Cutright, Robyn E., U. of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA - To aid research on 'Cuisine and Empire: A Domestic View of Chimu Expansion from the Jequetepeque Valley, Peru, 'supervised by Dr. Marc P. Bermann
ROBYN E. CUTRIGHT,then a student at University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, was awarded a grant in May 2005 to aid research on 'Cuisine and Empire: A Domestic View of Chimu Expansion from the Jequetepeque Valley, Peru,' supervised by Dr. Marc P. Bermann. Archaeological field excavations were carried out at Pedregal, a Late Intermediate Period (AD 1000-1460) village in the Jequetepeque Valley, Peru. The excavations targeted the domestic occupation of the site in order to reconstruct the range of domestic activities at the site and identify the ways in which domestic and culinary practice may have shifted during the valley's conquest by the Chimú state in AD 1350. Materials recovered during excavation and examined during subsequent laboratory analysis suggest that the site's residents were heavily engaged in agricultural production, as well as animal husbandry, textile production, and the processing and preparation of food. Though the site's occupational sequence was more complex than originally believed, dramatic changes do not seem to have occurred during the Late Intermediate Period. Instead, continuity at the domestic level may have characterized the Chimú conquest of the valley.
Goldstein, Dr. Paul S., U. of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA - To aid research on 'Death in Diaspora: Mortuary Practice Variablity at the Tiwanaku Colony of Rio Muerto, Peru'
DR. PAUL S. GOLDSTEIN, University of California - San Diego, La Jolla, California, was awarded funding in November 2007 to aid research on 'Death in Diaspora: Mortuary Practice Variablity at the Tiwanaku Colony of Rio Muerto, Peru.' In 2008, the Rio Muerto Archaeological Project excavated an important sample of the Rio Muerto Tiwanaku culture site group in Moquegua, Peru. Analysis of finds and human remains is continuing following lab analysis in 2009. Patterned variability in mortuary practice evident between four spatially distinct cemeteries suggests that Tiwanaku colonists maintained a degree of social distinction between distinct groups. The Omo style affiliated M70B cemetery showed evidence of extensive cemetery ritual, and individual tombs were merged over time into a large rockpile suggesting community processes of extended commemoration and mourning. This differs from the common Chen Chen-style, Tiwanaku pattern of individual tomb offering evident in M43A, B, and C. Transculturation between the two subtraditions may be indicated by M43 A, with individual tombs but evidence of surface offerings and Omo-style ceramics. The 2008 household archaeology excavations in domestic areas of the site is elucidating economic activities and cultural affiliation in the Tiwanaku colony. Preliminary results suggest a highly diverse agro-pastoral economy, with imported and locally made materials of entirely Tiwanaku affiliation. Domestic features, tool assemblages and activity areas dedicated to cultivation, processing and storage of crops and animals and production of wool and cotton textiles.
Knudson, Kelly J., Paul S. Goldstein, Allisen Dahlstedt, A. Somerville, and M. J. Schoeninger. 2014. Paleomobility in the Tiwanaku Diaspora: Biogeochemical Analyses at Rio Muerto, Moquegua, Peru. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 155(3):405-421
Miotti, Dr. Laura L., Museo de La Plata, La Plata, Argentina - To aid conference on 'Early Man in America: A Hundred Years from the Ameghino-Hrdlicka Debate (1910-2010),' 2010, U. Nacional de La Plata, in collaboration with Dr. Monica Cira Salemme
Preliminary abstract: The International Symposium 'Early Man in America' was held in August 2002 for the first time in Mexico D.F. Since then the meeting was celebrated every two years in the same country and has gained a great interest among very well known researchers and specialists in the topic on Peopling of the Americas, from Mexico and other countries as well. Presentations and the visit to archaeological sites were great motivations for stimulating the discussion on this subject. This time, the Faculty of Natural Sciences and Museum of La Plata offers the possibility of a new edition of this event, this time celebrating 100 years of the debate about the antiquity of man in America between F. Ameghino and A. Hrdlicka. The aim is to seek in the history of these scientific ideas a framework for positioning the present state of knowledge --theoretical and methodological tendencies in different countries- and to know the academic and extra-academic impact that this topic has in the present complex, heterogeneous society, where the claim of material and intangible culture is increasing and, whereas the request of identity goes up in relationship with the remote past.
