Markkula, Johanna Sofia Kristina, Stanford U., Stanford, CA - To aid research on 'Navigators of the Social Ocean: Filipino Seafarers and Coastguards in the Global Maritime World,' supervised by Dr. Liisa Malkki
Preliminary abstract: My research is a study of the maritime world and the people who occupy it as workers. Through ethnographic fieldwork with Filipino seafarers on international merchant ships, with coastguards in the Philippines involved in the South China Sea conflict, and with the actors and institutions that make up the global maritime world, this project takes the sea seriously as a social, political and legal space that is of great importance to our contemporary society, yet paradoxically seems to exist outside of it. I will explore how the sea as a social and political space influences the everyday lives of maritime workers in specific ways and also how these maritime workers shape and reproduce global processes through their everyday practices of labor and social relations. Finally, I will also map out the complex system of capitalist strategies, legal logics and regulatory forces of states and institutions that make up the global maritime world and articulate in complex ways with the life-worlds of its workers. By engaging critically with theories of globalization, global governance, territoriality and sovereignty, my research will show how such abstract concepts and processes exist in the concrete as 'work' carried out by people such as seafarers and coastguards.
Brada, Betsey B., U. of Chicago, Chicago, IL - To aid research on 'A State of Well-Being: Citizenship, Security, and Botswana's National AIDS Treatment Programs,' supervised by Dr. Jean Comaroff
BETSEY B. BRADA, then a student at University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois, received funding in April 2005 to aid research on 'A State of Well-Being: Citizenship, Security, and Botswana's National AIDS Treatment Programs,' supervised by Dr. Jean Comaroff. This project uses Botswana's national AIDS treatment programs as a lens to interrogate the ways the provision of antiretroviral (ARV) medications via public-private partnerships is transforming socio-political relations. While citizenship certainly informs a politics of exclusion with regard to HIV treatment, the questions of entitlement, belonging, and value production that guide this research are far more complicated. Treatment, medical education, and clinical research are fundamentally interrelated: treatment is bound up with the production of medical expertise, and clinical research is viewed as necessary both to the production of expertise and to the improvement of clinical care. First, processes of knowledge production are inextricably entwined in HIV treatment in degree and manner seldom recognized. Second, HIV treatment in Botswana has become a key site for the production and contestation of medical expertise within and beyond Botswana. Medical training has thus become a way of interrogating what 'modern' medicine should be in Botswana, who should provide it, and what circumstances it requires. Third, HIV treatment programming in Botswana possesses the capacity to overflow its boundaries. At stake is the question of the degree to which HIV treatment demands an intervention into Tswana 'culture,' rather than merely into bodies, in order to succeed.
Rowe, Elizabeth Jane, Temple U., Philadelphia, PA - To aid research on 'The Role of the Progesterone Receptor in the Menstrual Cycle,' supervised by Dr. L. Christie Rockwell
ELIZABETH JANE ROWE, then a student at Temple University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, was awarded a grant in May 2008, to aid research on 'The Role of the Progesterone Receptor in the Menstrual Cycle,' supervised by Dr. L. Christie Rockwell. Much of the work in Physical Anthropology related to variation in women's reproductive function has been heavily focused on evolutionary models to explain the responsiveness of ovarian steroid production to ecological conditions. Underlying functionally significant, genetic variation that also likely impacts reproductive phenotypes has seldom been investigated. This project addressed this problem by investigating the impact of a common, functionally significant variant of the progesterone receptor gene on uterine function and the menstrual cycle among women in the Philadelphia area. Women who carried the variant differed from women who did not with regard to menstrual cycle characteristics. Furthermore, the variant was found to modify the impact of life history and ecological variables on both uterine function and the menstrual cycle. These findings indicate that genetic variation should be considered in future models for women's reproduction in Physical Anthropology. Additionally, uterine function and menstrual cycle characteristics did not reflect ovarian hormone levels, but instead were significantly predicted by ecological variables that indicated energetic status. These findings, coupled with results of other work, indicate that the uterus responds directly to environmental cues, and therefore suggest that it plays an active role in the maternal decision to commit resources to gestation.
