Suarez, Rafael, U. of La Plata, Buenos Aires, Argentina - To aid research on 'Paleoindian Adaptations at the Subtropical Landscape During Pleistocene-Holocene Transition in Uruguay,' supervised by Dr. Laura L. Miotti
RAFAEL SUAREZ, then a student at University of La Plata, Buenos Aires, Argentina, received funding in May 2008 to aid research on 'Paleoindian Adaptations at the Subtropical Landscape during Pleistocene Holocene Transition in Uruguay,' supervised by Dr. Laura L. Miotti. The investigation of the Pay Paso 1 site allowed researchers to generate a chronological and stratigraphic base for a sequence of human occupations of late Pleistocene and early Holocene in northwest Uruguay. Two new designs of projectile points for the Paleoindian period have been discovered at the archaeological excavations in locality 1 of Pay Paso site. The paleo-vegetation record indicates dry climatic conditions shortly before 10,930 yr 14C BP. The greatest paleo-environmental change is observed when Amarathus is replaced by a varied vegetal community that includes subtropical and tropical trees, and plants adapted to humid soils and to highly humid conditions (such as the ferns and moss). The investigation shows the expansion of the subtropical forest, associated to an increase in temperature, humidity and rainfall at the mouth of the Cuareim River between 10,205-10,100 yr 14C BP. Five species of fauna have been identified -- the only fauna collection recovered in an archaeological site for the Paleoindian period in Uruguay. Two identified species correspond to late Pleistocene mammals - giant armadillo (Glyptodon sp.) and American horse (Equus sp.) -- and three correspond to records of present fauna: Boga fish (Leporinus sp.), otter (Myocastor sp.) and Rhea (Rhea Americana). The fauna recovered in the earliest cultural components present a relatively high variety of class with records of bird, mammal and fish. Stratigraphic association in context between Equus sp. (American Horse), a young individual Glyptodon sp. (Giant Armadillo) and archaeological material that includes Pay Paso points in the cultural component dated during the early Holocene, which indicates the simultaneous coexistence of two surviving species of Pleistocene fauna with humans at the Northwest of Uruguay ca. 9,500 yr 14C BP.
Abraham, Sarah Jane, U. of California, Santa Barbara, CA - To aid research on 'Provincial Life in the Inca Empire: Continuity and Change at Hatun Lucanas, Peru,' supervised by Dr. Katharina Jeanne Schreiber
SARAH J. ABRAHAM, then a student at the University of California, Santa Barbara, California, received funding in April 2006 to aid research on 'Provincial Life in the Inca Empire: Continuity and Change at Hatun Lucanas, Peru,' supervised by Dr. Katharina J. Schreiber. This project investigates the imperial-provincial relationship between the Inca empire (AD 1438-1532) and the people of Hatun Lucanas in the southern highlands of Peru. Funding supported excavation, detailed mapping, and architectural analysis, and laboratory analysis were conducted to better understand the transition from autonomous polity to subjugated population. Excavations at Hatun Lucanas targeted residential compounds to expose domestic contexts and their associated artifacts and architectural elements. Those data were then used to identify changes in local political, economic, and social organization after Inca conquest. Preliminary observations suggest that this project provides the first documentation of Lucanas material culture including pottery styles, architectural canons, and mortuary practices. Additionally, data reveal a shift in local political organization with the emergence of local elites after Inca conquest. Finally, changes were detected in the local economy during the Late Horizon. Excavations uncovered evidence of textile production and metalworking at Hatun Lucanas as well as an intensification in processing, likely of food, metals, or pigments. Ongoing analysis will provide additional lines of evidence with which to reconstruct the nature and magnitude of imperialism at the local level.
Brown Vega, Margaret, U. of Illinois, Urbana, IL - To aid 'An Examination of War and Social Life at the Late Prehispanic Settlement of Acaray, Peru,' supervised by Dr. Helaine Silverman
MARGARET BROWN VEGA, then a student at University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois, was awarded funding in October 2005 to aid 'An Examination of War and Social Life at the Late Prehispanic Settlement of Acaray, Peru,' supervised by Dr. Helaine Silverman. The project tested the hypothesis that the people at the fortress of Acaray in the Huaura Valley, Peru were living under conditions of war. I sought to measure the diversity of that experience in various segments of society. Architectural and surface evidence consistent with conflict can now be interpreted in light of excavation data which indicate that Acaray was not a permanent settlement in late prehispanic times, but rather was used ephemerally between the 13th and 15th centuries. Expectations for deep, undisturbed stratigraphic contexts were not met. There was a lack of domestic contexts and additional data for conflict did not materialize. However, episodes of destruction and rebuilding at this fortress are visible. There are indications that the people who built Acaray were negotiating regional political and social landscapes characterized by conflict, resulting in the reconstruction of an expanded and more extensive configuration of the fortress. The unanticipated recovery of data associated with ritual activities confirms there were non-militaristic social practices taking place in the fortress that were nevertheless related to war and defense at Acaray. Radiocarbon dates revealed two separate occupations of Acaray: 800-400 B.C. and 1200-1450 A.D, each corresponding to periods of conflict identified in the Central Andes.
