Sauer, Jacob James, Vanderbilt U., Nashville, TN - To aid research on 'The Creation of Araucanian Anti-Colonial Identity During the Contact Period, AD 1552-1602,' supervised by Dr. Thomas Dalton Dillehay
JACOB JAMES SAUER, then a student at Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee, received a grant in October 2008, to aid research on 'The Creation of Araucanian Anti-Colonial Identity during the Contact Period, AD 1552-1602,' supervised by Dr. Thomas Dalton Dillehay. Unlike the majority of indigenous groups in the Americas, the Araucanians (today known as the Mapuche) of south-central Chile resisted and rejected Spanish attempts to colonize ancestral lands, managing to maintain social, political, and economic autonomy for more than 350 years. Archaeological excavations conducted at the Contact period (AD 1550-1602) site of Santa Sylvia, ethnographic research in the surrounding area of Pucón-Villarrica, and ethnohistoric investigation of primary source documents from the colonial period indicate that the Araucanians in the region used pre-existing cultural patterns, systems, and practices that allowed them to defeat the Spanish and retain control of their territory. The Spanish were unable to inhabit the site for more than five years, and Araucanian material culture (ceramics, tools, etc.) show limited influence from the Spanish. The Araucanians adopted useful goods, such as horses, wheat, and barley, but rejected Spanish religious and political influence and experienced further cultural development, including expansion across the Andes into Argentina.
Warwick, Matthew Christopher, U. of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI - To aid research on 'Diet, Economy, and Sociopolitical Change in the Pukara Polity, North Titicaca Basin, Peru,' supervised by Dr. Jean Leslee Hudson
MATTHEW WARWICK, then a student at University of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, Wisconsin, received funding in November 2007 to aid research on 'Diet, Economy, and Sociopolitical Change in the Pukara Polity, North Titicaca Basin, Peru,' supervised by Dr. Jean Hudson. In the Lake Titicaca Basin, the Formative period featured extensive changes in sociopolitical complexity, ritual practice, and economic organization following the transition from villages to the regional Late Formative polities of Pukara and Tiwanaku. These changes were fueled through development and intensification of agro-pastoral economies. Thus, it becomes imperative that subsistence and herding strategies supporting life at both the village- and polity-level are understood. The database for the southern basin is robust, due to long-term research at Chiripa, Tiwanaku, and associated sites. This project was designed to collect comparable data for Formative contexts within the northern basin, the heartland of the Pukara polity. Large faunal assemblages from Huatacoa and Pukara -- two sites spanning the Early to Late Formative periods -- were studied. These sites represent a small village site and the nearby polity center, where domestic contexts, public area, and ritual architecture had been excavated. The completed project seeks to address animal use in everyday meals, commensal politics, and ritual activity. Camelids are being studied to investigate site and polity-wide herd management practices. Additional data collected included taxonomic abundance; camelid osteometrics, mortality profiles, and body part distribution; taphonomy; and methods of butchery, food preparation, and bone tool production.
Alconini, Dr. Sonia, U. of Texas, San Antonio, TX - To aid workshop on 'The South-Central Montane Forest and Adjacent Areas: Regional Political Developments, Inter-regional Exchange and Cultural Interaction,' 2013, Bolivia
Preliminary abstract: The aim of this workshop is to discuss the current status of archaeological research in the south-central tropical mountains of South America, and their importance in the development of sociopolitical complexity in the nearby Andes and tropical lowlands. This region, also known as Yungas, is often described as an 'uninhabitable', marginal territory. Despite such perceptions, recent archaeological research reveals the development of autonomous polities with varying levels of political complexity, language and cultural affiliation, and whose role was central in the thriving inter-regional exchange networks crossing distinct ecologies. Therefore, with this workshop we seek to (1) to illuminate the evolution of the distinct political trajectories and cultural traditions that developed in the south-central tropical mountains; (2) to examine the political development of populations that developed in the nearby temperate valleys; (3) to understand the nature of the agrarian systems used in the south-central tropical mountains; and (4) to assess the nature of the distinct spheres of interaction and circulation of goods, symbols and peoples in this region in the pre-Columbian era. This two-phase workshop will take place in Bolivia, and will count with the participation of distinguished Latin American and international scholars. The results will be published in English and Spanish to reach different audiences.