Glaser, Alana Lee, Northwestern U., Evanston, IL - To aid research on 'Francophone African Women's Domestic Labor: Migration, Workplace Politics, and Cross-ethnic Alliances in New York,' supervised by Dr. Micaela di Leonardo
ALANA LEE GLASER, then a student at Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois, received funding in May 2010 to aid research on 'Francophone African Women's Domestic Labor: Migration, Workplace Politics, and Cross-Ethnic Alliances in New York,' supervised by Dr. Micaela de Leonardo. Building on political-economic and feminist scholarship on the positioning of migrant domestic labor in the contemporary global neoliberal era, this dissertation research provides an ethnographic study of the routine and often invisible labor market participation of West African women in New York City's low-income service and caregiving sectors in positions such as childcare, home healthcare, and hair braiding. It simultaneously attends to the New York City domestic worker movement at a critical moment in its history, as New York State passed the Domestic Worker Bill of Rights, the nation's first-ever legislation granting basic workplace protection to home-based workers. The findings are based on more than two years of deep immersion participant-observation in New York and short-term research trips alongside interlocutors to Mali and Senegal, as well as in-depth, institutional ethnography within labor, activist, cultural, and religious organizations throughout New York City. Drawing upon roughly 100 oral history interviews, this ethnography demonstrates the ways in which domestic work both constrains and empowers women workers, while exigencies of migration status, poverty, racism, and gender oppression complicate both their daily lives and activist inclinations.
Younie, Angela Marie, Texas A&M U., College Station, TX - To aid research on 'Microblades, Bifaces, and the Chindadn Complex: Reinvestigating Healy Lake through New Discoveries at Linda's Point', supervised by Dr. Ted Goebel
ANGELA M. YOUNIE, then a graduate student at Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas, received funding in April 2012 to aid research on 'Microblades, Bifaces, and the Chindadn Complex: Reinvestigating Healy Lake through New Discoveries at Linda's Point,' supervised by Dr. Ted Goebel. Funding assisted research in Fairbanks, Alaska, over the winter of 2012-2013 on archaeological materials housed at the Tanana Chiefs Conference and the University of Alaska's Museum of the North. The Village site was excavated in the 1960s and 1970s, while excavations are ongoing at Linda's Point; both sites are located on the shores of Healy Lake in the Tanana River Valley of central Alaska and show similarities in environmental, geological, and cultural context dating back to early human occupation in the region. The research addresses the nature of this 13,000 year sequence of occupation, human adaptations to late Pleistocene environments, and the meaning of geographic and chronological patterning in microblade and biface technologies. Specific research goals are to clarify and build upon the results of early studies at Healy Lake Village, which have been contested but also widely referenced in archaeological study. More broadly, this research contributes to an understanding of the initial migration of humans into the Americas, and of human cultural and technological responses to challenging and fluctuating environments.
Lee, Sarah E., U. of Georgia, Athens, GA - To aid research on 'Nutritional and Health Consequences of Children's Self-Provisioning Activity in Xalapa, Mexico,' supervised by Dr. Alexandra A. Brewis
SARAH E. LEE, then a student at the University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia, received funding in September 2003 to aid research on 'Nutritional and Health Consequences of Children's Self-Provisioning Activity in Xalapa, Mexico,' supervised by Dr. Alexandra A. Brewis. This dissertation explores how children's own provisioning activities might influence their well-being under conditions of extreme urban poverty. The immediate purpose of this study was to determine whether self-provisioning children had a measurably different nutrition and health status than children living under the same circumstances who do not engage in provisioning activities (such as working, begging or foraging for food). This dissertation research was conducted in ten neighborhoods in the shantytowns surrounding the city of Xalapa, Veracruz, Mexico from October 2003 until December 2004. The researcher collected a sample size of 95 children between the ages of 8 and 12 who lived with their families. Six different data sets were collected, including 95 household interviews, 285 separate interviews concerning children's time allocation, diet, and illness. The researcher conducted 1425 hours of observation (fifteen hours per child), which provides very rich and accurate data concerning the time allocation and dietary habits of provisioning and non-provisioning children. On-going analysis indicates that the data will support the research question. There does seem to be an age and gender dimension in provisioning actives. Children shared their resources with their siblings, which is a benefit to the siblings, but also shared resources within peer groups. Children who engage in provisioning activities do seem at least marginally healthier, and some are taller than their counterparts who do not engage in provisioning activities. It is likely that the final analysis will show that children who work, beg, or forage for food, will have benefited from their activities.
Banahan, Joan Patricia, U. of Toronto, Toronto, Canada - To aid research on 'Small Site Archaeology: Complex Hunter-Gatherer Settlement, Mobility, and Resource Production,' supervised by Dr. Gary Graham Coupland
JOAN PATRICIA BANAHAN, then a student at University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, received funding in April 2006 to aid research on 'Small Site Archaeology: Complex Hunter-Gatherer Settlement, Mobility, and Resource Production,' supervised by Dr. Gary G. Coupland. This doctoral study investigates how pre-Contact hunter-gatherers on the northern coast of British Columbia developed and maintained social hierarchies. Funding supported several tasks: site mapping and test excavations; identification and quantification of vertebrate and invertebrate remains; and radiocarbon dating of camp sites in Prince Rupert Harbor. This region is part of the traditional territories of the Coast Tsimshian First Nations. Archaeological remains from camp sites are used to understand patterns of mobility, resource production, and household organization in Prince Rupert Harbor. The distribution of mammals, fish, birds, and shellfish indicate the harvest of local resource patches from fall through summer by household labor. Shellfish were a very significant resource and were bulk processed at camp sites. Traditionally, shellfish were traded and used in feasts by the Tsimshian. Access and control of shellfish beds may have been an important factor in concepts of resource ownership. Radiocarbon dating has produced the earliest know site in the region, dated to between 7,700 and 6,650 years ago. Radiocarbon dates also indicate a long-term, intensive shellfish economy established by at least 7000 years ago. By this time people were exploiting resources on outer islands using open water boats for logistical movement of people, gear and resources.
