Rodriguez, Lydia, U. of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA - To aid research on 'Thinking Gesture: The Dialectics of Language, Gesture, and Thought in Chol Maya,' supervised by Dr. Eve Danziger
LYDIA RODRIGUEZ, then a student at University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia, received funding in October 2008 to aid research on 'Thinking Gesture: The Dialectics of Language, Gesture, and Thought in Chol Maya,' supervised by Dr. Eve Danziger. This research investigates the relationship between language, gesture, and thought in a community of Chol Maya speakers of Northern Chiapas, Mexico. It explores the ways in which notions of time are spatialized in speech-accompanying gestures. Most of the existing research on the representation of time in gesture is based on work with 'tense' languages. In all of these studies the fact that time is given a linear representation is noteworthy. This research asks whether such representation of time in gesture is indeed a human universal. Current findings indicate that a linear conceptualization of time is absent in Chol speakers´ gestural repertoire. The co-speech gestures that appear most consistently in Chol discourse are: 1)deictic gestures pointing at real or imaginary locations, and elements in the landscape and the nearby space; 2) iconic gestures depicting shape, size, quantity, and distinctive features of people or mythical characters; 3) gestures occurring in phrases with affectives or positionals. In light of these findings, it is proposed that linearity of imagistic representation of time is not necessarily a universal in human thought. The fact that Chol main grammatical strategy to indicate temporal reference is aspect, and not tense, may account for this lack of linearity in Chol temporal thought.
Golitko, Mark Louis, U. of Illinois, Chicago, IL - To aid research on 'Chemical Characterization of Linienbandkeramik (LBK) Ceramics by ICP-MS,' supervised by Dr. Lawrence Harold Keeley
MARK LOUIS GOLITKO, then a student at University of Illinois, Chicago, Illinois, was awarded funding in April 2006 to aid research on 'Chemical Characterization of Linienbandkeramik (LBK) Ceramics by ICP-MS,' supervised by Dr. Lawrence Harold Keeley. Funding was utilized to collect Linienbandkeramik (LBK) culture (c. 5200 BC) ceramic samples housed at the Institut Royal de Sciences Naturelles in Brussels, Belgium during July/August of 2006, which were chemically and petrographically analyzed during 2006-2007 at the Field Museum Laboratory for Archaeogeochemistry to determine their production region. LBK villages founded in the Hesbaye region of Belgium exhibit village level production specialization that Keeley and Cahen have argued served to maintain military alliances along an expanding frontier of farming-there may have been two such networks, corresponding to different stream valleys, which traded in different axe raw materials. During initial settlement of the region, there is little evidence of conflict, while during later settlement there is both evidence of conflict in the form of fortifications, and evidence that production specialization was the norm. While analysis is ongoing, preliminary results suggest that the region became generally more economically integrated as conflict increased, and that the patterns evident in other forms of material culture are not mirrored by ceramic trade. In particular, one village received almost all its ceramics from villages it was hypothesized to have been conflict with. This suggests that models of trade in the region must be reformulated.
Lee, Tina Marie, CUNY-Graduate Center, New York, NY - To aid research on 'Stratified Reproduction and Definitions of Child Neglect: State Practices and Parents' Response,' supervised by Dr. Leith Mullings
DR. JENNIFER HASTY, Pacific Lutheran University, Tacoma, Washington, received funding in May 2004 to aid research on 'Corruption and the Politics of Indigeneity in Ghana.' From July 2004 to August 2005, the grantee conducted twelve months of fieldwork on corruption and anticorruption in Ghana. While the anticorruption programs of international donors and NGOs diagnose corruption as a problem of selfish greed and cynicism, this research supports the argument that the practices of corruption are deeply rooted in notions of indigenous African identity, sociality, and global positionality. Archival work on anticolonial newspapers and postcolonial Commissions of Enquiry illustrates how the Ghanaian sense of indigeneity was key to the crafting of resistance to colonial forms of expropriation, as well as the Africanization of the nation-state, and, more recently, neoliberal participation in global processes (both fueling and fighting corruption). If historical and sociocultural factors are key to the endurance of corruption, then solutions to the problem of corruption must engage with the sociocultural dynamics at work, rather than criminalize the 'temptations' of sociality and local culture (gift-giving, favors, nepotism), as donor anticorruption often do. In six months of participant-observation, working as an assistant to a corruption investigator at the Ghana Serious Fraud Office, the grantee studied how the work of anticorruption is infused with socially-embedded forms of morality, often inspired by local Christianity (as opposed to the secularist and individualist discourses of donors).
Bernatchez, Jocelyn Anna, Arizona State U., Tempe, AZ - To aid research on 'The Role of Ochre in the Development of Modern Human Behavior: A Case Study from South Africa,' supervised by Dr. Curtis W. Marean
JOCELYN A. BERNATCHEZ, then a student at Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona, received a grant in October 2010 to aid research on 'The Role of Ochre in the Development of Modern Human Behavior: A Case Study from South Africa,' supervised by Dr. Curtis W. Marean. The presence of ochre in Middle Stone Age (MSA ~250-40ka) sites in southern Africa is often proposed as evidence for symbolism and early modern human behavior. However, there is significant debate about the uses of ochre in the past and whether symbolism is the most appropriate explanation for its presence in these sites. This project focused on the following research question: Within the MSA sites at Pinnacle Point, South Africa, is ochre evidence for symbolic behavior, or were more utilitarian activities involving ochre taking place? Several aspects of the record were studied to test these questions, including geological survey and sourcing attempts of archaeological samples. The acquisition of ochre is typically a highly ritualized activity for recent hunter-gatherer groups when compared to the exploitation of other non-symbolically loaded raw materials (such as stone). An exploitation pattern focusing primarily on distant sources rather than closer sources or a pattern focused on a few deposits when many are available may be suggestive of some symbolic meaning. Twenty-four ochre sources were identified. Using Particle Induced X-Ray Emission (PIXE), it was possible to identify a possible preference for the ochre at one source located approximately 19km from Pinnacle Point.