Cantarutti, Gabriel Eduardo, U. of Illinois, Chicago, IL - To aid research on 'Inca Mining Operations and Imperial Control in the Los Infieles Region, North-Central Chile,' supervised by Dr. Brian S. Bauer
GABRIEL E. CANTARUTTI, then a student at University of Illinois, Chicago, Illinois, received funding in May 2010 to aid research on 'Inca Mining Operations and Imperial Control in the Los Infieles Region, North-Central Chile,' supervised by Dr. Brian S. Bauer. This project studied the organization and imperial control of the mining complex of Los Infieles in north-central Chile during the Inca Period (ca. AD 1450-1541). An archaeological survey was conducted in the Los Infieles area (50 km2) of a twelve-month period. This survey revealed the existence of a large mining complex focused mainly on the extraction of opaline silica and chrysocolla. The materials registered during the survey suggest that each of the five mining clusters recorded at Los Infieles included at least one large site, in which similar operational sequences of mining activities were conducted. The absence of lapidary workshop remains and the small size of the remaining sorted minerals at the sites also suggest that the final products obtained from the mining operations were high-quality granule and pebble-size minerals. The large number of mines and their associated facilities across the Los Infieles region support the idea that during the Inca Period, chrysocolla and opaline silica had much greater economic value than scholars tend to think, at least at an imperial provincial level. The evidence collected thus far also suggests that the Inca state was significantly involved in sponsoring and supporting these mining operations.
Hayashida, Dr. Frances Mariko, U. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM - To aid 'The Ynalche Project: Water, Land, Politics, and Society on the Late Prehispanic North Coast of Peru'
DR. FRANCES M. HAYASHIDA, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, New Mexico, received a grant in May 2008 to aid research on 'The Ynalche Project: Water, Land, Politics, and Society on the Late Prehispanic North Coast of Peru.' The Ynalche Project investigates the politics and ecology of prehispanic agriculture on the north coast of Peru. Our study area is the Pampa de Chaparri in Lambayeque, where abandonment shortly after the Spanish Conquest has resulted in the preservation of a pre-Columbian rural landscape. The pampa was originally occupied in A.D. 900 during Sicán rule and was conquered by the Chimú and then the Inka Empires. Previous fieldwork documented significant shifts in settlement pattern following conquest as water management shifted from local communities to the state. During the 2008 season, researchers examined the effects of conquest at the scale of the community and the household by mapping Site 256A01, a large settlement with Sicán through Inka occupations, and through excavation of domestic structures at the site. The work documented a significant shift in the layout and style of structures under imperial rule. Excavations included collecting samples for macrobotanical and microfossil analyses to evaluate changes in landscape, and diet. Mapping and excavation also revealed ample evidence for craft (particularly metallurgical) production during the Sicán occupation of the site. Analysis of production tools and by-products will allow us to compare rural production with previously excavated workshops at or near the Sicán capital.
Marsteller, Sara Jane, Arizona State U., Tempe, AZ - To aid research on 'Dietary Practices, Mortuary Rituals, and the Social Construction of Ychsma Community Identity (c. AD 900-1470),' supervised by Dr. Kelly J. Knudson
Preliminary Abstract: Ancient communities are often rendered as predetermined, homogenous social units associated with specific archaeological sites. Challenging these perceptions, many archaeologists argue that the community is a dynamic phenomenon that is symbolically constructed via the social practices and interactions of individual members and thus must be assessed empirically rather than assumed a priori. The applicant builds on this social approach to community construction by utilizing bioarchaeological data linked to the social practices of specific individuals in order to investigate (1) the relationship between symbolic community boundaries and geographic space, (2) intra-community diversity in the interpretation and enactment of symbolic community boundaries, and (3) the negotiation of community boundaries by outside individuals. Using the Late Intermediate Period (c. AD 900-1470) Ychsma society on the central Peruvian coast as a case study, the proposed project will focus on dietary practices and mortuary rituals as social practices potentially used to denote Ychsma community identity. To reconstruct the dietary practices and mortuary treatments of Ychsma individuals, osteological, biogeochemical, and mortuary contextual data will be collected and assessed from the archaeological skeletal remains and associated mortuary contexts of burials previously excavated from two Ychsma sites, Armatambo and La Rinconada Alta.
