Rosecan, Stephen M., U. of Chicago, Chicago, IL - To aid research on 'Choctaws in the Workforce: Development, Hegemony, and Conjunctural History in East-Central Mississippi, ' supervised by Dr. Raymond D. Fogelson
STEPHEN ROSECAN, while a student at the University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois, was awarded a grant in June 2001 to aid research on 'Choctaws in the Workforce: Development, Hegemony, and Conjunctural History in East-Central Mississippi,' supervised by Dr. Raymond D. Fogelson. In recent years, the Mississippi Band of Choctaw Indians has become nationally recognized for its economic development initiatives. In my research, I sought to gain a better understanding of some of the local issues that have arisen from the Choctaws' economic development projects. Rather than finding (as commonly depicted) a homogeneous group that quietly assents to the tribal government's actions, I found a steady undercurrent of dissent among segments of tribal members. Most people did not question the legitimacy of the work practices that are constitutive of development; however, many had concerns over the proper means of distributing the jobs, revenue, and resources provided by the development projects. Development was not so much discussed as a set of productive practices but rather as a set of relationships among people. The struggle for many on the reservation was to establish a generally accepted, equitable, and legitimate way of distributing the products of development among tribal members.
Goodwin, Marc Andrew, U. of California, Berkeley, CA - To aid research on 'A Comparative Ethnographic Inquiry into Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in the United States,' supervised by Dr. Lawrence Marc Cohen
MARC A. GOODWIN, then a student at University of California, Berkeley, California, was awarded a grant in April 2008 to aid research on 'A Comparative Ethnographic Inquiry into Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in the United States,' supervised by Dr. Lawrence Cohen. This project provides an ethnographic analysis of the diagnosis and treatment of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in the United States. Fieldwork was carried out over a period of 13 months (July 2008 to August 2009) with children with ADHD and their parents as well as doctors, teachers, and school administrators in the San Francisco Bay Area. In particular the project sought to trace the specific pathways of diagnosis and treatment for children with ADHD. In doing so the project gave ethnographic attention to many of the problems raised in the fields of education, public health, and public policy. For example, what explains the racial disparities for the treatment of ADHD, what social and cultural factors (broadly defined) help explain these disparities, and how do children first get introduced into the diagnostic and treatment apparatus of ADHD? The project combines this in-depth multi-sited ethnography -- consisting of interviews and participant observation -- with a close symptomatic reading of the medical and parenting literature on hyperactivity to explore how ADHD as a complex technology links together in its operation the domains of school, home, and clinic in the post-welfare United States.
Williamson, Kathryn E., Rice U., Houston, TX - To aid research on 'Instituting Care: Reproductive Health Governance and the Ethics of Humanizing Birth in Brazil,' supervised by Dr. Eugenia Georges
Preliminary abstract: This project focuses on the Brazilian state's ongoing attempts to dramatically transform maternity care in the national health system. Spurred by persistently high maternal mortality as well as decades of feminist activism to demedicalize birth, President Dilma Rousseff has launched Rede Cegonha as her flagship women's health program. Rede Cegonha synthesizes the science of best practices and a humanistic ethics of care to effect what is known as the 'humanization' of birth: a shift toward low-intervention, respectful care in pregnancy, labor, and delivery. Fundamentally, humanization exhorts multiple actors not only to change technical practices in birth, but also to cultivate themselves as caring subjects. The program's implementation follows participatory models of governance that have become a hallmark of post-authoritarian Brazil. Salvador, Bahia, the major site of my research, has historically failed to sustain such models and exhibits extreme health inequities associated with poverty and racial discrimination. Nonetheless, the city has now been nationally recognized as an exemplar of the successful implementation of Rede Cegonha. Through participant observation, interviews, surveys, and archival research across five key sites for the program, I will develop an ethnographic understanding of how the large-scale ethical project of humanization is incited, enacted and experienced by government officials, healthcare professionals, and women and their families. Drawing together anthropological conversations around reproduction, state bureaucracies and policy, and ethics and morality, I aim to generate a theoretical framework for the articulations of statecraft and the new ethics and practices of maternity care taking shape in contemporary Brazil.