Goldstein, Dr. Paul S., U. of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA - To aid research on 'Death in Diaspora: Mortuary Practice Variablity at the Tiwanaku Colony of Rio Muerto, Peru'
DR. PAUL S. GOLDSTEIN, University of California - San Diego, La Jolla, California, was awarded funding in November 2007 to aid research on 'Death in Diaspora: Mortuary Practice Variablity at the Tiwanaku Colony of Rio Muerto, Peru.' In 2008, the Rio Muerto Archaeological Project excavated an important sample of the Rio Muerto Tiwanaku culture site group in Moquegua, Peru. Analysis of finds and human remains is continuing following lab analysis in 2009. Patterned variability in mortuary practice evident between four spatially distinct cemeteries suggests that Tiwanaku colonists maintained a degree of social distinction between distinct groups. The Omo style affiliated M70B cemetery showed evidence of extensive cemetery ritual, and individual tombs were merged over time into a large rockpile suggesting community processes of extended commemoration and mourning. This differs from the common Chen Chen-style, Tiwanaku pattern of individual tomb offering evident in M43A, B, and C. Transculturation between the two subtraditions may be indicated by M43 A, with individual tombs but evidence of surface offerings and Omo-style ceramics. The 2008 household archaeology excavations in domestic areas of the site is elucidating economic activities and cultural affiliation in the Tiwanaku colony. Preliminary results suggest a highly diverse agro-pastoral economy, with imported and locally made materials of entirely Tiwanaku affiliation. Domestic features, tool assemblages and activity areas dedicated to cultivation, processing and storage of crops and animals and production of wool and cotton textiles.
Knudson, Kelly J., Paul S. Goldstein, Allisen Dahlstedt, A. Somerville, and M. J. Schoeninger. 2014. Paleomobility in the Tiwanaku Diaspora: Biogeochemical Analyses at Rio Muerto, Moquegua, Peru. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 155(3):405-421
Kohn, Alison S., U. of Chicago, Chicago, IL - To aid research on 'Towards an Archaeology of Urban Process in a Post-Colonial Context: An Ethnographic Case Study in La Paz, Bolivia,' supervised by Dr. Michael D. Dietler
ALISON S. KOHN, then a student at the University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois, received funding in September 2003 to aid research on 'Towards an Archaeology of Urban Process in a Post-Colonial Context: An Ethnographic Case Study in La Paz, Bolivia,' supervised by Dr. Michael D. Dietler. As in most Latin American cities, under Spanish colonialism the city of La Paz, Bolivia consisted of spatialized hierarchies of race and class, in which Spanish and mestizo occupied the center of town, pushing the much larger indigenous Aymara population to the periphery. Today, postcolonial La Paz consists of a melange of modern and colonial architecture, of planned and unplanned design, of city-built and inhabitant-built neighborhoods sprawling from its Spanish colonial core. Together, La Paz's neighborhoods still represent a vertical sociology of unequal politicoeconomic social relations -- a conspicuous colonial artifact. Social scientists suggest that the built environment mediates social relations in particular ways -- indeed, contributes to their reproduction. This ethnoarchaeological research has asked: How do spatial and temporal practices in La Paz contribute to the reproduction of this vertical sociology? And, in what ways has it changed over time? Ultimately, this research has sought to understand how the built environment mediates relations of power in postcolonial cities. Thus this project has investigated the intersection of political authority, history and urbanization through a case study of the historical social production of one vernacular neighborhood in La Paz, including its relation to the city and its institutions as a whole. There were two major phases of research. Phase I: Vernacular Construction Practices through Time, was a detailed inquiry into the production of the built environment, how things are built, who builds them, how labor is organized and mobilized, where people get materials, and what social relationships are involved in this production. These processes were traced temporally and spatially through Munaypata's history through the collection of narratives from first generation residents and their descendants, urban planning officials, as well as through archival, museum, and urban planning documents. Phase II: Spatio-temporal Knowledge and Practice, added social action to the research focusing mainly on the residents of Munaypata. It sought to theorize how the logic of production engages with the logic of practice. Thus, this part of the research was concerned with gathering detailed information about residents' lifecycles in relation to the built environment -- in other words human histories as related to building histories or settlement biographies. This approach sought to understand how temporality is integrated with the urban landscape to produce a spatio-temporally organized social life. How is space-time reckoned through practice in La Paz? Are social roles distributed across different spatio-temporal networks? How? This second phase of research also examined spatial schemas or mental maps. These ideas about space were gathered through the use of strategies developed in the field of environmental psychology in which subjects are asked to draw representations of space such as representations of the neighborhood, representations of the city as a whole, and representations of important localities that individuals experience regularly. The idea was to record how people understand and imagine the city.
