Walker, Michael M., Michigan State U., East Lansing, MI - To aid research on 'Commons or Enclosures? Negotiating Access to Wetlands in Manica Province, Mozambique,' supervised by Dr. William Derman
MICHAEL M. WALKER, then a student at Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan, was awarded a grant in July 2005 to aid research on 'Commons or Enclosures? Negotiating Access to Wetlands in Manica Province, Mozambique,' supervised by Dr. William Derman. This research examines smallholders' access to, and use of, wetland resources in Sussundenga, Mozambique. It takes an historical perspective on how access to land and water resources has changed under various forms of land tenure in Sussundenga district over the last 50 years. The legacies of land dispossession by Portuguese settlers in the 1950s, the creation of a communal village by the ruling party, FRELIMO, in the 1970s, and migration and displacement resulting from the civil war in the 1980s created a context of competing and overlapping claims to land. Consequently smallholders negotiate multiple terrains of authority, including local government officials, traditional authorities, and agricultural extension offices as well as negotiate with friends, neighbors, and family members to gain access to wetland resources, known locally as matoro, which are critical for dry season agricultural production. This research highlights that despite interventions in agriculture by the colonial and post-colonial state and development organizations, traditional authorities, such as chiefs, continue to play an important role in legitimizing access to land and water resources. Furthermore, this research concludes that while the enclosure of land, water, and wetland resources in Sussundenga is taking place, predominantly in areas with a history of competing claims to land, other more flexible patterns of access to land and water resources often through kin networks ,and traditional leaders coexists with more exclusionary practices.
Kemp, Brian M., U. of California, Davis, CA - To aid research on 'Mitochondrial DNA Variation in Extant and Prehistoric Populations of Mesoamerica and the Southwest,' supervised by Dr. David G. Smith
BRIAN M. KEMP, then a student at University of California, Davis, California, received funding in January 2004 to aid research on 'Mitochondrial DNA Variation in Extant and Prehistoric Populations of Mesoamerica and the Southwest,' supervised by Dr. David G. Smith. In the largest study of mitochondrial DNA variation in populations from the American Southwest and Mesoamerica, it was determined that population relationships between the two regions are not very close despite the number of linguistic and culture ties between them. In particular, groups of Uto-Aztecan speakers, who are argued to have been responsible for the northward spread of agriculture from Mesoamerica to the Southwest, also do not appear closely related to each other unless they are located in close geographic proximity. Overall, genetic distance between the populations studied here is positively correlated with geographic distance and not with linguistic distance. A recent population expansion within the American Southwest was detected that probably followed the introduction and intensification of maize agriculture in the region. This recent expansion may have blurred ancient genetic patterns, which might otherwise have revealed a closer genetic relationship between the Southwest and Mesoamerica.
Kemp, Brian M., Ripan S. Malhi, John McDonough, et al. 2007. Genetic Analysis of Early Holocene Skeletal Remains from Alaska and its Implications for the Settlement of the Americas. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 132(4):605-621.
Ozden-Schilling, Thomas Charles, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA - To aid research on 'Salvage Cartography: Mapping Futures for Devastated Landscapes in British Columbia,' supervised by Dr. Christine Walley
Preliminary abstract: How do digital maps mediate futures for the residents of a devastated landscape? This dissertation will explore recent attempts by three communities of mapmakers to produce, standardize, and disseminate different kinds of large-scale digital maps of the Nechako Plateau region of central British Columbia, Canada. The region is the epicenter of a sprawling infestation of mountain pine beetles (MPB), which since 1999 have killed over 65% of the merchantable pine trees across the province - the largest forest blight in the recorded history of North America. The three groups of mapmakers with whom I will work - exploration geologists, forest ecologists, and Aboriginal First Nations 'heritage consultants' - have taken up the MPB blight in varying ways: as a bellwether of climate change; as an entry point for aggressive rural development and economic diversification proposals; as a threat to rural lifestyles and burgeoning First Nations sovereignty claims; and as a foreboding signifier of regional residents' shifting relationships towards their surrounding landscapes. By treating maps as practical and ideological mediators between these residents and the laboratories, development organizations, and government offices which have used these visual surrogates of expertise to structure the experiences of rural residents coping with ecological change.