Lessing, Shana Abigail, City U. of New York, Graduate Center, New York, NY - To aid research on ''In Service of Those Who Serve: Psychologists, Ethics, and the Care of Soldiers,' supervised by Dr. Vincent Crapanzano
SHANA A. LESSING, then a graduate student at City University of New York Graduate Center, New York, New York, was awarded a grant in October 2011 to aid research on 'In the Service of Those Who Serve: Psychologists, Ethics, and the Care of Soldiers,' supervised by Dr. Vincent Crapanzano. This research addressed intersections of militarism and professional ethics, through an ethnographic study of clinical psychologists in the US military. Aiming to extend understandings of 'professional ethics' beyond codified norms and guidelines, this project explored how practitioners themselves navigate potentially conflicting roles and expectations, and interpret ethical uncertainties entailed in treating, diagnosing, and producing authoritative knowledge about patients who are also 'comrades' of both lower and higher rank. The grantee conducted semi-structured interviews with active-duty, reserve, and retired military psychologists, ethnographic research at an army behavioral health clinic, and investigation of military psychology's professional cultures, disciplinary histories, ethical discourses, and clinical paradigms. The research suggested that the ethical contours of military psychologists' day-to-day practice are not easily reducible to competing sets of 'military' versus 'clinical' obligations or values; as practitioners' engagements with their work were continually reconfigured in relation to both ongoing public scrutiny and shifting institutional settings and conditions, this study highlighted the ways in which professional-ethical questions, commitments, and imperatives are mediated by personal experience, public expectations, and clinical and non-clinical relationships.
Bidner, Laura R., Arizona State U., Tempe, AZ - To aid research on 'Predator-Prey Interactions Between Leopards and Chacma Baboons in South Africa,' supervised by Dr. Leanne T. Nash
LAURA R. BIDNER, then a student at Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona, received funding in November 2005 to aid research on 'Predator-Prey Interactions between Leopards and Chacma Baboons in South Africa,' supervised by Dr. Leanne T. Nash. It is widely held that predation risk is a driving force of primate behavior and ecology which has affected primate evolution for millions of years. The fact that very little research has been conducted on predation risk faced by natural populations of primates led to the focus of this dissertation project on spatial and temporal aspects of predation risk in the classic predator-prey pair of leopards and baboons. Research for this project involved monitoring a troop of chacma baboons and the leopards present within the troop's home range at Loskop Dam Nature Reserve in South Africa. During daily follows of the baboon study troop data was collected on the troop's location, group spread, and habitat types used as well as on individual behavior. Two female leopards were fitted with radiotelemetry collars and monitored during daily follows of the study troop. The main goal of the project was to determine if baboons detect areas of higher predation risk, or those areas in which leopards are present. Although analysis of field data has not yet been completed, it appears that the baboon troop did detect and actively avoid areas that were under intense use by resident leopards at any given time.
Powell, Dana Elizabeth, U. of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC - To aid research on 'Alternative Power: The Cultural Politics of Development on the Navajo Nation,' supervised by Dr. Dorothy C. Holland
DANA E. POWELL, then a student at University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, was awarded funding in May 2007 to aid research on 'Alternative Power: The Cultural Politics of Development on the Navajo Nation,' supervised by Dr. Dorothy C. Holland. This grant supported more than a year of ethnographic research focusing on energy development debates on the Navajo Nation and the broader networks of which it is a part. Contrasting a proposal for a large-scale coal plant with proposals for wind and solar power, this project calls into question claims of 'alternative' energy and the different visions of independence such claims engage. While long-standing extractive industries and newer 'green' technologies on the Nation pose different modes of economic development and engage a diverse range of advocates -- from regional environmental activists, to tribal leaders, to energy entrepreneurs, to financial investors -- the cultural politics of energy development remains contested and embodied in the everyday lives of tribal members. With over one-third of the reservation's homes lacking electricity and an enduring resistance movement to fossil fuel industry among tribal members and regional allies, the question of power is intimate and urgent. The production of power is thus a polyvalent trope for understanding parallels and intersections between generating electricity and strengthening self-governance. Broadly, the research findings suggest that energy development debates create a space of political action, knowledge negotiation, and subject formation.
Francis, Michael, U. of Natal, Durban, South Africa - To aid research 'On the Borders of the Zulu Nation: Multiple Identities among Zulu of San Ancestry,' supervised by Dr. Keyan Tomaselli
MICHAEL FRANCIS, then a student at the University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, South Africa, received funding in 2004 to aid ethnographic research into the people of the Drakensberg Mountains of South Africa that trace Zulu and San/Bushmen ancestry, supervised by Dr. Keyan Tomaselli. Francis found that as these people attempt to reclaim rights lost through colonization, assimilation, and Apartheid, they are creating new rituals and attaching new significance to rock art sites. He also found that the contemporary ethnography of the Drakensberg peoples can aid interpretations of the rock art and also challenges established hegemonies of interpretation. The research also challenges the ethnic/cultural distinctions that are assumed to be salient between peoples of South Africa and adds to the 'Kalahari debate' by questioning notions of an either or situation of assimilation or subordination. The ethnohistorical record indicates a much more complex web of relations existed historically than is related in the dominant academic discourses. The extent to which these people will be recognized as aboriginal remains to be seen, and currently they are creating social and political links with San organizations with the hopes of future gains and political recognition of their rights and identity.
