Hebert, Karen, U. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI - To aid research on 'Reworking Regimes of Value: Fishery Restructuring and Globalization in Bristol Bay, Alaska,' supervised by Dr. Fernando Coronil
KAREN HEBERT, then a student at the University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michicagn, was awarded a grant in January 2004 to aid research on 'Reworking Regimes of Value: Fishery Restructuring and Globalization in Bristol Bay, Alaska,' supervised by Dr. Fernando Coronil. The ten months of dissertation research supported by the Wenner-Gren Foundation enabled the grantee to gather data crucial for considering the questions outlined in the proposed project, 'Reworking Regimes of Value: Fishery Restructuring and Globalization in Bristol Bay, Alaska.' The fieldwork grant allowed travel in and between sites of fishing practice and policy production in order to understand how a wide variety of industry participants construct and conceptualize fishery restructuring designs. The central research question asks how local regimes of value might serve to shape-rather than simply stymie-projects of globalization contained in salmon industry restructuring plans, particularly those involving corporate consolidation, labor downsizing, and resource privatization. As the proposal anticipated, the bulk of the research was conducted in and around Dillingham and Anchorage, Alaska, through extensive participant-observation -- including work in numerous fishing operations and regular attendance at key regulatory meetings -- as well as interviews of fishers, processing workers and managers, fisheries analysts, and politicians. Findings to date indicate that historically dense notions of fisher independence play a significant role in shaping current policy.
McInnis, Heather E., U. of Oregon, Eugene, OR - To aid research on 'Middle Holocene Culture and Climate on the South Coast of Peru: Archaeological Investigations of the Pampa Colorado,' supervised by Dr. Madonna L. Moss
HEATHER E. McINNIS, while a student at the University of Oregon in Eugene, Oregon, received funding in November 2001 to aid research on economic specialization and the transition to sedentism among the creators of coastal Archaic shell middens in southern Peru, under the supervision of Dr. Madonna L. Moss. A survey of twenty-five square kilometers of the Pampa Colorada coastal desert plain, one of the few regions in the south-central Andes to have yielded a Middle Holocene date (5490 B.P.), was designed to identify and evaluate regional changes in settlement and subsistence economies and in the abundance and availability of natural resources in the area. Test excavations in twenty-three of one hundred documented sites provided evidence of occupation from 9000 to 3000 B.P. Settlement patterns and artifact and faunal assemblages revealed changes in socioeconomic strategies from intensive seasonal fishing and foraging during the Early Holocene to more diversified, marine-based subsistence economies by the late Archaic period. Increasingly hyperarid conditions in the south-central Andes from 8000 to 5000 B.P. and the onset of El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) events by 5000 B.P. may have prompted coastal fishers to settle seasonally at the juncture of multiple ecozones. These settlement and subsistence adjustments may have provided a basis for the development of sedentary fishing communities by the Late Holocene. Ethnographic interviews with Peruvian fishermen working in coastal zones close to the Pampa Colorada supplemented these data and provided a basis for modeling the development of resource specialization among coastal foragers.
Sawyer, Kelley Paulette, U. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM - To aid research on 'Philadelphia's Story: Gay Tourism and Shifting Citizenry in the Nation's 'Freedom Capital',' supervised by Dr. Louise Lamphere
Preliminary abstract: In 2003, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania -- arguably one of the most symbolically rich sites of American history and national mythology -- launched a state-supported gay tourism campaign entitled 'Get Your History Straight and Your Nightlife Gay.' With the initiation of this campaign, Philadelphia joined a handful of other North American and Western European cities that had recently begun to court gay and lesbian tourists, and to re-envision themselves as diverse, cosmopolitan, and 'gay-friendly' destinations. Philadelphia's utilization of canonized national history in order to render itself 'America's freedom capital' and 'the city that has embraced 'Gay-Friendly' as its credo' for this campaign suggests that in this context, questions of 'difference,' inclusion, and nation are mediated through the market. When contextualized within the new millennium, a time marked by urgent reconsolidations of U.S. nation and citizenship, this campaign emerges as a timely site for investigating the types of 'diversity' that are currently desirable and undesirable for inclusion within the nation, the city, and particular neighborhoods. This project seeks to trace the deployments of 'difference' and appeals to inclusion in the context of Philadelphia, paying most attention to the interface between the discursive appeals of its tourism campaign and the perceptions, experiences, and networks of individuals who live, work, relax in, and visit the urban spaces it advertises, such as Philadelphia's 'Gayborhood.' I propose to conduct an ethnographic study of Philadelphia's gay tourism campaign, in which I ask how residents, campaign visionaries, business owners, tourism employees, and visitors interpret and interact with the campaign's discursive promises and how they conceptualize 'their people.'
