Adams, Mr. Justin W., Washington U., St. Louis, MO - To aid research on 'Taphonomic and Paleoecological Factors Influencing Hominid Incorporation at Gondolin and other South African Sites,' supervised by Dr. Glenn C. Conroy
Herries, Andy I.R., Justin W. Adams, Kevin L. Kuykendall, and John Shaw. 2006. Speleology and Magnetobiostratigraphic Chronology of the GD 2 Locality of the Gondolin Hominin-Bearing Paleocave Deposits, North West Province, South Africa. Journal of Human Evolution 51(6):617-631.
O'Neill, Kevin Lewis, Stanford U., Stanford, CA - To aid research on 'Producing Christian Citizenship: Evangelical Mega-Churches in Postwar Guatemala City,' supervised by Dr. James Ferguson
KEVIN LEWIS O'NEILL, then a student at Stanford University, Stanford, California, received funding in April 2006 to aid research on 'Producing Christian Citizenship: Evangelical Mega-Churches in Postwar Guatemala City,' supervised by Dr. James Ferguson. Democracy and neo-Pentecostal Christianity are expanding worldwide. From 1972 to 1996, the number of electoral democracies jumped from 52 to 118, while from 1970 to 1997, the number of nondenominational Christians rose from 185 million to 645 million. Postwar Guatemala City offered a dramatic example of where these two developments have become entangled. Guatemala's slow transition from military rule to a formal democracy has coincided with the rapid evangelization of a once overwhelmingly Roman Catholic population. Over 90 percent Roman Catholic in the 1980s, Guatemala City is now an estimated 60 percent Pentecostal and charismatic Christian. While anthropologists have tended to keep the study of democracy and evangelical Christianity separate, this project explores their cultural coincidence and complex relationship through an ethnographic study of 'Christian citizenship.' The central question is: How do neo-Pentecostals in Guatemala City use their religion to produce different forms of Christian citizenship in an ethnically diverse, class-divided, and democratizing urban context? The primary field site is a prominent neo-Pentecostal mega-church in Guatemala City.
O'Neill, Kevin Lewis. 2010. I Want More of You: The Politicsw of Christian Eroticism in Postwar Guatemala.Comparative Studies in Society and History 52(1):131-156.
O'Neill, Kevin Lewis. 2012. There is No More Room: Cemeteries, Personhood, and Bare Death. Ethnography 13(4):510-530.
Di Nunzio, Marco, U. of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom - To aid research on 'Ethiopian Good Fellas: Unemployment, the Politics and Imagination of Addis Ababa's Youth,' supervised by Dr. David Pratten
MARCO DI NUNZIO, then a student at the University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom, was awarded funding in May 2010, to aid research on 'Ethiopian Good Fellas: Unemployment, the Politics and Imagination of Addis Ababa's Youth,' supervised by Dr. David Pratten. This research is an examination of the impact that the strategies of political mobilization of the ruling party, the Ethiopian People's Revolutionary Front (EPRDF), have had on the life of street youth over the last six years in the old city center of Addis Ababa (Ethiopia). By looking at the political success of the ruling party in the 2010 national elections from the perspective of the street youth, this study provides new insights into the way in which the state power produces marginality in urban Ethiopia. The design of micro-credit schemes and the establishment of cooperatives and small enterprises comprised the means that the ruling party employed to successfully mobilize 'street unemployed youth.' This process, however, did not consist of taking the urban youth away from the street. Rather, it relied on keeping the 'street actors' in the street while making them dependent on the government for their own survival. By studying these dynamics, this research argues that the making of marginality in Ethiopia consists of the emergence of a political delimitation of terrains of actions for the poor. In these terrains, street actors -- while continuing to struggle to make a living -- navigate and reproduce their condition of political subjects, and at the same time experience the margins and the limits of their social exclusion.
Starkweather, Katherine Elizabeth, U. of Missouri, Columbia, MO - To aid research on 'Merchant Mothers and Fisherman Fathers: Subsistence Work and Parental Investment among the Boat-dwelling Shodhagor,' supervised by Dr. Mary K. Shenk
Preliminary abstract: The nomadic Shodhagor live on small wooden boats, migrating through the rivers of rural Bangladesh while fishing and trading with the settled agricultural populations surrounding them. While they have much in common with other small-scale nomadic populations, they are highly unusual in the degree of variability in women's subsistence and parenting practices. In fact, women's strategies appear to vary more than men's, a pattern that has not been documented previously in groups of their size (i.e. Marlowe 2007; Hames 1988; Hewlett 1992; Winking et al 2011). This project will document and explain the variation in Shodhagor men's and women's subsistence and parenting practices by collecting detailed data using a mixed methods approach. Specifically, the project investigate how and why subsistence and parenting vary among the Shodhagor, as well as the outcomes of this variation. This research will make important contributions to optimal foraging theory and parental investment theory, and will contribute to the broader anthropological literature on small-scale, nomadic societies, subsistence, parenting, and South Asia.