Folch, Christine, City U. of New York - Graduate Center, New York, NY - To aid research on 'Territory Matters in the Triple Frontera: Geographic Imaginary, Identity, and the Paraguayan State,' supervised by Dr. Marc Edelman
CHRISTINE FOLCH, then a student at City University of New York - Graduate Center, New York, New York, was awarded funding in April 2008, to aid research on 'Territory Matters in the Triple Frontera: Geographic Imaginary, Identity, and the Paraguayan State,' supervised by Dr. Marc Edelman. Leftist former Bishop Fernando Lugo was able to topple the ruling Colorado Party in Paraguay in April 2008 by channeling discontent over unfulfilled promises, linking these grievances to one issue: Paraguay's hydroelectric dam shared with Brazil, Itaipú Binacional. Criticism of corruption and capitulation to foreign interests in the dam existed from the 1960s, but were dismissed as the complaints of a marginalized left. Four decades later, with the unexpected election of Lugo, these have become the chief diplomatic target of a government -- an issue supported by the left and the right. These changes portend a redefinition in the obligation of 'state' to 'nation' as stitched together in territory and development. 'Territory Matters' traces the course of this transformation and its outcomes-high-level renegotiations with Brazil, the redirection of millions of dollars in Paraguay-to show that what can be seen in the struggles over Itaipú is the reconfiguration of the Paraguayan nation-state. This historical ethnography is drawn from ethnographic data from unparalleled access to leaders in Lugo's government (as they negotiated with Brazil and administered the dam) and observation with popular social movements as they mobilized for 'hydroelectric sovereignty,' as well as rich archival evidence from the Stroessner-era secret police found in the Archives of Terror in Asunción.
Folch, Christine. 2013. Surveillance and State Violence in Stroessner's Paraguay: Itaipú Hydroelectric Dam, Archive of Terror. American Anthropologist 115(1):44-57.
Valdez, Natali Theresa, U. of California, Irvine, CA - To aid research on 'Anticipating the Reproduction of Obesity: An Examination of Standardization, Speculation, and Temporality,' supervised by Dr. Michael Montoya
Preliminary abstract: Obesity is a growing concern among public health researchers, doctors, and health workers around the world. This project explores the entanglement between global health policies, standards of obesity, and the use of behavioral interventions among overweight pregnant women. In an effort to reduce the risk of obesity in future generations, two clinical trials, one in the United States and one in the United Kingdom are using behavioral Interventions on overweight or obese, ethnically diverse, pregnant women. These are the only two (and among the first) longitudinal, multi-sited, randomized clinical trials, which are currently targeting this population and implementing these kinds of interventions. By focusing on these clinical trials, as vehicles of knowledge production and behavioral interventions used during pregnancy, I will analyze the implications, methods of standardization, and policies, involved in speculating about future epidemics for which pregnancy is viewed as the locus of intervention.
Khalikova, Venera R., U. of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA - To aid research on 'The Biopolitics of Medical Pluralism and Nationalist Discourses in Uttarakhand, India,' supervised by Dr. Joseph S. Alter
Preliminary abstract: In contrast to many studies that view biopower as exercised through biomedicine, this research examines the biopolitics of medical pluralism. In India, yoga, ayurveda and other institutional 'alternative' systems are often deployed to link individual bodies to nation through the promotion of certain health regimens, diet, and lifestyle, in the name of the national health. But pluralism always begs the question of the internal hierarchy. The government of India legitimizes seven 'alternative' medical traditions (known as AYUSH), yet one of them--'Hindu' ayurveda--receives most social, financial, and ideological support. This parallels the tension between two conflicting nationalist ideologies: secular nationalism which promotes 'unity in diversity,' and Hindu nationalism which privileges the Hindu majority. Recent election of Prime Minister N. Modi from a Hindu nationalist party and his support for a popular guru Baba Ramdev in the promotion of ayurveda as 'national medicine' further widens a gap between the ideals of medical pluralism and the hegemony of ayurveda. This study aims to examine the relations between nationalist discourses and the biopolitics of medical pluralism in North India, through the focus on small-scale practitioners of state-mandated ayurveda, unani, homeopathy, and other AYUSH systems. By combining extensive ethnographic fieldwork and linguistic analysis of nationalist discourses, it will examine how various doctors and their patients understand, experience, and respond to a state policy on medical
pluralism on the one hand, and hegemonic nationalistic articulations of ayurveda, on the other hand. In so doing, this research contributes to anthropological debates on pluralistic medicine, nationalist discourses, and biopower.
An, Linh My, U. of California, Los Angeles, CA - To aid research on 'Mental Illness among Chinese Immigrant Families in New York City,' supervised by Dr. Douglas Wood Hollan
LINH MY AN, then a student at the University of California, Los Angeles, California, was awarded a grant in May 2010, too aid research on 'Mental Illness among Chinese Immigrant Families in New York City,' supervised by Dr. Douglas Wood Hollan. This study investigated the responses to mental illness in Chinese immigrant families in New York City. More specifically, it examined how cultural notions of self, emotional experience, b