Prendergast, Mary Elizabeth, Harvard U., Cambridge, MA - To aid research on 'Forager Variability on the Eve of Food Production: Kansyore Subsistence Strategies in Kenya and Tanzania,' supervised by Dr. Richard Henry Meadow
MARY E. PRENDERGAST, then a student at Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts, was awarded a grant in April 2006 to aid research on 'Forager Variability on the Eve of Food Production: Kansyore Subsistence Strategies in Kenya and Tanzania,' supervised by Dr. Richard Henry Meadow. This research involved excavation and/or analysis of seven archaeological sites in western Kenya and northern Tanzania, dated to 8,000-1,200 years ago. The common link between these sites, despite spanning a large geographic area and nearly seven millennia, is that they contain a pottery tradition called Kansyore. Kansyore ceramics have been postulated by others to be associated with 'delayed-return' hunter-gatherers, who should have differed markedly from 'immediate-return' hunter-gatherers known from modern ethnographies. The primary research goal was to test this hypothesis by using animal bone remains to understand diet. The surprising results show that, while the occupants of Kansyore sites in western Kenya were indeed specialized (and probably moderately delayed-return) fisher-hunters, they were also the first to adopt herding in this area. This contradicts assumptions that new ceramic traditions and domestic animals entered the region together. The northern Tanzanian sites produced a more complex picture, in which hunter-gatherers and herders appear to have lived side-by-side ca. 2000-1200 BP, using the hill and lakeshore landscapes differently. At two of these sites, ceramic traditions usually linked to herders are found associated with the remains of wild animals, suggesting that we must decouple conventional associations between material culture and economy.
Fiol, Stefan P., U. of Illinois, Urbana, IL - To aid research on 'The Politics of Performance and Place among Pahari Musicians in Uttaranchal,' supervised by Dr. Charles Capwell
STEFAN P. FIOL, then a student at University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois, received funding in October 2004 to aid research on 'The Politics of Performance and Place among Pahari Musicians in Uttaranchal,' supervised by Dr. Charles Capwell. The dissertation research carried out in Uttaranchal, North India, from November 2004 through September 2005 focused on the formation of a regional music industry, and the influence this has on local musical practices. The nature of my subject matter led me to explore different kinds of contexts in which music is produced, distributed, and consumed, thus necessitating a multi-sited research methodology. I traced the paths of musical consumption, distribution, and production through various villages, hill towns, and plains cities, exploring the historical and social processes through which the regional music of Uttaranchal (Garhwal and Kumaon) becomes codified and reinterpreted by various actors. I hope that this dissertation will be of use to scholars, policy-makers, and artists interested in understanding how commercialization transforms the landscape of musical life in the conext of this newly-formed hill state.
Fiol, Stefan. 2010. Dual Framing: Locating Authenticities in the Music Vide3os of Himalayan Possession Rituals. Ethnomusicology 54(1):28-53.
Walls, Matthew Daniel, U. of Toronto, Toronto, Canada - To aid research on 'Frozen Landscapes, Fluid Technologies: Inuit Kayak Hunting and the Perception of the Environment in Greenland,' supervised by Dr. Max Friesen
MATTHEW DANIEL WALLS, then a student at the University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada, was awarded funding in April 2011, to aid research on 'Frozen Landscapes, Fluid Technologies: Inuit Kayak Hunting and the Perception of the Environment in Greenland,' supervised by Dr. Max Friesen. This project explores how technologies can characterize the manner through which people experience and come to perceive their environment. The fieldwork is an ethnoarchaeological project in Greenland where the skills of seal-skin kayak hunting are practiced as a means of engaging Inuit heritage. Kayaks are a technology that involves a high degree of developed ability; hunting involves special types of physical fitness, technical ability, social relationships, and requires extensive environmental knowledge. Modern kayakers assert that the physical process of building kayaks and becoming skilled in their use is educative of intangible cultural heritage, which cannot be acquired through any other means than practice. Through a combination of participant observation and interviews, this project documents how the process of learning kayak hunting is a unique way of encountering a complex environment. It takes many years of training to participate in hunting, and enskilment develops special types of embodied knowledge that can only be refined through a type of learning that is kinaesthetically situated. Hunters must be able to intuitively work as a team, recognize and react instantly to sub