Martinez Abadias, Neus, U. de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain - To aid research on 'Quantitative Genetics of Craniofacial Traits: A Functional Approach to Heritability, 'supervised by Dr. Miguel Hernandez Martinez
NEUS MARTINEZ ABADIAS, then a student at Universidad de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain was awarded a grant in May 2004 to aid research on 'Quantitative Genetics of Craniofacial Traits: A Functional Approach to Heritability, 'supervised by Dr. Miguel Hernandez Martinez. The research undertaken consisted in the recording of craniometric and demographical data from the Hallstatt population (Austria). The evidence collected will allow the heritability estimation of both morphological and life-history traits. Hallstatt's skull collection contains more than 400 skulls falling into pedigrees. Genealogies have been reconstructed thanks to Catholic Church records based on baptisms, marriages and deaths from the seventeenth century to present. Craniometric data has been recorded by means of 3D geometric morphometric techniques. The final depurated database contains 353 individuals represented by 58 osteological landmarks. Taking into account the morphological integrated nature of the human skull, functional and developmental modules have been identified. Size and multivariate shape heritabilities upon these structures will be computed following an animal model and by applying restricted maximum likelihood methods (REML). The REML analysis incorporates multigenerational information from unbalanced datasets and provides estimates of the additive genetic variance, and the variance of the residual errors, from which the narrow heritability can be estimated. Fitness traits heritability will be computed following the same procedure, and will be compared to the morphometric ones. This will raise interesting discussion regarding phenotypic selection, heritability, genetic constraints, and trade-offs of both kinds of traits for the human species.
Martinez-Abadías, Neus, Rolando González-José, Antonion González-Martín, et al. 2006. Phenotypic Evolutionof Human Craniofacial Morphology after Admixture: A Geometric Morphometrics Approach. American Journal of Physical
Martinez Abadias, Neus. 2009. Heritability of Human Cranial Dimensions: Comparing the Evolvability of
Different Cranial Regions. Journal of Anatomy 214:19-35.
Martinez Abadias, Neus. 2009. Developmental and Genetic Constraints on Neurocranial Globularity: Insights
from Analyses of Deformed Skulls and Quantitative Genetics. Evolutionary Biology 36:37-56.
Brinkworth, Jessica F., City U. of New York - Graduate Center, New York, NY - To aid research on 'The Evolution of the Human Immune System: Landscape Specific Pathogen Exposure and Human AIDS,' supervised by Dr. Ekaterina Pechenkina
JESSICA F. BRINKWORTH, then a student at City University of New York Graduate Center, New York, New York, was awarded funding in May 2008 to aid research on 'The Evolution of the Human Immune System: Landscape Specific Pathogen Exposure and Human AIDS,' supervised by Dr. Ekaterina Pechenkina. To better understand human origins and the evolution of the human immunity this study examined the role of pathogens, encountered as hominin landscape use and diet departed from apes, in the evolution of human lineage. Specifically this project examines the functional divergence of innate immune cell receptors, Toll-like receptors (TLRs), to explain the disparate immune responses of humans and other catarrhines to infectious pathogens, including immunodeficiency viruses. Through whole blood ex vivo experiments, this study assessed differences in human, chimpanzee, and baboon TLR2-mediated response to pathogens specific to hominin evolutionary environments. Preliminary results indicate that human immune function has strongly diverged from chimpanzees and baboons over the last 23-29 million years. Despite sharing a 98.6% genomic identity with chimpanzees, humans show dampened immune responses to all tested pathogens. Humans and baboons express very different innate immune responses to TLR2-detected pathogens with which they are assumed to share a long history on African grasslands. Analysis is ongoing, but suggests that: 1) human, chimpanzee, and baboon TLR function has diverged; and 2) the divergence of human innate immunity cannot be explained solely on the basis of geographical environment and pathogen exposure, but may be the outcome of more complex evolutionary interactions.
Brinkworth, Jessica. 2012. Innate Immune Responses to TLRS and TLR4 Agonists Differ between Baboons, Chimpanzees and Humans. Journal of Medical Primatology 41(6): 388-393.