VanValkenburgh, Dr. Nathaniel Parker, Harvard U., Cambridge, MA - To aid research on 'Reducción and Policía: Spanish Colonial Forced Resettlement and Daily Praxis at Carrizales (Zaña Valley, Peru)'
DR. NATHANIEL VanVALKENBURGH, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts, was awarded funding in April 2012 to aid research on 'Reducción and Policía: Spanish Colonial Forced Resettlement and Daily Praxis at Carrizales (Zaña Valley, Peru)'. During this course of research, the grantee and collaborators examined the impacts of the Spanish colonial reducción movement on the daily lives of indigenous populations in Peru's lower Zaña valley. 'Reducción' was a wholesale attempt to refashion indigenous subjects by forcibly resettling them into gridded - planned towns and reassembling extended native households into nuclear family units. Through excavations at the sites of Carrizales (a reducción abandoned a few years after its foundation in 1572 CE) and Conjunto 125 (an adjacent late prehispanic site), the team household spatial organization and foodways, with the goal of understanding how reduccion's grand aims were articulated and contested within quotidian spaces. Following an excavation field season in 2012, laboratory research in 2013 concentrated on the analysis of zooarchaeological and archaeobotanical remains. Architectural comparisons revealed broad similarities in the organization of domestic space before and after reducción, even as settlement took on a radically different shape. Analysis of malacological and vertebrate assemblages demonstrated a drastic drop in marine species diversity between late prehispanic and early colonial times and a reorientation towards less time - intensive fishing and mollusk - gathering strategies. Across the same time period, terrestrial species presence and diversity increased markedly, and the residents of Carrizales intensified their production of products that tribute records indicate they owed their encomendero. Based on these results, the grantee and collaborators have secured additional funding and will continue to expand their results in future field sessions.
Smit, Douglas Karel, U. of Illinois, Chicago, IL - To aid research on 'Mining, Markets, and Commercialization: The Archaeology of Indigenous Labor in Colonial Peru,' supervised by Dr. Brian S. Bauer
Preliminary abstract: This project examines the commercialization of indigenous society at Huancavelica, the largest mercury mine in the Americas. Founded in 1564, Huancavelica was indispensable to the Colonial Spanish economy, since silver refining throughout Peru and Mexico required a constant source of mercury. Previous research has detailed Huancavelica's production levels, labor quotas, and the constant moral debates between colonial administrators over underground conditions so brutal that Huancavelica became known as 'La mina de la muerte' (the mine of death). However, since the indigenous laborers themselves left no written records, we know almost nothing of the people who directly produced this colonial wealth. Therefore, this study employs an interdisciplinary approach, combining excavation and compositional analyses of household material culture to examine the consequences of an increasingly commercialized colonial economy on the social organization of the indigenous laborers.
Martinez, Dr. Gustavo A., U. Nacional del Centro de la Provincia de Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires, Argentina - To aid 'Archaeological Research in the Lower Basin of the Colorado River (Pampas, Argentina)'
DR. GUSTAVO A. MARTINEZ, of the Universidad National del Centro de la Provincia de Buenos Aires in Buenos Aires, Argentina, was awarded funding in June 2001 to aid archaeological research in the lower basin of the Colorado River, Pampas, Argentina. Martínez studied the evolution of hunter-gatherer adaptation in a dry ecotonal environment between two main cultural regions, Patagonia and Pampa, focusing on subsistence, technology, mobility, and settlement systems. The sites investigated dated between 3000 and 500 B.P., and their users lived under arid to semiarid climatic conditions alternating with phases of landscape stability. Preliminary analysis revealed two patterns in the archaeological record. During the initial late Holocene occupation (ca. 3000-1300 B.P.), lithic assemblages were composed primarily of informal tools with little investment in production and design. This pattern might have resulted from a combination of local raw material availability (pebbles and sandstone) and a high mobility pattern. Ceramics were undecorated, and grinding tools were informal. Primary burials were associated with this occupation. In the final late Holocene occupation (ca. 1000-500 B.P.), the archaeological assemblages included a great diversity of stemmed and triangular projectile points, burins, formal milling stones, decorated pottery, grooved stone pendants, and ear and lip ornaments. Both primary and secondary burials were associated with these internally differentiated camps, suggesting a settlement pattern characterized by reoccupation, more intensive use of places, and decreased mobility. The evidence for the final late Holocene occupation coincided with extraregional models that support the idea of movements and contacts between people from northern Patagonia and southern Pampa.