Hu, Di, U. of California, Berkeley, CA - To aid research on 'Daily Life, Domestic Labor Organization, and Identity at the Textile Workshop Community of Pomacocha, Peru,' supervised by Dr. Christine Ann Hastorf
DI HU, then a student at University of California, Berkeley, California, received funding in October 2010 to aid research on 'Daily Life, Domestic Labor Organization, and Identity at the Textile Workshop Community of Pomacocha, Peru,' supervised by Dr. Christine A. Hastorf. Through a historical and archaeological investigation of a Late Horizon 'mitimae' (Inka retainer) site and a major Spanish colonial era 'obraje' (textile workshop) in Pomacocha, this project asks whether there was a decline in the importance of Inka and pre-Inka forms of identification and social cohesion. To trace the relationship between imposed forms of labor organization and domestic (i.e. non-imposed) forms of labor organization from the Inka through the Spanish colonial eras, excavations were carried out in three sectors of the Pomacocha: the mitimae settlement, the obraje, and the historic residential area. Preliminary analysis of organization of domestic space, archival, ceramic, faunal, lithic, and botanical data suggests that there was more spatial prescription of domestic tasks through time. This suggests that the extreme division of labor of the obraje may have influenced the organization of domestic space in the historic-period community. Increasing spatial prescription of domestic tasks continues to the present day and may have accelerated after the overthrow of the obraje turned hacienda in 1962. While Inka and pre-Inka period forms of identification and social cohesion may have declined in the colonial and post-colonial period, other social divisions organized around labor and class became more salient in the community.
Monroe, Cara Rachelle, U. of Californa, Santa Barbara, CA - To aid research on 'Ancient Human DNA Analysis from CA-SCL-38 Burials: Correlating Biological Relationships, Mortuary Behavior, and Social Inequality,' supervised by Dr. Michael Jochim
Preliminary abstract: Archaeological, ethnographic, and linguistic evidence from the Central Coast and San Francisco Bay area of California suggest a complex culture history of dynamic regional interactions and migration, as well as the emergence of varying degrees of permanent social stratification. The predominately Late Period (1000--Contact YBP) earth/shellmound cemetery site of CA-SCL-38 ('Yukisma') located in the Santa Clara Valley of California suggests that the site was spatially structured according to not just age and sex, but also through a dual moiety system and elite status. Using an ancient DNA (aDNA) approach, this project will test for correlations between the genetic relatedness of individuals, grave goods, and burial patterns. This will provide a direct examination of prehistoric mortuary practices and the emergence/maintenance of social inequality.
Cohen, Adrienne Jordan, Yale U., New Haven, CT - To aid research on 'Postsocialist Movement: Performance, Political Economy and Transmigration between Guinea and France,' supervised by Dr. Michael McGovern
ADRIENNE COHEN, then a student at Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut, received a grant in 2012 to aid research on 'Postsocialist Movement: Performance, Political Economy and Transmigration between Guinea and the United States,' supervised by Dr. Michael McGovern. This study addresses the connection between expressive culture and political-economic change in Guinea, West Africa. In Guinea, Sékou Touré's socialist state (1958-84) subsidized the modernization of dance and percussion in the service of nationalist politics. When socialism ended with Touré's death, the new regime under Lansana Conté drastically reduced government arts patronage. Performing artists, abandoned by the state, formed private troupes and began to emigrate in the 1990s. This project engages two generations of dancers and percussionists from Guinea: one trained during the socialist period, and the other trained after 1984. It explores how socialist concerns and themes are both sustained and contested in the present, and how performing arts illuminate changing notions of personhood in Guinea today. In Conakry, emerging expressive forms are the subject of heated intergenerational debates concerning the ethical and political principles embodied in performance. By studying Guinean performance repertoires and their attendant debates, this project assesses the work of expressive culture in negotiating and articulating socialist legacies within a postsocialist world order.