Saavedra Espinosa, Mariana, Cornell U., Ithaca, NY - To aid research on '(Re)producing Successful Succession: Colombia's Family Business Project,' supervised by Dr. Annelise Riles
Preliminary abstract: In the last ten years Colombia has witnessed a trend among business owners and experts which, contrary to economic and business orthodoxy, considers family businesses to have advantages over other kinds of enterprises. Through generalized attention to the subject by a wide array of actors, and most significantly with the appearance of an industry of specialized family-business consultants, family firms seem to have made the transition from problem to solution in the Colombian entrepreneurial imagination. The solutions offered by this new form of expertise provide a means to rationalize the family that sustain bonds between families and firms while not entering into contradiction with broader dominant values of competition. The purpose of this project is to explore the methods, ideas and technologies involved in this shift in the status of family businesses. I ask: How are different actors reconfiguring 'family business' as a viable and successful economic formation thus constituting and legitimating particular forms of social reproduction? Through ethnographic methods I will engage with members of Colombia's entrepreneurial elite who are currently hiring the services of consultants, to inquire into the manner in which they are striving to reinvent themselves to maintain their status in the context of a liberalizing economy. More specifically, the project attends to these processes as reimaginations of family businesses, elites, and corporations and through considering their articulation to ideas of success and functionality, seeks to offer an account of their interrelated and contextual constitution.
Goldberg, Harmony, City U. of New York, Graduate Center, New York, NY - To aid research on 'The Making of the Service Working Classes: Multi-National Worker Organizing in New York's Low-Wage Service Industries,' supervised by Dr. Leith Mullings
HARMONY GOLDBERG, then a student at the City University of New York Graduate Center, New York, New York, was awarded a grant in October 2010 to aid research on 'The Making of the Service Working Classes: Multi-National Worker Organizing in New York's Low-Wage Service Industries,' supervised by Dr. Leith Mullings. The grantee conducted a twelve-month ethnographic study of the work of Domestic Workers United (DWU), a grassroots organization of Caribbean and Latina nannies, housecleaners, and elderly care providers in New York City. In 2010, Domestic Workers United won a historic legislative victory in New York State, which ended the longstanding exclusion of domestic workers from labor rights and employment protections. However, the highly decentralized, informal, and privatized nature of the domestic work industry made it difficult to enforce these new-won rights in a substantive way. This study followed DWU's work in the year after the Bill of Rights victory, tracing the organizing methodologies that the organization developed in order to enforce these new-won rights and to win more substantive gains in the lives of domestic workers in New York City. Challenging the historic assertion that the domestic work industry is 'unorganizable,' this study will suggest that not only is it possible to effectively organize domestic workers but that the political methodologies that they are developing suggest the directions in which the broader workers movement in the United States needs to transform if it is to remain relevant to contemporary workers.
Zhao, Jianhua, U. of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA - To aid research on 'Fashioning Change: The Political Economy of Clothing in Contemporary China,' supervised by Dr. Nicole Constable
JIANHUA ZHAO, then a student at the University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, was awarded funding in December 2003 to aid research on 'Fashioning Change: The Political Economy of Clothing in Contemporary China,' supervised by Dr. Nicole Constable. This project combined interpretive anthropology and political economy to examine the changes in Chinese clothing fashions and their social and cultural meanings, and the influence of local and global processes on China's clothing and apparel industry since the post-Mao economic reforms began in 1978. During the field research, the researcher gathered historical data in order to show the changes in clothing fashions and China's textile and apparel industries. By working with fashion professionals, including designers, executives, and journalists, the researcher also collected ethnographic data to illustrate the relationship between clothing and the state in China, to explicate how the Chinese clothing system works as a cultural system, and to elucidate the interconnectedness between the global and local processes in the production and consumption of clothing and fashion. This study contributes to an ethnographic understanding of clothing, to the study of the social and cultural impact of the economic reforms in post-Mao China, to the wider study of post-socialist societies in which the reconfiguration of the state and society articulates in the production and consumption of fashion and clothing, and to the anthropological critiques of 'globalization' as a simple and unidirectional economic process of 'westernization,' cultural imperialism, or cultural homogenization.
Levitt, Emily Katherine, Cornell U., Ithaca, NY -To aid research on 'Changing the Tax Base Changes Everything: The Fiscal Dimensions of Citizenship and Sovereignty in Upstate New York,' supervised by Dr. Paul Nadasdy
Preliminary abstract: In Seneca Falls, NY, the Cayuga nation is buying property and refusing to pay the associated taxes, thereby attempting to establish a reservation. Many residents of Seneca Falls are organizing in opposition to this move and the associated loss to the municipal tax base. This project examines the financial and non-financial stakes of the struggle from the perspectives of the different players involved. I ask: what understandings of political and economic life are embedded in these controversies surrounding the changes posed to the tax base? Through studying both Cayuga and non-Cayuga discourses about the role of taxes and revenue, this project examines the ways in which these heated debates reflect and constitute different ideas of what citizenship and sovereignty entail. This research will open new space for anthropological enquiry through its focus on taxation's relationship to citizenship and sovereignty, through its synchronic approach to a group of politically highly varied research subjects, and through bridging the traditionally discrete domains of Native American and other North American anthropologies. Through drawing anthropological attention to these contestations about the fiscal dimensions of citizenship and taxation, this project will further academic understanding of a variety of important aspects of American political debates.
