Williams Dr. Veronica Isabel, U. of Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires, Argentina - To aid research on 'Contested Spaces: Social Conflict in the Mid Calchaqui Valley (ca. 900-1400 AD), Salta, Northwest Argentina'
DR. VERONICA I. WILLIAMS, University of Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires, Argentina, received funding in October 2008 to aid research on 'Contested Spaces: Social Conflict in the Mid-Calchaqui Valley (ca. 900-1400 AD), Salta, Argentina.' Several scholars have mentioned to an endemic conflict situation in the Central and Southern Andes prior to the Inca expansion (ca. AD 900-1430). This project tried to evaluate whether such a situation existed in the Angastaco and Molinos basins in the mid-Calchaquí Valley in northwestern Argentina. Several extensive archaeological surveys located a significant number of Prehispanic settlements on highly visible flat areas (pukaras). This particular geographic location appears to be a local expression of this warfare situation, as well as a direct consequence of a demographic increase that caused the widening of agricultural lands and growing social stress among neighboring communities. Mappings, excavations, and surveys were conducted in eight of these settlements, yielding different archaeological material including ceramic, lithic, faunal, and botanical remains. Radiocarbon dating was also performed to get a better understanding of the chronology of the area. All these lines of evidence allowed the grantee to posit that local populations were subjected to some situation of insecurity, which led them to settle in high-altitude sites with defensive architecture, difficult access, but away from primary resources that forced them to transport and store goods in these settlements.
Arkush, Dr. Elizabeth Nelson, U. of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA - To aid research and writing on 'War, Violent Spectacle, and Political Authority in the Pre-Hispanic Andes' - Hunt Postdoctoral Fellowship
DR. ELIZABETH N. ARKUSH, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia, was awarded a Hunt Postdoctoral Fellowship in April 2009, to aid research and writing on 'War, Violent Spectacle, and Political Authority in the Pre-Hispanic Andes.' Over the course of millennia in the pre-Columbian Andes, leaders extended their power with both military victories and a panoply of warlike representations and performances: the display of human trophies, the mutilation and sacrifice of captives taken in combat, staged battles for an audience, weapons intended for display rather than use, warrior processions, the interment of elites presented as warriors, and militaristic iconography. These displays have conditioned longstanding discussions among archaeologists about the extent to which pre-Columbian Andean warfare was ritualized, comparable to 'western kinds of war' or uniquely Andean. This book draws on information in the archaeological and ethnographic literature to disentangle evidence about the practice and intensity of war from spectacles and statements about war, examining how these phenomena informed each other and diverged from each other over Andean prehistory. Skeletal trauma and defensive settlement patterns form reliable indicators for the level of violent threat Andean populations actually faced in different times and places. This evidence is compared with patterns of militaristic display to show how both warfare and violent spectacle were related to the changing nature of Andean political authority and the balance of constraint, coercion, and attraction in political interaction.
Chirinos Ogata, Patricia, U. of California, Santa Barbara, CA - To aid research on 'Strategies and Practices at a Colonial Settlement: Wari and Cajamarca Power Relations at Yamobamba, Peru,' supervised by Dr. Katharina J. Schreiber
Preliminary abstract: This project examines the power relationships between the Wari Empire and the Cajamarca polity in the Andes, and the establishment of the colonial settlement at Yamobamba as a result of this interaction. In particular, I focus on the activities conducted at Yamobamba, a Wari colony in the Cajamarca region during the Middle Horizon (AD 750-1000), to define how its construction and occupation were determined by the encounter of two political organizations with their own agendas and cultural traditions. Drawing on a theoretical framework concerning power relations, culture contact, interaction, and practice theory, this project will investigate how local and non-local groups coexisted at the colony and carried out daily practices in contexts of negotiation derived from the attempts by both Wari and Cajamarca to exert control over the region. In order to investigate this issue, broad-scale excavations will be conducted at Yamobamba. The identification of activity areas will be based on intra-site distribution of features, soil chemical analysis, and artifact analysis. Neutron activation and X-ray fluorescence analysis, compared to published data from Wari and Cajamarca sites, will define regional networks of distribution and consumption. This project uses a multi-scalar approach that focuses on both political strategies and daily practices, resulting in a novel way to study regional interaction. Due to its strategic location at the northern frontier of the imperial expansion, Yamobamba provides a unique opportunity to examine the intersection between local and non-local interests, offering new insights about the ways in which imperial strategies shape local subsistence and the regional power distribution, and making a significant contribution to our understanding of past and present colonial encounters.