Detwiler, Kate M., New York U., New York, NY - To aid research on 'Hybridization Between Sympatric Cercopithecus Species in Gombe National Park, Tanzania,' supervised by Dr. Clifford J. Jolly
KATE M. DETWILER, then a student at New York University, New York, New York, received funding in August 2005 to aid research on 'Hybridization between Sympatric Cercopithecus Species in Gombe National Park, Tanzania,' supervised by Dr. Clifford J. Jolly. The project's objective is to investigate the genetic consequences of interspecific hybridization occurring among guenons (Cercopithecus ascanius and C. mitis) in Gombe National Park, Tanzania. The first research phase, field observation and collection of material for genetic analysis at Gombe and other East African sites, was completed in September 2005. The second phase, laboratory analysis of species-specific markers in mitochondrial and Y-chromosomal DNA, was scheduled to finish in August 2008. To date, mitochondrial data support reciprocal monophyly of C. ascanius and C. mitis populations outside the Gombe hybrid zone, yet within Gombe this pattern is not observed. The samples from Gombe show unambiguous evidence for introgression of C. ascanius mitochondrial DNA into C. mitis. The data indicate that C. mitis monkeys at Gombe originated from C. ascanius females. Samples from outside and within the Gombe hybrid zone show no evidence of Y-chromosomal introgression, however, Y-chromsomal data from Gombe show both C. mitis and C. ascanius males cross mate, as hybrid males have Y-chromosomal DNA of both parental species. This is the first genetic study of Cercopithecus hybridization and the preliminary results demonstrate that the species boundary between these two guenons is semipermeable.
Taddei, Renzo R., Columbia U., New York, NY - To aid research on 'The Metapragmatics of Political Disputes Over Water in Ceara, Northeast Brazil,' supervised by Dr. Lambros Comitas
RENZO R. TADDEI, then a student at Columbia University, New York, New York, received a grant in October 2003 to aid research on 'The Metapragmatics of Political Disputes Over Water in Ceara, Northeast Brazil,' supervised by Dr. Lambros Comitas. This research focused on the socio-semiotic dimensions of new participatory arenas for water allocation in the Jaguaribe Valley, in the semi-arid hinterlands of the State of Ceará, in the Brazilian Northeast. The field research, carried out during 2004, involved over one hundred interviews with farmers, community leaders, politicians, technicians, government agents, individuals knowledgeable in traditional rain forecast techniques (locally called 'rain prophets'), journalists and local researchers in the areas of water management and meteorology. Additionally, rain prophets' meetings were filmed, as were basin-level water committee meetings in the Jaguaribe, Banabuiú and Curú Valleys, meetings of the State Water Resources Council and the international climate outlook fora that take place in Fortaleza. The research was complemented by broad-reaching archival research in local newspapers. A central element being studied, namely the disputes for authority and legitimacy to lead collective action, in committee discussions as well as in daily productive activities (like farming decisions), was addressed through the documentation and analysis of how authoritative discourses were created in the political game. Three institutionalized rituals were picked as case studies: the annual rain prophets' meeting, the climate outlook forum of Fortaleza, and the water allocation meeting that takes place in the Jaguaribe Valley. In each of these cases, the research gathered evidence of how semiotic manipulations - that is, transformation of meanings associated to environmental issues - are used strategically or are 'bricolaged' towards envisioned goals, by different stakeholders involved in the political process.
Hunter, Mark W., U.of California, Berkeley, CA - To aid research on ''Transactional Sex' and HIV Infection in South Africa,' supervised by Dr. Gillian Hart
MARK W. HUNTER, while a student at the University of California in Berkeley, California, received funding in June 2002 to aid research on transactional sex and geographies of HIV infection in South Africa, under the supervision of Dr. Gillian Hart. Hunter conducted fieldwork from January through December 2003 with the aim of historicizing the AIDS pandemic in South Africa, particularly by looking at how money and sex had become closely linked in the preceding 40 years as unemployment had increased substantially. The emphasis on transactional sex remained strong throughout the fieldwork, although the scope was broadened to incorporate topics such as changing masculinities and courting rituals. Hunter conducted approximately 220 qualitative interviews with some 100 informants in urban settings and in one rural and one informal settlement in KwaZulu-Natal. The interviews combined the elicitation of life histories with questions about sexuality and relationships. During much of the research, Hunter stayed in Isithebe Informal Settlement with a Zulu family. Links with the Africa Centre for Reproductive Health, based in rural Hlabisa, facilitated a stay for a month with a rural Zulu family. The Africa Centre runs a demographic surveillance system covering about 11,000 households. Hunter also spent considerable time scrutinizing civil and criminal court files and other government records in the archives of Durban, Pietermaritzburg, and Pretoria.
