Reynolds, Cerisa Renee, U. of Iowa, Iowa City, IA - To aid research on 'Faunal Use and Resource Pressure at the Origins of Agriculture in the Northern U.S. Southwest,' supervised by Dr. James Enloe
CERISA R. REYNOLDS, then a student at University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa, received a grant in April 2011 to aid research on 'Faunal Use and Resource Pressure at the Origins of Agriculture in the Northern U.S. Southwest,' supervised by Dr. James Enloe. In the northern U.S. Southwest, the Basketmaker II (BM II) period (1500 BC - AD 500) marks the entrance of corn-based agriculture into the region. As this system included no domesticated animals, most attention regarding the BM II diet has focused on the use of domesticated plant resources. Unfortunately, the economic importance of wild animals has been less systematically studied. In response to this imbalance, the faunal data from 31 BM II sites were collected and analyzed to investigate how different BM II communities utilized wild animal resources. The results generally suggest that sedentism and a lack of domesticated sources of protein during the BM II period resulted in the overharvesting of high-ranking wild fauna and a subsequent reliance upon smaller, lower-ranking fauna. When the results were correlated with both preexisting chronological data and six newly acquired radiocarbon dates, it becomes clear that the BM II diet did not systematically change over time, and there are no distinct 'early BM II diet' and 'late BM II diet' trends. Instead, most BM II communities were consistently stressed due to an early overuse of the region's large game. Furthermore, the BM II diet was also periodically impacted by drought and population packing.
Krokoszynski, Lukasz, U. of St. Andrews. St. Andrews, United Kingdom - To aid research on ''Capanahua Used to Live Here': Study of Intergenerational Relations in Western Amazonian Kinship,' supervised by Dr. Peter Gow
LUKASZ KROKOSZYNSKI, then a student at University of St. Andrews. St. Andrews, United Kingdom, was awarded funding in April 2011 to aid research on ''Capanahua Used to Live Here': Study of Intergenerational Relations in Western Amazonian Kinship,' supervised by Dr. Peter Gow. By focusing on understandings of intergenerational relations, the research was designed to explore possible human formulations of consanguinity, to test the anthropological theories on the Amazon by addressing an under-analyzed element of kinship, and to contribute to understanding social change. The fourteen-month fieldwork combined participant observation with qualitative inquiries. The most important research findings preliminarily demonstrate, first, the dynamic of owning/taking is at the heart of Capanahua sociality and has implications for understanding conception, intergenerational relations, and kinship generally. This invites a larger theoretical question of the applicability of the category of the gift for understanding the workings of an Amazonian society. Second, findings illustrate the notion of intransformability of the daily world, which also applies to kinship. At odds with Amazonian anthropology's recent discourse, this feature may provide an important input to thinking about region's kinship. Third, the study shows various factors contributing to the discourse of intergenerational discontinuity and directing a particular process of 'acculturation:' the idea of originality of ancestors; descent understood through the idiom of blood and owning coupled with the encouragement to separate from ascending generations; emotional strain of grieving provoking forgetting the deceased relatives; corresponding and encouraged ideas of the surrounding mestizo society, articulated in the idiom of 'development.'
Yount-Andre, Chelsie Jeannette, Northwestern U., Evanston, IL - To aid research on 'Giving, Taking, and Sharing: Reproducing Economic Moralities and Social Hierarchies in Transnational Senegal,' supervised by Dr. Caroline Bledsoe
Preliminary abstract: My proposed dissertation research asks how deepening inequalities in the wake of European economic crisis may be reshaping the ways Senegalese migrants in Paris socialize their children into economic moralities. Faced with the potential disintegration of their advantaged position in France, university-educated Senegalese provide a striking example of how transnational migrants reinforce class and education-based hierarchies in the transnational field as they cling to postcolonial privilege. Key to understanding how these migrants simultaneously maintain transnational socio-economic relations and invest in incorporation into their host country is examination of how they reproduce 'economic moralities,' normative sets of social expectations regarding material obligation and entitlement. Analysis of the ways migrants socialize children to competently manage multiple economic moralities according to context and participant framework, aligning themselves with some and distinguishing themselves from others, can provide insight into the ways migrants reproduce stratification in the transnational field. To examine emergent economic moralities, I will analyze daily exchanges of talk and food between caregivers and children through which appropriate means of giving, taking, and sharing are negotiated. I will set my investigation in Senegalese households in Paris, following family members back to Dakar over summer vacation to examine socialization in transnational movement. This study will contribute to anthropological literature on transnational migration by applying theory and methods from studies of language socialization to questions of how social values that guide economic practices are communicated and negotiated in everyday interactions in households.