Klaus, Haagen D., Ohio State U., Columbus, OH - To aid 'Consequences of Contact in the Andes: A Holistic Bioarchaeological Case Study of Colonial Peru, ' supervised by Dr. Clark S. Larsen
HAAGEN D. KLAUS, then a student at Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio, was awarded a grant in May 2005 to aid research on 'Consequences of Contact in the Andes: A Holistic Bioarchaeological Case Study of Colonial Peru,' supervised by Dr. Clark S. Larsen. Contact between Native Americans and Europeans beginning in 16th century AD represented the most complex and violent biological and cultural interchange in history. This research initiated the bioarchaeological study of Central Andean contact as the first empirical, dynamic, humanized, and contextualized study of Colonial Peru. With the excavation and analysis of human remains from the Colonial Chapel of San Pedro de Morrope, Lambayeque valley, north coast Peru, three hypotheses were tested: 1.) health of the indigenous Mochica peoples declined following contact; 2.) historically inferred postcontact depopulation resulted in significantly lowered Mochica genetic diversity; and 3.) the Mochica adopted Christian burial rites that replaced traditional rituals.
These hypotheses were tested via a broadly conceived and methodologically diverse approach, examining interlinked human skeletal and dental biological phenomena: demography, skeletal infection, developmental stress, physical activity, violent trauma, and inherited dental traits. Data were drawn from 1,142 individuals spanning the late pre-Hispanic and Colonial Lambayeque Valley (AD 900-1750). Reconstruction of burial practices and indigenous culture were based on corresponding archaeological documentation of mortuary patterns and ethnohistoric documents. Initial findings support the first two hypotheses, with unprecedented negative declines in childhood and adult health marked by elevated prevalence of periosteal infection, enamel hypoplasias, growth stunting, and degenerative joint disease. A dietary shift away from marine foods is indicated by decreased oral health and lowered prevalence of porotic hyperostosis lesions (linked to anemia caused by marine parasitism) as more starchy carbohydrates were consumed. Low variability of inherited dental traits likely reflects catastrophic postcontact depopulation. However, reproduction of precontact burial rituals indicates native culture was not exterminated. The Mochica remained an embodied, agency-driven group who forged their traditions with that of the colonizers into a hybrid Euro-Andean culture, encoding symbolisms expressing indigenous identity, social memory, and symbolic resistance. This first study of Colonial Peru contributes to in-depth perspectives of consequences of social conditions on human health, European colonization of the Americas, and social interpretation of mortuary rituals in revealing how a profound turning point global history indelibly impacted the peoples of the Andes.
Klaus, Haagan. 2008. Paleopathology during the Postcontact Adaptive Transition: A View from the Colonial North Coast of Peru. Paleopathology Newsletter(143):12-28.
Klaus, Haagen D., and Manuel E. Tam. 2009. Contact in the Andes: Bioarchaeology of Systemic Stress in Colonial Mórrope, Peru. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 138(3):356-368.
Klaus, Haagen D., Clark Spencer Larsen, and Manuel E. Tam. 2009 Economic Intensification and Degenerative Joint Disease: Life and Labor on the Postcontact North Coast of Peru. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 139(2):204-221.