Schauer, Matthew Philip, U. of Illinois, Chicago, IL - To aid research on 'Warfare on the Inca Frontier: Fortification, Imperialism, and Interaction on the Frontier in Northern Ecuador,' supervised by Dr. Lawrence Harold Keeley
MATTHEW SCHAUER, then a student at University of Illinois, Chicago, Illinois, received funding in April 2009 to aid research on 'Warfare on the Inca Frontier: Fortification, Imperialism, and Interaction on the Frontier in Northern Ecuador,' supervised by Dr. Lawrence Keeley. In the northern Ecuadorian highlands, the Inca constructed fourteen fortifications at Pambamarca to subjugate a local chiefdom called the Cayambe. These sites are clustered together yet vary in the number of walls, structures, defensives, and size. The purpose of this dissertation project was to explain the variability and clustering of these sites and determine the types of activities that took place. This study was carried out in three phases. The first phase was survey using a combination of methods to establish a typology identifying a three-tier hierarchy of fortress sites. The next phase of research involved a systematic test sampling program from the three types. The purpose of this phase was to determine the density and distribution of occupation across a site. The final phase involved larger excavation units to expose what type of activities were happening at these sites, the sequence of occupation and who exactly was occupying these sites. Preliminary results suggest that different types fulfilled different roles. The imperial strategy of the Pambamarca complex of fortifications appears to have functioned as a complex network of imperial garrisons meant to prevent incursions from across the frontier with smaller sites serving as watchtowers for mutual support and defense.
Wernke, Dr. Steven A., U. of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC - To aid 'Andean Interfaces: An Archaeo-History of Community, State, and Landscape in the Peruvian Highlands' - Richard Carley Hunt Fellowship
STEVEN A WERNKE, Vanderbilt University, received a Hunt Postdoctoral Fellowship in 2006 to support research and writing on 'Andean Interfaces: An Archaeo-History of Community, State, and Landscape in the Peruvian Highlands'. The book (under contract, University Press of Florida) integrates archaeological and ethnohistorical research to produce a local-scale view of the negotiation and transformation of community and land-use organization during terminal prehispanic and early colonial times in the Colca Valley of southern Peru. It traces the development of the regionally important Collagua ethnic polity and explores how local Inka provincial administrative centers grafted onto local communities, how such provincial outposts were transformed into missionary outposts during early colonial times, and how a subsequent viceroyalty-wide resettlement program in the 1570s built upon and transformed local conceptions and features of community and landscape. Through Geographical Information System-based analysis of a series of Spanish colonial administrative surveys in the Colca Valley, Andean Interfaces presents a detailed reconstruction of early colonial land tenure patterns, which are used to interpret pre- and post-Hispanic patterns of settlement, political organization, and land use. The fellowship also supported the publication of journal articles for American Anthropologist, the International Journal of Historical Archaeology, and two edited volume chapters. Two further journal articles near completion were initiated with the support of this fellowship.
Wernke, Steven A. 2007. Negotiating Community and Landscape In the Peruvian Andes: A Transconquest View. American Anthropologist 109(1):130-152.
Alconini, Dr. Sonia, U. of Texas, San Antonio, TX - To aid research on 'Imperial Marginality and Frontier: Kallawayas and Chuchos in the Eastern Inka Frontier'
DR. SONIA ALCONINI, University of Texas, San Antonio, Texas, was awarded funding in November 2005, to aid research on 'Imperial Marginality and Frontier: Kallawayas and Chuchos in the Eastern Inka Frontier.' This research is part of a large-scale project studying the eastern Inka frontier, and the effects of the Inka conquest on the local sociopolitical dynamics. Specifically, the research questions were: 1) what were the limits of imperial expansion? 2) what kinds of changes did the Inka promote in the local settlement dynamics? 3) what were the functions of the Inka installations? and 4) what were the effects of the Inka frontier on the local social and economic structure? In order to answer these questions, a pedestrian survey in the Charazani valley was conducted to record the location and size of Inka and pre-Inka settlements, to document the intensity and distribution of surface cultural materials, and to map selected sites. This region was strategically located in a corridor connecting the highlands and tropical piedmonts, in a spectrum of altitudinal ecologies. Surveys in this valley revealed a dense pre-Hispanic occupation, with nearly 400 sites. Most sites were small household units dating to the Inka period, and dispersed in the mid-altitude agricultural terraces. In the high altitude Puna, the settlements focusing on pastoral activities, increased significantly in size with the Inkas. The strategic distribution of local Yunga settlements suggests that these populations were central in the expansion of long-distance trade circuits that the Inka and Tiwanaku sought to monopolize. Therefore, with the Inkas, the expansion of the agricultural and pastoral capabilities of the region, along with the establishment of administrative centers in earlier ceremonial sites, suggest that the region was important in terms of the influx of resources to the eastern frontier.