Genz, Joseph H., U. of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, HI - To aid research on 'The Revival of Indigenous Navigation in the Marshall Islands,' supervised by Dr. Ben R. Finney
JOSEPH H. GENZ, then a student at University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, Hawaii, was awarded a grant in May 2005 to aid research on 'The Revival of Indigenous Navigation in the Marshall Islands,' supervised by Dr. Ben R. Finney. The research aimed to investigate indigenous navigation in the Marshall Islands. The Marshallese developed a system to detect land by sensing through sight and feel the way islands disrupt the patterning of ocean swells. One of the few remaining elders with navigational knowledge recently resolved to revive this dying art. A collaborative project developed among University of Hawaii anthropologists and oceanographers, Waan Ae/on in Maje/ ('Canoes of the Marshall Islands;' a canoe building and sailing revival project) and several elders to document indigenous navigational knowledge, study its physical oceanographic basis, revitalize traditional voyaging. The collaborative research provides a case study to understand how Pacific navigators answer the question, 'Where am I?' Contrary to other Pacific navigation traditions, the Marshallese find their way across the ocean by following distinctive oceanographic phenomena. They sense how the motion of the canoe is affected by wave reflection, refraction and diffraction.
Genz, Jospeh. 2011. Navigating the Revival of Voyaging in the Marshall Islands: Predicaments of Preservation and Possibilities of Collaboration. The Contemporary Pacific 22(1):1-34.
Genz, Joseph H., and Ben R. Finney. 2006. Preservation and Revitalization of Intangible Cultural Heritage: A Perspective from Cultural Anthropological Research on Indigenous Navigation in the Republic of the Marshal Islands. Micronesian Journal of the Humanities and Social Sciences 5(1&2):306-313.
Jones, Tristan Daniel, Rutgers U., New Brunswick, NJ - To aid research on 'Embodied Sovereignties: Indigenous Resistance and Tar Sands Development in Alberta, Canada,' supervised by Dr. Daniel Goldstein
Preliminary abstract: Alberta's oil or tar sands developments suggest tremendous wealth to some, and 'a slow industrial genocide' to others. Although a major driver of the Canadian economy, local Indigenous activists attribute changes in the health of the land to development-related pollution and contest further development on these grounds. Yet this conflict is about more than pollution: is is also understood by Indigenous activists an erosion of Indigenous sovereignty, which is claimed to exist prior to, and outside of, any North American political order. Thus, this conflict is about nebulous forms of sovereignty. In resistance to tar sands development, Indigenous activists draw upon traditional spiritual and subsistence practices as a form of political contestation - an assertion to an Indigenous sovereignty. I argue that these forms of traditional spiritual practice and land use are best understood through the lens of embodied practices. Thus, this research is a critical investigation into the ways Indigenous sovereignty is 'lived' through embodied practices in the arena of tar sands development. Through Indigenous methodologies, participant-observation, and critical analysis, this research is poised to enrich anthropological understandings of sovereignty as it is lived by Indigenous activists facing the potential disappearance of their communities and ways of life.
Wander, Katherine Susan, U. of Washington, Seattle, WA - To aid research on 'Immunocompetence and the Hygiene Hypothesis,' supervised by Dr. Bettina Shell-Duncan
KATHERINE S. WANDER, then a student at University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, received funding in October 2009 to aid research on 'Immunocompetence and the Hygiene Hypothesis,' supervised by Dr. Bettina Shell-Duncan. Extensive research in allergy epidemiology has demonstrated that early exposure to infectious agents is associated with lower risk of allergic disease. An evolutionary perspective suggests that such early exposure may affect not only pathological immune responses to allergens, but also healthy immune responses to pathogens as a developmental adaptation, tailoring immune responses to the local infectious disease ecology. To evaluate this hypothesis, this project evaluated associations between early life infectious disease exposure and: 1) allergic disease; and 2) delayed-type hypersensitivity to Candin (an immune response to pathogen antigen, indicating immunocompetence). Consistent with finding in the US and Europe, large family size was associated with lower risk of diagnosed allergic disease. Consistent with the hypothesized developmental adaptation in immune system development, large family size, hospitalization during infancy with an infectious disease, and BCG vaccination scar were positively associated with immunocompetence (delayed-type hypersensitivity to Candin). These results suggest that not only do early infections discourage the pathological immune responses that result in allergy, they also promote healthy immune responses to pathogens, reflecting adaptive plasticity in immune system development.