Schuster, Caroline Elizabeth, U. of Chicago, Chicago, IL - To aid research on 'Making Good Money: Microcredit, Commercial Financing, and Social Regulation in Paraguay's Tri-Border Area,' supervised by Dr. John Comaroff
CAROLINE ELIZABETH SCHUSTER, then a student at the University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois, was awarded funding in October 2009, to aid research on 'Making Good Money: Microcredit, Commercial Financing, and Social Regulation in Paraguay's Tri-Border Area,' supervised by Dr. John Comaroff. This ethnographic dissertation research examines the challenges and possibilities of 'Living on Credit' in Ciudad del Este, a booming commercial center on Paraguay's triple-frontier with Argentina and Brazil. Paraguay's economic landscape is configured by extreme poverty and economic inequality as well as extensive economic liberalization. Microcredit-based development projects-small group-based loans collateralized through joint liability-sit at the intersection of free-market orthodoxies and social concerns for poverty and financial exclusion: twin tendencies that mark the contours of Ciudad del Este's commercial economy. The research finds that, even in a minimally regulated free trade zone, economic relationships are highly regulated in social practice through the exigencies of development aid, the logics and accountabilities of financial instruments, ideologies of gender and women's economic participation, and the economic priorities of people enmeshed in a dense web of obligations and redistributive networks. Through eighteen months of fieldwork at a Paraguayan microcredit non-government organization (2009-2010), the grantee tracked the cultural forms and theories of value that anchor the accounting practices and financial instruments of microfinance. The research highlights the fundamental dilemma of banking on social relationships while constantly managing and containing the unstable 'social unit' that threatens to exceed the narrow terms of the loan.
Harper, Kristin Nicole, Emory U., Atlanta, GA - To aid research on 'The Origin of Syphilis and the Evolution of the Treponema Pallidum Subspecies: A Phylogenetic Approach,' supervised by Dr. George John Armelagos
KRISTIN N. HARPER, then a student at Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia, received funding in April 2006 to aid research on 'The Origin of Syphilis and the Evolution of the T. pallidum Subspecies: A Phylogenetic Approach,' supervised by Dr. George Armelagos. Comparative genetics was used to examine the long-standing question of where and when syphilis originated. Did Christopher Columbus and his men bring syphilis from the New World to the Old, as believed for five hundred years? Or did syphilis always exist in the Old World, only to be differentiated from other diseases such as leprosy around the time of the first recorded epidemic of the disease, in Naples in 1495? Strains of the bacterium that causes syphilis, as well as those that cause the related but non-venereal diseases yaws and bejel, were gathered from around the world. Various locations around the genome were analyzed, and the sequences were used to build a phylogenetic, or family, tree of the bacteria. The results were used to demonstrate that syphilis arose most recently in human history and that its closest relatives were yaws strains gathered from South America. This evidence, combined with paleopathological studies, provides compelling evidence for the Columbian hypothesis for syphilis's origin. In addition, genes that have undergone strong positive selection, consistent with an important role specific to syphilis strains, were identified.
Margaretten, Emily J., Yale U., New Haven, CT - To aid research on 'South African Street Youth and their Participation in Urban Street Shelters,' supervised by Dr. Eric W. Worby
EMILY MARGARETTEN, while a student at Yale University, was awarded funding in January 2005 to complete her dissertation research on 'South African Street Youth and their Participation in Informal Shelters,' as supervised by Dr. Eric Worby. Through her investigations of informal street shelters, the grantee examined the ways in which groups of street youth in Durban, South Africa, came together to mitigate the daily hardships of urban poverty. The research supported by Wenner-Gren focused on a group of youth inhabiting a condemned apartment complex in the city center of Durban., South Africa. Up to 130 youth between the ages of 14 and 29 made use of this building for a variety of purposes: to be near income-generating practices; to escape the impoverishment of their homes; to participate in the excitement of urban life; and finally, but not least of all, to create and maintain a set of social relations that have both the material and symbolic makings of kinship (re)production. Using anthropological field methods of participant- observation, informal conversations, and recorded interviews, the grantee's project investigated the ways in which a marginalized group of youth deployed notions of fictive kin to create reciprocal ties of obligation and responsibility. Through mutual claims of kinship, these youth not only created opportunities for their everyday survival but also managed to forge some semblance of collective order and personal belonging. This research contributes to broader anthropological studies that account for urban youth identities as well as subjective imaginings of kinship, household formation, and domestic organization.
Margaretten, Emily. 2009. Street Life under a Roof. Anthropology and Humanism 34(2):163-178.