Basarudin, Azzarina, U. of California, Los Angeles, CA - To aid research on 'Recreating Communities of the Faithful?: Negotiating Gender, Religion, and Feminism in Egypt and Malaysia,' supervised by Dr. Sondra Hale
Rabie, Kareem Mohamed, City U. of New York, Graduate Center, New York, NY - To aid research on 'An Occupied Economy: Development, the Private Sector, Statelessness, and State Formation in the West Bank,' supervised by Dr. Neil Smith
KAREEM MOHAMED RABIE, then a student at the City University of New York, Graduate Center, New York, New York, was awarded a grant in October 2009, to aid research on 'An Occupied Economy: Development, the Private Sector, Statelessness, and State Formation in the West Bank,' supervised by Dr. Neil Smith. This project examines the current push for privatization and state-building in the West Bank as articulated within one of the region's marquee mega-developments-the creation of Rawabi, a new city north of Ramallah. Through ethnographic research among developers, representatives of financial capital, PA bureaucrats, ordinary Palestinians, and Israelis opposing Rawabi's development, the project analyzes the material processes and affective qualities of the state-building project for Palestinians. That state-building project explicitly imagines a Palestine tied to global markets as a way to minimize the structural effects of the Israeli occupation of the West Bank. Palestinian class aspiration and desire for normalcy and stability contributes to success and consensus around the state-building project.
Fleming, Luke O., U. of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA - To aid research on 'Linguistic Exogamy and Ethnonationalism among Urban Indigenous Immigrants in Northwest Amazonia,' supervised by Dr. Greg P. Urban
LUKE FLEMING, then a student at University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, received funding in May 2005 to aid research on 'Linguistic Exogamy and Ethnonationalism among Urban Indigenous Immigrants in Northwest Amazonia,' supervised by Dr. Greg P. Urban. Classical anthropological theory -- from Morgan and Malinowski onwards -- has understood kinship as the organization center of small-scale societies. While kinship sometimes serves metaphorically as a means of conceptualizing 'modern' social identities and relations, it is rarely seen as the dominant institution underpinning them. On the contrary, modernity seems to eschew kinship -- which orders society through face-to-face relations of alliance and descent -- and instead embraces symbolically mediated, often anonymous, processes of group formation. This research project takes a very well studied pattern of exogamy characteristic of the Northwest Amazon and documents the manner through which the migration of indigenous peoples transposed this pattern onto an urban locale, where state and non-state institutions impinge upon ties of kinship, creating competing valorizations of personhood and modes of belonging in social groups. The study maps out the manner in which forms of indigenous personhood come to be decoupled from relations of kinship through: 1.) educational, governmental, and religious institutions; 2.) culture-contact interactions between non-indigenous Brazilians and indigenous peoples; 3.) different indigenous groups brought into contact through migration; 4.) relations between the genders refashioned through urbanization; and 5.) the changing relations between young and old.
Watson, Matthew Clay, U. of Florida, Gainesville, FL - To aid research on 'Assembling History: The Public Production and Dispersion of Maya Hieroglyphic Knowledges,' supervised by Dr. Susan Gillespie
MATTHEW CLAY WATSON, then a student at University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, was awarded a grant in May 2007 to aid research on 'Assembling History: The Public Production and Dispersion of Maya Hieroglyphic Knowledges,' supervised by Dr. Susan Gillespie. This dissertation investigates the formation of an ethic of collaboration among participants in Maya hieroglyphic decipherment. Through anthropology of science methodologies, the project explores how differentially interested workshop participants in Palenque (Mexico), Austin (Texas), and Antigua (Guatemala) collectively crafted representations of the ancient Maya. Funding enabled travel for interviews with Maya experts, Pan-Maya linguist-activists, and amateur epigraphers, as well as photographic documentation of letters that evidence collaboration. Analysis focuses on two processes: how social and material practices of witnessing and replicating decipherment in laboratory-like workshops created a shared imagining of ancient Maya life; and how the shifting form of media including drawings, letters, newsletters, and workbooks shapes the content of decipherments and sense of certainty that leads scholars to argue that they grasp the literal meanings of ancient Maya inscriptions. Through workshops and inscription practices, scholars' and lay participants' interests have embedded in Maya hieroglyphic studies' interpretations. These interests affect Maya cultural politics in Latin America, where historical narrative shapes the politics of populations racially marked by a colonial history. Ultimately, the project argues for the relevance of anthropology of science methodologies in tracing how Latin American historical narratives become publicly acknowledged as accurate accounts of the past.
Watson, Matthew C. 2012. Staged Discovery and the Politics of Maya Hieroglyphic Things. American Anthropology 114(2):282-296.