Van Hoose, Matthew Joseph, Indiana U., Bloomington, IN - To aid research on 'Becoming Tropical: The Improbable Social Life of Cumbia Music In Uruguay,' supervised by Dr. John H. McDowell
MATTHEW J. VAN HOOSE, then a student at Indiana University, Bloomington, Indiana, received a grant in October 2008 to aid research on 'Becoming Tropical: The Improbable Social Life of Cumbia Music In Uruguay,' supervised by Dr. John H. McDowell. At first blush, musical genres like cumbia and plena seem nothing if not 'out of place' in Uruguay, where dominant national imaginings have consistently stressed a sense of exceptionalism vis-à-vis the social, economic, and political realities of the rest of Latin America. This project sought to elucidate the local social work performed by these intensely transnational musical genres from the 1950s to the present. Archival research and life history interviews revealed that in the course of its decades-long history in Uruguay, 'tropical music,' while consistently marginalized and derided by the cultural mainstream, ceased to be understood as exclusively a copy of Caribbean expressive practices and came to stand for increasingly local types of alterity. The ethnographic component of this research, which documented a variety of 'scenes' in tropical music's contemporary social life, elucidated the highly fluid ways in which Uruguayans understand and deploy tropical music as a marker of social difference. In particular, this data revealed how understandings and enactments of tropical music's significance in Uruguay are influenced by linguistic choices (e.g. the use of particular second-person address forms or 'misspellings' involving the letter 'k') and by material technologies of circulation (from vinyl records to cellular phones).
Kim, Dohye, U. of Illinois, Urbana, IL - To aid research on ''I am a Half Retiree, but Soon to be Pure': South Korean Retiree Migration to the Philippines,' supervised by Dr. Nancy Abelmann
Preliminary abstract: I propose to conduct an ethnography of early retirement. My study focuses on the journeys of South Korean retirees to the Philippines necessitated by South Korea's lack of national and corporate welfare and opened by the Filipino authorities' promotion of retiree migration. Most South Korean retirees in the Philippines, now largely in their 50s and early 60s, forcibly left their jobs in the post-Asian financial crisis in the late 1990s and are too young and financially insecure to become, what they call 'pure retirees,' those who can stop working entirely. Thus, they have started small businesses in the Philippines, hoping that they will bring them sudden wealth, as was the case with so many in South Korea in the 1970s, thanks to loose regulation and widespread corruption. Rather than assuming retirement as a one-time life event, only applicable to those who have sufficient financial capacity (i.e., middle classes in advanced economies), my research questions how people with lack of national and corporate welfare in late-industrialized countries, such as South Korea struggle to achieve the goal of becoming retirees through new ideas of retirement in another country. In addition, I pay attention to South Korean retirees' nostalgic longing as a potential catalyst to cross the border, and the ways in which the Philippines is constructed as a hopeful site. Through the lens of 'retirement,' my research seeks to explore paradoxes integral to the process of flexible labor -- two seemingly different tendencies: promoting retiree migration while also making retirement a difficult, almost unattainable goal for people to achieve.
Apoh, Ray W., State U. of New York, Binghamton, NY - To aid 'The Akpinis and the Echoes of German and British Colonial Overrule: An Archaeological Investigation of Kpando, Ghana,' supervised by Dr. Ann Stahl
RAY WAZI APOH, then a student at Binghamton University, Binghamton, New York, received funding in April 2005 to research on 'The Akpinis and the Echoes of German and British Colonial Overrule: An Archaeological Investigation of Kpando, Ghana' under the supervision of Professor Ann Stahl. Multiple evidential sources were explored between June and December 2005 to document how practices of Kpando people (Akpinis), were impacted by precolonial and colonial political economic pressures as well as how colonial officials negotiated their daily living arrangements in district centers far from their colonial capital. The oral history, archival documents and ethnographic information revealed more about how Kpando-Abanu was first settled by two Akan-speaking groups in about the 16th century after which they were joined by the Ewe-speaking Akpini group, who migrated from Notsie in Togo to their present locality in the 17th century. In addition, the impact of slave raids at Kpando and their socio-economic relations with neighbors and the Asantes were also made evident in the accounts. Historical/archival data, corroborated by Akpini oral history, also revealed how the German (1886-1914) and later British (1914-1957) colonial regimes established a settlement at Kpando