Cuellar, Dr. Andrea Maria, U. of Lethbridge, Lethbridge, Canada - To aid research on 'Social Complexity in Eastern Ecuador: A Household and Community Perspective'
DR. ANDREA M. CUELLAR, University of Lethbridge, Lethbridge, Canada, was awarded a grant in April 2008 to aid research on 'Social Complexity in Eastern Ecuador: A Household and Community Perspective.' This project explored the nature of political centralization among the pre-Columbian Quijos chiefdoms through full-coverage intensive survey and test excavations at two Late Period (ca. 500-1600 AD) central-place communities in the Quijos Valley, in the eastern Andes of Ecuador. These two excavations, Pucalpa and Bermejo, appeared to be similar in size and superficial characteristics, but the intensive survey program and test excavations at each revealed important differences in spatial layout, trajectory of occupation, the disposition of agrarian space, and possibly the scale of public-ceremonial activities. Internally, however, the central places do not display economic differentiation. Analyses conducted so far suggests that central place formation may have resulted more from the growth and expansion of kin corporations without much internal economic differentiation than from the aggregation of socially or economically differentiated households. In both cases, however, the longevity of residential areas seems to be associated with larger residential groups, with a more central location within the community, and with what appears to have constituted public-ceremonial space. These findings contribute to understanding the varied nature of the process of centralization in complex societies.
Cuellar, Andrea. 2009. The Quijos Chiefdoms: Social Change and Agriculture in the Eastern Andes of Ecuador. University of Pittsburgh Latin American Archaeology Publications: Pittsburgh
Harkey, Anna Elizabeth, U. of California, Berkeley, CA - To aid research on 'The Andean Home in a Shifting World: Local Perspectives on a Nested Colonial Encounter,' supervised by Dr. Christine Anne Hastorf
ANNA E. HARKEY, then a student at University of California, Berkeley, California, received funding in May 2010 to aid research on 'The Andean Home in a Shifting World: Local Perspectives on a Nested Colonial Encounter,' supervised by Dr. Christine Hastorf. In the late fifteen and early sixteenth centuries CE, the Upper Mantaro Valley in central Peru was the site of massive and rapid political change: communities were colonized first by the Inka, who set a provincial capital there at the site of modern day Jauja, and then mere decades later by the Spanish, who set their own first capital at that same location. This project investigates the impacts of such swift, large-scale change on the daily lives of the region's inhabitants. Specifically, this work examines two lines of evidence - ceramics and domestic architecture - which were made and used locally, as well as closely linked to daily practice. Thousands of previously excavated ceramic sherds were analyzed along nineteen distinct attributes, any of which may reflect conscious stylistic or technological choices, or unconscious results of those choices. These same techniques were then adapted to the study of domestic architecture, allowing detailed, quantifiable comparison of superficially similar structures. All these data are compiled in an ArcGIS database so that local impacts of those broad-scale political shifts, as reflected in these artifacts, may be discerned between sites, neighborhoods, and even households.
Kohut, Lauren Elizabeth, Vanderbilt U., Nashville, TN - To aid research on 'The Political Landscape of War: Late Pre-Hispanic Fortifications in the Colca Valley, Peru,' supervised by Dr. Steven A. Wernke
LAUREN E. KOHUT, then a student at Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee, was awarded a grant in April 2012 to aid research on 'The Political Landscape of War: Late Pre-Hispanic Fortifications in the Colca Valley, Peru,' supervised by Dr. Steven A. Wernke. The Late Intermediate Period (LIP; 1000-1400 CE) in the highland Andes of Peru has been defined as a time of heightened conflict and political fragmentation. Prior archaeological research on this period has focused on regional-scale surveys, which indeed show a largely fragmented political landscape. But while this characterization may be relevant at a regional scale, it overlooks the more local patterns of integration and affiliation that formed the basis of daily life for communities during the LIP. This research combines micro-regional survey of fortifications, systematic surface collection, and targeted excavation of a single fortified settlement to examine the meso and local scale interactions that have been absent from prior research on conflict during this period. Spatial analysis of defensive settlement patterns in the valley suggests local groups formed local alliance clusters that may have been integrated into a valley-wide alliance network. In addition to serving the defensive needs of individuals in the valley, fortifications provided a new context for community formation that existed in spite of, or more likely because of, regional fragmentation.