Green, Daniel Russell, Harvard U., Cambridge, MA - To aid research on 'Experimental Reconstruction of Seasonal Rainfall for Paleoclimate Research,' supervised by Dr. Tanya Smith
Preliminary abstract: The origin and evolution of our unique human biology and culture are of great interest to anthropologists. Recent influential studies invoke changes in seasonal rainfall and resource availability to explain novel human behaviors over the last five million years. These theories are difficult to test because of the challenges associated with accurately reconstructing paleoenvironments. This project addresses this difficulty by developing a method for seasonal rainfall assessment using cutting-edge x-ray imaging and fine-scaled chemical sampling of sheep teeth. Mammalian teeth contain a record of seasonal change because the oxygen isotope chemistry of water, which fluctuates seasonally, becomes embedded in forming enamel over time. However this information cannot be accurately quantified while we lack a comprehensive understanding of the timing and patterning of elemental incorporation during tooth mineralization. In this project, I will build a quantitative tooth mineralization model from synchrotron x-ray imaging of known-aged growing sheep molars, which will be informed by an experimental physiology study, crucial for reconstructing seasonality. I will then test our ability to infer past seasonality by measuring oxygen isotopes across the teeth of sheep subject to an experimental water switch. Both the empirical model and its refinement with experimental animals will contribute a powerful tool for the study of past climates. This new method may eventually be applied to fossil teeth from African herbivores living alongside early hominins. The results of this research will be of particular significance for climate reconstruction worldwide, and will aid our understanding of the evolution of our own species and its unique behaviors.
Lombard, Louisa Nicolaysen, Duke U., Durham, NC - To aid research on 'Raiding Sovereignty in Central African Borderlands,' supervised by Dr. Charles D. Piot
LOUISA NICOLAYSEN LOMBARD, then a student at Duke University, Durham, North Carolina, received funding in May 2009, to aid research on 'Raiding Sovereignty in Central African Borderlands,' supervised by Dr. Charles D. Piot. This project focuses on raiding and sovereignty in the northeastern borderlands of the Central African Republic (CAR), on the margins of Darfur. A number of overlapping forces, institutions, and interests patrol and regulate the area, but none maintains total sovereignty. Newly arrived NGOs and UN agencies collaborate with local leaders, but among these internationally supported enclaves, logics of raiding rule. This place has long produced bounty for militarized entrepreneurs and raiders from neighboring areas, who seek resources, land, and labor. But while seizing resources, raiders also govern space and people. These repeated external raids have shaped internal power and knowledge formations throughout CAR's history. Today, raiding in CAR ties into global trade networks, and bumps up against, though also feeds off, transnational conflict prevention and humanitarian regimes. Theories of the state tend to sideline raiders' roles, and the categories used by international agencies do not address them either. Through participant observation, interviews, and archival analysis, this research tracks the multiple forms of governance that operate in this borderland area and their implications for conceptions of sovereignty, the state, and international law. It will also contribute to interdisciplinary debates about conflict and its prevention.
Bernatchez, Jocelyn Anna, Arizona State U., Tempe, AZ - To aid research on 'The Role of Ochre in the Development of Modern Human Behavior: A Case Study from South Africa,' supervised by Dr. Curtis W. Marean
JOCELYN A. BERNATCHEZ, then a student at Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona, received a grant in October 2010 to aid research on 'The Role of Ochre in the Development of Modern Human Behavior: A Case Study from South Africa,' supervised by Dr. Curtis W. Marean. The presence of ochre in Middle Stone Age (MSA ~250-40ka) sites in southern Africa is often proposed as evidence for symbolism and early modern human behavior. However, there is significant debate about the uses of ochre in the past and whether symbolism is the most appropriate explanation for its presence in these sites. This project focused on the following research question: Within the MSA sites at Pinnacle Point, South Africa, is ochre evidence for symbolic behavior, or were more utilitarian activities involving ochre taking place? Several aspects of the record were studied to test these questions, including geological survey and sourcing attempts of archaeological samples. The acquisition of ochre is typically a highly ritualized activity for recent hunter-gatherer groups when compared to the exploitation of other non-symbolically loaded raw materials (such as stone). An exploitation pattern focusing primarily on distant sources rather than closer sources or a pattern focused on a few deposits when many are available may be suggestive of some symbolic meaning. Twenty-four ochre sources were identified. Using Particle Induced X-Ray Emission (PIXE), it was possible to identify a possible preference for the ochre at one source located approximately 19km from Pinnacle Point.