Iriarte, Dr. José, U. of Exeter, Exeter, UK; and Cope, Dr. Silvia M., U. Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, Brazil; et al - To aid collaborative research on 'Sacred Places and Funerary Rites: The Longue Durée of Southern Jê Monumental Landscapes'
DR. JOSE IRIARTE, University of Exeter, Exeter, UK; and DR. SILVIA M. COPE, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, Brazil, were awarded an International Collaborative Research Grant in May 2010, to aid collaborative research on 'Sacred Places and Funerary Rites: The Longue Durée of Southern Jê Monumental Landscapes.' With the aim of investigating the emergence and dynamics of Taquara/Itararé groups during the late Holocene in the southern Brazilian highlands, researchers carried out reconnaissance, topographical, and geophysical survey as well as small scale excavations in funerary mound and enclosure complex called Posto Fiscal in Pinhal da Serra region, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. The data recovered during this project indicates that the late Holocene southern Jê groups in the region built a highly structured landscape revolving around complex mortuary monuments. These funerary structures appear to have been positioned in carefully chosen locations on hilltops bearing 3600 view-sheds, are associated with domestic pit-house village sites, exhibit recurrent paired oppositions and most of them are aligned in SW-NE position where the larger ring is located to the W. The results obtained from this project document for the first time how southern Jê groups were organized at a regional level between around 950 and 1765 AD allowing researchers to assess their socio-political organization. The distinctiveness of southern Jê settlement types and ceremonial architecture in relation to other Andean and Amazonian Formative processes is an important contribution to the comparative study of the rise and dynamics of complex societies in lowland South America and elsewhere.
Iriarte, José, Silvia Moehlecke Copé, Michael Fradley, Jami J. Lockhart, and J. Christopher Gillam. 2013. Sacred Landscapes of the Southern Brazilian Highlands: Understanding Souther Proto-Jê Mound and Enclosure Complexes. Journal of Anthropological Archaeology 32(1):74-96.
Martinez, Dr. Gustavo A., U. Nacional del Centro de la Provincia de Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires, Argentina - To aid 'Archaeological Research in the Lower Basin of the Colorado River (Pampas, Argentina)'
DR. GUSTAVO A. MARTINEZ, of the Universidad National del Centro de la Provincia de Buenos Aires in Buenos Aires, Argentina, was awarded funding in June 2001 to aid archaeological research in the lower basin of the Colorado River, Pampas, Argentina. Martínez studied the evolution of hunter-gatherer adaptation in a dry ecotonal environment between two main cultural regions, Patagonia and Pampa, focusing on subsistence, technology, mobility, and settlement systems. The sites investigated dated between 3000 and 500 B.P., and their users lived under arid to semiarid climatic conditions alternating with phases of landscape stability. Preliminary analysis revealed two patterns in the archaeological record. During the initial late Holocene occupation (ca. 3000-1300 B.P.), lithic assemblages were composed primarily of informal tools with little investment in production and design. This pattern might have resulted from a combination of local raw material availability (pebbles and sandstone) and a high mobility pattern. Ceramics were undecorated, and grinding tools were informal. Primary burials were associated with this occupation. In the final late Holocene occupation (ca. 1000-500 B.P.), the archaeological assemblages included a great diversity of stemmed and triangular projectile points, burins, formal milling stones, decorated pottery, grooved stone pendants, and ear and lip ornaments. Both primary and secondary burials were associated with these internally differentiated camps, suggesting a settlement pattern characterized by reoccupation, more intensive use of places, and decreased mobility. The evidence for the final late Holocene occupation coincided with extraregional models that support the idea of movements and contacts between people from northern Patagonia and southern Pampa.
Scullin, Dianne Mackenzie, Columbia U., New York, NY - To aid research on 'A Materiality of Sound: Musical Practices of the Moche of Peru,' supervised by Dr. Terence D'Altroy
DIANNE MACKENZIE SCULLIN, then a student at Columbia University, New York, New York, was awarded a grant in May 2010, to aid research on 'A Materiality of Sound: Musical Practices of the Moche of Peru,' supervised by Dr. Terence D'Altroy. The objectives of the project are to investigate the relationships between the material and the ephemeral and to evaluate the feasibility of researching sound in past societies utilizing archaeological techniques. The musical practices of the Moche of Peru, who flourished on the north coast of Peru from 100 to 800 AD, provide the ideal case study for the investigation of sound in the past. The initial stage of this project involved the collection of data from a variety of sources. Over nine months, from November 2010 to August 2011, this project completed acoustic maps of three different Moche sites consisting of over 3,000 individual data points and created a database of Moche musical instruments containing 923 entries and 470 sound recordings. The data from the musical instruments and iconography provides information concerning the levels of cohesiveness of the Moche soundscape both geographically and temporally. The acoustic maps provide insight into the spatial arrangement and organization of sites, demonstrating the inclusiveness or exclusiveness of performance spaces. The techniques and methods utilized for this project demonstrate the feasibility of investigating sound in the past and provide low-impact solutions to investigating sound in any archaeological context.
