psychological and medical anthropology. I will conduct seven months of fieldwork in Toyota City, Japan. The methods will include participant-observation, questionnaires, semi-structured interviews, and open interviews. Particular effort will be made to observe and record emic idioms of resilience, on which later data analysis will be based.
Blake, Elizabeth C., U. of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK - To aid research on 'Stone Tools as Portable Sound-Producing Objects in Upper Palaeolithic Contexts,' supervised by Dr. Ian Cross
ELIZABETH C. BLAKE, then a student at University of Cambridge, Cambridge, United Kingdom, was awarded funding in October 2007 to aid research on 'Stone Tools as Portable Sound-Producing Objects in Upper Paleolithic Contexts,' supervised by Dr. Ian Cross. Sounding stones, or lithophones, are instruments known to have been used in many societies. Until recently, however, there have been no diagnostic criteria for identifying lithophones archaeologically. Building upon previous work, the current project has further developed use-wear guidelines for lithophone identification. The criteria were formed through extensive use-wear and acoustic experiments. Subsequently, these criteria were applied to stone tools from a number of French Upper Palaeolithic sites (c. 40-10ky BP) that retain evidence for art or other forms of symbolic behaviour. Lithics studied included the stone tool assemblage from the site of Grotte d'Isturitz, which was found in association with some of the earliest known bone pipes dated to approximately 36ky BP. This project also involved the exceptional Solutrean laurel leaf implements from the site of Volgu and a cache of five Magdalenian long blades from the Grotte de Labastide, found in a cave wall niche amid a significant amount of 'art.' In the case of the finely crafted Solutrean lithics and Magdalenian long blades, standard 'functional' interpretations do not adequately explain the reasons behind their existence and depositional context. It is quite possible that their creation and use could have had a social significance unbounded by modern conceptions of what a stone 'tool' can be used for. The data collected through this phase of research has validated aspects of the experimentally established use-wear criteria and also indicated future areas for criteria expansion.
d'Alpoim Guedes, Jade Aziz, Harvard U., Cambridge, MA - To aid research on 'Adaptation and Invention during the Spread and Intensification of Agriculture in the Chengdu Plain,' supervised by Dr. Rowan K. Flad
JADE AZIZ D'ALPOIM GUEDES, then a student at Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts, was awarded a grant in May 2010, to aid research on 'Adaptation and Invention during the Spread and Intensification of Agriculture in the Chendu Plain,' supervise3d by Dr. Rowan K. Flad. In order to examine the relationship between changes in agricultural management regimes and the development of complex society, the grantee carried out fieldwork in the Chengdu Plain, Sichuan Province, P.RC.. During this fieldwork, macro botanical remains and samples for ancient starch were collected to document change in agricultural strategies from the earliest implantation of settlers in the area until the complex societies of the Bronze Age. Analysis of samples show that a change in subsistence from the low investment crop of broomcorn millet to labor intensive rice agriculture occurred between the first colonization of the area and the late Neolithic Baodun period. This change in subsistence is associated with other developments which indicate that people were able to harness larger labor forces, such as the construction of large walls surrounding settlements. The development of social complexity appears to be accompanied by restructuring in labor investments at the agricultural base and is closely linked to the development of rice agriculture in this region. Analysis of samples from the Bronze Age is currently underway and these samples will be analyzed using crop processing models to document how labor organization was restructured during this period.
d'Alpoim Guedes, Jade, Ming Jiang, Kunyu He, Xiohong Wu, and Zhanghua Jiang. 2013. Site of Baodun Yields Earliest Evidence for the Spread of Rice and Foxtail Millet Agriculture to South-west China. Antiquity 87(377):751-771.
d'Alpoim Guedes, Jade. 2011. Millets, Rice, Social Complexity, and the Spread of Agriculture to the Chengdu Plain and Southwest China. Rice 4:104-113.
Cowie, Sarah E., U. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ - To aid research on 'Social Theory and Industrial Archaeology at the Late 19th Century Company Town of Fayette, Michigan,' supervised by Dr. David J. Killick
SARAH COWIE, then a student at University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona, received funding in November 2003 to aid research on 'Social Theory and Industrial Archaeology at the Late 19th Century Company Town of Fayette, Michigan,' supervised by Dr. David J. Killick. This research explores the subtle distribution of power and control within early American industrial capitalism, as seen in the nineteenth century company town of Fayette, Michigan. Research methods for the project include GIS-based analysis of the built environment and artifact patterns; the development of a historical ethnography for the town; and archaeological excavations of household refuse excavated from three class-based neighborhoods. Issues surrounding power and agency are explored in regard to three heuristic categories of power. In the first category, the company imposed a system of structural, class-based power that is most visible in hierarchical differences in pay and housing, as well as consumer behavior. A second category, bio power, addresses disciplinary activities surrounding health and the human body. The class system extended to discrepancies in the company's regulation of employee health, as observed in medicinal artifacts, disposal patterns of industrial waste, incidence of intestinal parasites, and unequal access to healthcare. In addition, landscape analysis shows how the built environment served as a disciplinary technology to reinforce hegemonic and naturalized class divisions, to regenerate these divisions through symbolic violence and workers' daily practices, and to impose self-regulation. The third ensemble of power relations is pluralistic, heterarcical, and determined by personal identity (e.g., gender, ethnicity, religion, literacy). Individuals drew upon symbolic capital to bolster social status and express identity apart from the corporate hierarchy. This research explores the social impacts of our industrial heritage and the potential repercussions of industrialization in developing countries today.
Duke, Guy Stephen, U. of Toronto, Toronto, Canada - To aid research on 'Consuming Identities: Culinary Practice in the Late Moche Jequetepeque Valley, Peru,' supervised by Dr. Edward Rueben Swenson
GUY S. DUKE, then a graduate student at University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada, received funding in April 2013 to aid research on 'Consuming Identities: Culinary Practice in the Late Moche Jequetepeque Valley, Peru,' supervised by Dr. Edward R. Swenson. The archaeological study of culinary practices provides an excellent point of entry to investigate everything from status and ethnicity to group and individual identity. This project was designed to shed light on the cultural politics of food preparation and consumption within the specific context of sociopolitical and environmental transformations distinguishing the Late Moche Period (AD 600-850) in the Jequetepeque Valley. The 2013 field season investigated a rural site on the north side of the valley (Je-64) for comparison with previously excavated data from the large ceremonial centre of Huaca Colorada on the south side of the valley. Preliminary results from Je-64 indicate that the site was composed of seven discrete sectors including two residential/domestic areas and a ritual core marked by differential architecture and ceramic and lithic assemblages. Food remains revealed the presence of llama, cuy, maize, squash, beans, peppers (ají), guava, and potato. The preliminary evidence suggests that distinct 'culinary packages' shaped the experience and perception of different places at Je-64 and Huaca Colorada. The data from both sites are beginning to point to the existence of multiple corporate and individual identities during the Late Moche period in the Jequetepeque Valley.