Rein, Thomas Robert, New York U., New York, NY - To aid research on 'Locomotor Function and Phylogeny: Implications for Interpreting Extinct Hominoid Morphology,' supervised by Dr. Terry Harrison
THOMAS REIN, then a student at New York University, New York, received funding in May 2009 to aid in research on 'Locomotor Function and Phylogeny: Implications for Interpreting Extinct Hominoid Morphology,' supervised by Dr. Terry Harrison. This project examined the degree to which different forelimb skeletal traits correspond with locomotor function and the degree to which evolutionary relationships between species constrains this correspondence. Those traits that were found to most strongly relate to locomotion were used to infer locomotor behavior from fossilized remains of extinct species. Fieldwork was conducted over two months in Nairobi, Kenya, and Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, to collect measurements on two extinct primate species with unique combinations of forelimb traits. The forelimb bones of an early Miocene precursor to apes and humans, Proconsul heseloni, were measured at the National Museums of Kenya. The forelimb anatomy of an early member of the human lineage, Australopithecus afarensis, was investigated at the National Museum of Ethiopia. Predictive models based on the correspondence between forelimb anatomy and locomotor behavior were applied to a refined assessment of the locomotor repertoire of Proconsul heseloni and Australopithecus afarensis.
Froehle, Andrew William, U. of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA - To aid research on 'Physical Activity and Basal Metabolic Rate in Postmenopausal Women,' supervised by Dr. Margaret J. Schoeninger
ANDREW WILLIAM FROEHLE, then a student at University of California - San Diego, La Jolla, California, received a grant in October 2007 to aid research on 'Physical Activity and Basal Metabolic Rate in postmenopausal Women,' supervised by Dr. Margaret J. Schoeninger. The project investigated the relationship between age, exercise and basal metabolic rate (BMR) in postmenopausal women, comparing two subgroups: 'active' (>5 hours exercise/week) and 'training' (sedentary at baseline, completed four-month exercise program). Across the entire sample, BMR correlated significantly with fat free mass (FFM; P<0.001, R=0.862) and physical activity level (PAL; P=0.004, R=0.542), but not with age or maximal aerobic capacity (VO2MAX). At baseline, subgroups differed significantly for BMR (P=0.005) and VO2MAX (P=0.006); active women were also 4.9 kg heavier (FFM) than sedentary women (not significant: P=0.077). Within the active group, no variables changed significantly over the study period. Meanwhile, the training sample exhibited significant increases over baseline in VO2MAX (P=0.015) and BMR (P=0.002), despite no change in FFM (P=0.952). Controlling for effects of the covariate FFM, subgroups differed significantly for BMR at baseline (P=0.007), but not at the end of the study (P=0.089). Results suggest that in this population, both short- and long-term exercise associate similarly with elevations in BMR above sedentary levels. Contrary to some research, this may not be tied to increased FFM. These results have implications for preventative exercise prescription against age-related health risks, and will help refine models of metabolic physiology in active postmenopausal women.
Froehle, Andrew W., S.R. Hopkins, L Natarajan, and M.J. Schoeninger. 2013. Moderate to High Levels of Exercise are Associated with Higher Resting Energy Expenditure in Community-dwelling Postmenopausal Women. Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism 38(11):1147-1153.
Whitten, Margarete Jean, City U. of New York, Graduate Center, New York, NY - To aid research on 'Decentralizing Compassion: Biomedical Politics of Ethics and Life in US Community Health,' supervised by Dr. Dana Ain Davis
Preliminary abstract: The Affordable Care Act is predicted to spur a decentralization of hospitals in the United States, stimulating the growth of localized community health centers and services to accommodate 32 million formerly uninsured people. In the absence of universal health care, how is the responsibility to care for vulnerable populations directed and organized? How has the connection between structural inequality and suffering in vulnerable populations been elided and reconstrued as incidental, blameless and random? How does an ethical commitment to compassion undermine or support the 'right' to access care? My research will address these questions by studying the work of community health nurses in Massachusetts, the state that has served as the model for national reform, to map expanding and increasingly localized networks of care that explicitly target vulnerable populations. I will investigate (1) how the increasing authority, autonomy, and scope of practice of community health nurses enable them to redefine the administration and justification of care; and (2) how nurses use new health information technologies to legitimize an expanded notion of care and to redefine their obligations and responsibilities as care providers. I will collect data through a combination of participant observation in three community health sites, an analysis of bureaucratic document production in the use of health information technologies and materials, and oral history with nurses who have worked in multiple clinical paradigms through generations of reform. I hypothesize that increasing the influence of community health nurses will enable an activation of professional caring ethics to reimagine the role of medicine to shape the quality of life of vulnerable populations in an unstable neoliberal moment.