Moumtaz, Nada, City U. of New York, Graduate Center, New York, NY - To aid research on 'Piety in Markets of Inalienable Property: An Anthropology of Waqf, Beirut 1826 - present,' supervised by Dr. David W. Harvey
NADA MOUMTAZ, then a student at The City University of New York Graduate Center, New York, New York, received a grant in September 2007 to aid research on 'Piety in Markets of Inalienable Property: An Anthropology of Waqf, Beirut 1826-Present,' supervised by Prof. David Harvey. Waqf is one of the most enduring economic and religious institutions in the Muslim world. Dominant until the 19th century, waqf was discarded as inalienable (and hence 'precapitalist') during the property reforms of the first half of the 20th century. Since the 1990s and coinciding with the Islamic Revival and its emphasis on pious Muslim subjects, inalienable waqf is undergoing a revival. For 16 months, the researcher carried out ethnographic and archival research to investigate how inalienables (here waqfs), and the regime of value they embody, intersect with a private property regime. The grantee collected founding documents, accounting, appointments, and disputes around waqfs in 19th-century Beirut. She also recorded oral histories of three waqfs, and interviewed contemporary waqf makers. Evidence confirms that inalienables are not eliminated with the passage to market economies and private-property regimes, questioning the depiction of capitalism as a commodity economy and transition to capitalism as a withering of gift economies. Results indicate that inalienables are disciplined according to the moral order of the new property regime -- as well as to the characteristics of the moral subject, her/his duties, and the sites of morality -- without nonetheless eradicating the old moral order.
Chua, Emily Huiching, U. of California, Berkeley, CA - To aid research on ''Culture Can Solve Problems': Communitarian Media Ethics and the Cultural Ambitions of Television Production in China,' supervised by Dr. Aihwa Ong
EMILY H. CHUA, then a student at the University of California, Berkeley, California, received a grant in April 2009, to aid research on ''Culture Can Solve Problems': Communitarian Media Ethics and the Cultural Ambitions of Television Production in China,' supervised by Dr. Aihwa Ong. As economic reform transforms China's mass media from a formidable Party-propaganda apparatus into a teeming culture industry, how are state-employed media producers responding to the changing political and economic conditions of their work? In the early twentieth century, Chinese journalists saw themselves as intellectual-activists who gave voice to the conscience of society and guided the country towards self-improvement. During the Mao era, the Communist Party's claim to exclusive ideological leadership turned the mass media into a mouthpiece of the Party-state. The end of Mao's revolutionary project and the rise of Deng's market-based approach have left China's media producers struggling to redefine the nature of their work. On the one hand, commercialization depoliticizes the media, allowing it to operate more like a forum of society than an instrument of the state. On the other hand, media producers are themselves now at the mercy of commercial forces. In the struggle for economic survival, they cannot afford to play the social critic they aspire to be. Political propaganda comes to be replaced by consumer entertainment instead, and society's conscience remains in need of a voice. From this situation spring the many new and difficult ethical problems with which China's idealistic and energetic young media producers now grapple.
Silian, Alina Petronela, Central European U., Budapest, Hungary - To aid research on 'Identity Politics, Knowledge Production, and Governmentality: The Romani Politics of Difference in Romania,' supervised by Dr. Ayse S. Caglar
Harris, Shana Lisa, U. of California, San Francisco, CA - To aid research on 'Out of Harm's Way: HIV, Human Rights, and the Practice of Harm Reduction in Argentina,' supervised by Dr. Judith C. Barker
SHANA HARRIS, then a student at University of California, San Francisco, California, received funding in May 2007 to aid research on 'Out of Harm's Way: HIV, Human Rights, and the Practice of Harm Reduction in Argentina,' supervised by Dr. Judith C. Barker. Argentina has had one of the highest rates of drug use-related HIV/AIDS prevalence in Latin America since the mid-1990s. After witnessing the failure of the government's drug abstinence-based interventions in curbing the epidemic, local civil society organizations began promoting interventions based on the principles of harm reduction. This dissertation examines how the harm reduction model traveled to and spread within Argentina by ethnographically tracing how it has been taken up and put into practice over the last decade by civil society organizations in the cities of Buenos Aires and Rosario. It focuses on how harm reductionists address not only the physical harms associated with drug use, but also those harms created by punitive, prohibitionist policies and widespread discrimination. Specifically, Argentine harm reductionists utilize the notions of 'vulnerability' and 'exclusion' to facilitate drug users' access to health and social services and to promote and protect users' human and civil rights. Drawing on the country's history of human rights abuses and economic instability, harm reductionists work to advance the idea of drug users as 'right bearers' in order to hold the state accountable for users' health and welfare and to shift the subjectivity of users from 'delinquents' to 'citizens.'