Fagioli, Monica, New School U., New York, NY - To aid research on 'From Failure to Resource: The Somali Diaspora and State-making in Somaliland and Puntland,' supervised by Dr. Janet Roitman
Preliminary abstract: Since the 1990s, international development agencies and governments have begun to describe migration and diaspora as resources for national development within their countries of origin. This project studies the convergence between diaspora and development in Somaliland and Puntland (north of Somalia) by exploring the effects of this shift in international development and local national policies, which draws on migration and diaspora networks as resources. I focus on a United Nations Development Program and International Organization of Migration (UNDP-IOM) project, 'Qualified Expatriate Somali Technical Support- Migration for development in Africa,â? or QUESTS-MIDA, to ask questions about the relationship between transnational migration and processes of state-building by looking at the participation of â??qualifiedâ? diasporas in their home country. This project studies the tensions between ideas and practices of transnational governance in contexts like Somalia, which international development agencies call â??post conflict societiesâ? or â??failed states.â? Instead of assuming a failure of the state in Somalia, this study asks if and how the state is actively being reconfigured in ways that involve a larger network of power relations besides and alongside state-building projects.
Noveck, Daniel B., U. of Chicago, Chicago, IL - To aid research on 'Musical Models of Ethnic Space: Raramuri Indian Fiddling in Chihuahua, Mexico,' supervised by Dr. Claudio Lomnitz
DANIEL B. NOVECK, while a student at the University of Chicago in Chicago, Illinois, received funding in June 2001 to aid research on musical models of ethnic space among Rarámuri Indians in Chihuahua, Mexico, under the supervision of Dr. Claudio Lomnitz. Noveck examined Rarámuri musical practice in the communities of Munerachi and Coyachique, in the area of Batopilas, Chihuahua, Mexico. He focused on the ways in which music articulated local and regional constructions of race, place, and ethnicity and found that music played a critical role in framing relations between local and regional idioms of difference. In local contexts, sound was a key medium for representing and experiencing social spaces. Musical forms also served as a kind of deictics, mapping a wider regional space through the opposition of Pascol music, associated with the western part of the Sierra Tarahumara, and matachines music, which was played more exclusively in the eastern high plateau. Gatherings at regional centers used the localizing semiotics of music to project ethnic groupings at a regional level. Identity at the local level was construed largely in racial terms, although the drug business, tourism, and the commodification and dissemination of indigenous culture as promoted by the state had led to a privileging of 'the ethnic' over the local vernacular of race. By attending fiestas in regional centers such as Sisoguichi and Guachochi, which united people from various parts of the sierra, Rarámuris developed a kind of 'collective symbolic value' with which they attempted to mitigate the effects of the racist domination they experienced at home in the sierra.
Ho, Conal G.Y., U. of California, Santa Cruz, CA - To aid research on 'Negotiating Cultural and National Belonging: Chinese Expatriacy in Ghana, ' supervised by Dr. Daniel T. Linger
CONAL G.Y. HO, then a student at University of California, Santa Cruz, California, received a grant in January 2004 to aid research on 'Negotiating Cultural and National Belonging: Chinese Expatriacy in Ghana,' supervised by Dr. Daniel T. Linger. This dissertation seeks to answer why, for the Chinese in Ghana, the future does not lie in Ghana. Given their extended transitory state in Ghana, it also investigates what their senses of home, community, and belonging are and how these are produced. It has been assumed that a sense of stability is needed to find one's place in the world -- that a sense of being grounded is important to locate oneself. This dissertation examines that assumption through a case study of the Chinese in Ghana. It pays attention to the relationship the Chinese have to their idea that Ghana is a transitory point for them. Despite this sense, contradictory feelings about home in Ghana are expressed. Sometimes Ghana is grudgingly accepted as home, and other times accepted with openness. Feelings about community are, too. They express wariness towards the wider networks of Chinese in Ghana, including their closer networks of friends. It is viewed that information about each other is often misused, misrepresented, or invented. Yet, making use of each other for information and resources is often practiced. In order to make sense of why their future is not in Ghana for the Chinese this dissertation then examines their worldview and morality.
Ho, Conal Guan-Yow. 2008. The 'Doing' and 'Undoing' of Community: Chinese Networks in Ghana. Journal of Current Chinese Affairs - China aktuell 37(3):45-76