Swenson, Dr. Edward R., U. of Lethbridge, Lethbridge, AB, Canada - To aid research on 'Ritual, Household, and the Politics of Space in Canoncillio, Peru'
DR. EDWARD SWENSON, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada, received funding in April 2006 to aid research on 'Ritual, Household, and the Politics of Space in Cañoncillo, Peru.' Archaeological fieldwork at Cañoncillo in the Jequetepeque Valley has yielded valuable data to aid interpretations of ritual politics, domestic life, and urbanization in ancient Peru. The replication of iconic architectural forms and the strict standardization of ritual performance at the Gallinazo center of Jatanca constitute significant discoveries of the excavation program. Equivalent ceremonies, following a comparable spatial sequence and temporal structure, were staged in all five of the principal Jatanca compounds. The duplication of ceremonial space implies a 'competition between stages' and the existence of an ethos of political pluralism at Jatanca. At the same time, this pluralism was tempered by a singular ideology predicated on invariant ('orthodox') modes of ritual spectacle. Jatanca's built environment points to the possible existence of semi-autonomous, stratified parcialidades confederated into a larger moral community. The archaeological evidence further indicates that ritual performance, residence, production, and consumption were much more rigidly compartmentalized and spatially segregated at Jatanca than at later Moche sites of the hinterland. Finally, archaeological research conducted at the neighboring center of Huaca Colorada reveals that the physical association of domestic and ceremonial architecture changed dramatically between the Gallinazo and Moche Periods, suggesting fundamental transformations in urban sociopolitical structures.
Swenson, Edward. 2012. Warfare, Gender, and Sacrifice in Jequetepeque, Peru. Latin American Antiquity 23(2):167-193.
Acuto, Felix, CONICET, Buenos Aires, Argentina and Troncoso Melendez, Andres, U. of Chile, Santiago- To aid collaborative research on 'Inca Ritual Activities and Landscapes in the Southern Andes'
Acuto, Félix A. 2011. Encuentros Coloniales, Heterodoxia y Ortodoxia en el Valle Calchaqui Norte Bajo El Dominio Inka. Estudios Atacamenios. 42:5-32.
Acuto, Felix A. 2012. Landscapes of Inequality, Spectacle, and Control: Inka Social Order in Provincial Contexts. Revista de Antropologia 25(1):9-64.
Acuto, Félix A., Andrés Troncoso, and Alejandro Ferrari. 2012. Recognizing Strategies for Conquered Territories: A Case Study from the Inka North Calchaqui Valley. Antiquity 86: 1141-1154.
Acuto, Félix A., Marina Smith, and Ezequiel Gilardenghi. 2011. Reenhebrando El Pasado: Hacia Una Epistemologia de la Materialidad. Boletin del Museo Chileno de Arte Precolombino 16(2):9-26.
Andrés Troncoso, Daniel Pavlovic, Félix Acuto, Rodrigo Sánchez, A. César González-García. 2012. Complejo Arquitectonico Cerro Mercachas: Arquitectura y Ritualidad Incaica en Chile Central. Revista Espanola de Anthropologia Americana 42(2):293-319
Acuto, Felix A., Marisa Kergaravat, and Claudia Amuedo. 2014. Death, Personhood, and Relatedness in the South Andes a Thousand Years Ago. Journal of Material Culture 19(3):303-326
Bruno, Maria C., Washington U., St. Louis, MO - To aid research on 'Agricultural Intensification and Formative Period Society: An Ethnobotanical and Paleoethnobotanical Approach,' supervised by Dr. David L. Browman
MARIA C. BRUNO, while a student at Washington University in St. Louis, was awarded a grant in October 2003 to aid in research on agricultural intensification and its role in the development of complex societies during the Formative period (1500B.C. - A.D.500) in the southern Lake Titicaca Basin of the Andes. The research included an ethnobotanical study of present-day agricultural practices on the Taraco Peninsula, Bolivia, and a paleoethnobotanical study of plant remains from Formative period sites in the same region. The ethnobotanical field work provided insight into small-scale intensification processes (particularly weeding, tilling, and fertilizing), characteristics of soils and their productivity in relation to weather patterns, and social aspects of agricultural production. Extensive plant collections provided the link between the ethnobotanical observations and the archaeological plant record. Throughout the paleoethnobotanical analysis, the reference collection has facilitated identification of species that are associated with past agricultural and food practices, such as small-scale processes of intensification, changes in land use related to climate change, and the importance of local agricultural food products in early ceremonial contexts. Results from submitted AMS radiocarbon dates on identified carbonized remains will permit the researcher to track the timing of these agricultural trends and relate them to concomitant changes in climate and social complexity.
Bruno, Maria C. 2014. Beyond Raised Fields: Exploring Farming Practices and Processes of Agricultural Change in the Ancient Lake Titicaca Basin of the Andes. American Anthropologist 116(1):130-145.