Zovar, Jennifer Montgomery Johnson, Vanderbilt U., Nashville, TN - To aid research on 'Post-Collapse Formations of Community, Memory, and Identity: The Archaeology of Pukara de Khonkho, Bolivia,' supervised by Dr. John Wayne Janusek
JENNIFER M. ZOVAR, while a student at Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee, was awarded a grant in May 2008 to aid research on 'Post-Collapse Formations of Community, Memory, and Identity: The Archaeology of Pukara de Khonkho, Bolivia,' supervised by Dr. John W. Janusek. The goal of the investigation was to use the large, densely populated settlement of Pukara de Khonkho as a test case to examine community development following the collapse of the Tiwanaku state, specifically considering the roles of population movement and intercommunity interaction. This phase of research focused on intensive ceramic analysis of excavated material from Pukara de Khonkho and nearby sites. Vessel form, paste, decoration, finish and use wear were recorded. A comparison of the results illustrates that the inhabitants of Pukara de Khonkho shared a common ceramic style that was dissimilar from neighboring communities, and it is suggested that these differences represent one example of the material manifestation of distinct community identities. The results of additional laboratory tests, including ICPMS analysis of ceramic sherds, strontium isotope analysis of human bone, and radiocarbon dating will help to, respectively, provenience ceramic production, identify first generation migrants, and situate the Pukara de Khonkho in regional chronology.
Arroyo-Kalin, Manuel A., U. of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK - To aid research on 'The Historical Ecology of Landscapes: Geoarchaeological Approaches to the Anthropogenic Transformation of Cent. Amazonian Rainforests,' supervised by Dr. P.T. Miracle
MANUEL A. ARROYO-KALIN, then a student at Cambridge University, Cambridge, England, was awarded funding in December 2002 to aid research on 'the historical ecology of the Central Amazon region: geoarchaeological approaches to anthropogenic landscape transformation,' supervised by Dr. P.T. Miracle. This doctoral project studied sediments and anthrosols from the interfluve between the Negro and Solimões rivers (state of Amazonas, Brazil) -- the research area of the Central Amazon Project (CAP) -- both to examine if anthrosols dated to the first millennium A.D. could be characterized as correlates of intensive pre-Columbian land-use practices and to understand site formation processes associated to a preceramic site. Both aims required developing geoarchaeological data to understand how site formation processes were intertwined with historical processes of human occupation, soil formation, and landscape evolution in the tropical lowlands. Fieldwork consisted in sampling soils within and between archaeological sites by collecting undisturbed block and bulk samples from fourteen soil profiles. Samples were analysed using a suite of techniques to characterise soil micromorphology, texture, isotopic (13C) and elemental composition, magnetic susceptibility, and pH. Microscopic charcoal was extracted from three samples collected at one site in order to date the most stable charcoal pool in the soils and compare it to the CAP macroscopic charcoal chronology. The research revealed that whilst anthrosols from first-second millennium A.D. age sites might have formed as unintended consequences of past populations' reliance on aquatic resources, they in turn likely fuelled the formation of intensive settlement agriculture, enabling high population densities to develop along riparian bluffs. The research also provided data to show that the Archaic age occupation, located in a now podzolized ferralsol and sealed by alluvial sedimentation, was sufficient to produce some phosphate enrichment of the fine clay fraction, suggesting some degree of site permanence.
Cuellar, Dr. Andrea Maria, U. of Lethbridge, Lethbridge, Canada - To aid research on 'Social Complexity in Eastern Ecuador: A Household and Community Perspective'
DR. ANDREA M. CUELLAR, University of Lethbridge, Lethbridge, Canada, was awarded a grant in April 2008 to aid research on 'Social Complexity in Eastern Ecuador: A Household and Community Perspective.' This project explored the nature of political centralization among the pre-Columbian Quijos chiefdoms through full-coverage intensive survey and test excavations at two Late Period (ca. 500-1600 AD) central-place communities in the Quijos Valley, in the eastern Andes of Ecuador. These two excavations, Pucalpa and Bermejo, appeared to be similar in size and superficial characteristics, but the intensive survey program and test excavations at each revealed important differences in spatial layout, trajectory of occupation, the disposition of agrarian space, and possibly the scale of public-ceremonial activities. Internally, however, the central places do not display economic differentiation. Analyses conducted so far suggests that central place formation may have resulted more from the growth and expansion of kin corporations without much internal economic differentiation than from the aggregation of socially or economically differentiated households. In both cases, however, the longevity of residential areas seems to be associated with larger residential groups, with a more central location within the community, and with what appears to have constituted public-ceremonial space. These findings contribute to understanding the varied nature of the process of centralization in complex societies.
Cuellar, Andrea. 2009. The Quijos Chiefdoms: Social Change and Agriculture in the Eastern Andes of Ecuador. University of Pittsburgh Latin American Archaeology Publications: Pittsburgh