Suarez, Rafael, U. of La Plata, Buenos Aires, Argentina - To aid research on 'Paleoindian Adaptations at the Subtropical Landscape During Pleistocene-Holocene Transition in Uruguay,' supervised by Dr. Laura L. Miotti
RAFAEL SUAREZ, then a student at University of La Plata, Buenos Aires, Argentina, received funding in May 2008 to aid research on 'Paleoindian Adaptations at the Subtropical Landscape during Pleistocene Holocene Transition in Uruguay,' supervised by Dr. Laura L. Miotti. The investigation of the Pay Paso 1 site allowed researchers to generate a chronological and stratigraphic base for a sequence of human occupations of late Pleistocene and early Holocene in northwest Uruguay. Two new designs of projectile points for the Paleoindian period have been discovered at the archaeological excavations in locality 1 of Pay Paso site. The paleo-vegetation record indicates dry climatic conditions shortly before 10,930 yr 14C BP. The greatest paleo-environmental change is observed when Amarathus is replaced by a varied vegetal community that includes subtropical and tropical trees, and plants adapted to humid soils and to highly humid conditions (such as the ferns and moss). The investigation shows the expansion of the subtropical forest, associated to an increase in temperature, humidity and rainfall at the mouth of the Cuareim River between 10,205-10,100 yr 14C BP. Five species of fauna have been identified -- the only fauna collection recovered in an archaeological site for the Paleoindian period in Uruguay. Two identified species correspond to late Pleistocene mammals - giant armadillo (Glyptodon sp.) and American horse (Equus sp.) -- and three correspond to records of present fauna: Boga fish (Leporinus sp.), otter (Myocastor sp.) and Rhea (Rhea Americana). The fauna recovered in the earliest cultural components present a relatively high variety of class with records of bird, mammal and fish. Stratigraphic association in context between Equus sp. (American Horse), a young individual Glyptodon sp. (Giant Armadillo) and archaeological material that includes Pay Paso points in the cultural component dated during the early Holocene, which indicates the simultaneous coexistence of two surviving species of Pleistocene fauna with humans at the Northwest of Uruguay ca. 9,500 yr 14C BP.
Belisle, Veronique, U. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI - To aid research on 'Wari Imperial Expansion and Household Change in Cusco, Peru,' supervised by Dr. Joyce Marcus
VERONIQUE BELISLE, then a student at the University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, received funding in May 2007 to aid research on 'Wari Imperial Expansion and Household Change in Cusco, Peru,' supervised by Dr. Joyce Marcus. From AD 600 to 1000 (a period called the Middle Horizon), the Wari empire started to expand out of its homeland in the highlands of Peru. The Wari began to establish regional administrative centers to control the areas it conquered. In the Cusco region the Wari built two large settlements and, based on archaeological evidence from these sites, scholars believe that the Wari empire came to control the Cusco area. Work at the two largest Wari settlements was important but could not provide any information on the extent to which the Wari affected Cusco's local population. To address this gap in our knowledge, the archaeological site of Ak'awillay was selected and some 233 square meters were excavated there. At Ak'awillay both pre-Wari and Wari-period households were excavated to assess the nature of any residential changes that occurred as a result of the Wari presence in the Cusco area. In addition to the excavation of residential units, a large public building, probably used for ceremonial gatherings, was also excavated. In sum, funds from the Wenner-Gren Foundation were used to excavate Ak'awillay to study household organization before and after the Wari expanded into the Cusco region.
Duke, Guy Stephen, U. of Toronto, Toronto, Canada - To aid research on 'Consuming Identities: Culinary Practice in the Late Moche Jequetepeque Valley, Peru,' supervised by Dr. Edward Rueben Swenson
Preliminary abstract: More than just a means of subsistence, food and its accoutrements are integral to both the practices of everyday life and the spectacles of public ritual events. The archaeological study of culinary practices, including the preparation, serving, consumption, and disposal of food, provides an excellent point of entry to investigate everything from status and ethnicity to group and individual identity. Archaeologists are in a unique position to interpret the material remains of food production and consumption (e.g. cooking/storage vessels, plant/animal remains, and food processing/preparation implements) in everyday domestic life and larger political-economic dependencies in order to investigate processes of identity formation and maintenance. This project will explore whether, and what, interconnections exist between identity and culinary practice through the examination of food production and consumption at two sites in the politically unstable Jequetepeque Valley of Peru during the Late Moche Period (AD 600-850). The sites targeted for investigation include the large ceremonial centre of Huaca Colorada and a smaller rural site with ceremonial components (JE-335). My research design is geared to shed light on the cultural politics of food preparation and consumption in order to explore how, and if, the preparation and consumption of food created and maintained social distinctions within the specific context of sociopolitical and environmental transformations distinguishing the Late Moche Period.
Klaus, Dr. Haagen Dietrich, Utah Valley U., Orem, UT - To aid research on 'The Andean Encounter in Eten: Postcontact Biological Variation, Ethnogenesis, and Microevolution in Colonial Peru'
DR. HAAGEN D. KLAUS, Utah Valley University, Orem, Utah, received funding in May 2010 to aid research on 'Escaping Conquest: Human Biology, Ethnogenesis, and Indigenous Engagement with Colonialsim in Eten, Peru.' This project completed the second phase of a multi-decade study of the post-contact Central Andes at the ruins of Eten, Lambayeque, Peru (AD 1532-1760). This work tested three linked hypotheses through an innovative integration of regional mortuary patterns, bioarchaeology, and archaeology. It was hypothesized that: 1) due to a unique microenvironment, the local Muchik population of Eten buffered against post-contact morbidity and health stress; 2) hybrid Andean-Iberian burial patterns emerged through colonial Muchik ethnogenesis and identity conservation; and 3) related transformations of pre-contact Muchik identity politics resulted in native biological hybridization. The results show the post-contact native Muchik Eten population bore minimal health stress as ecological and economic variables played key roles (although at least six Early Colonial mass graves were documented indicating episodic epidemic disease). Burial rituals showed little to no evidence of cultural hybridization and were Catholic in style. Micro-evolutionary signatures of ethnogenesis were detected however in variation of inherited tooth size, to indicate regional biological hybridization indeed occurred as pre-Hispanic mating networks disintegrated in tandem with sociopolitical breakdown. As a result, Hypotheses 1 and 3 were accepted, and Hypothesis 2 rejected. This work represents a multidimensional and regional portrait of an indigenous community that avoided some of the most detrimental biological outcomes of contact, but found itself enmeshed in a radically new cultural reality that emerged from unique entanglements with the post-contact adaptive transition in South America.
Klaus, Haagen D., and Manuel E. Tam. 2010. Oral Health and Postcontact adaptive transition: A Contextual Reconstruction of Diet in Mórrope, Peru. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 141(4):594-609.
Klaus, Haagen D., et al. 2010. Tuberculosis on the north coast of Peru: skeletal and molecular paleopathology of late pre-Hispanic and postcontact mycobacterial disease. Journal of Archaeological Science 37: 2587-2597.
Norman, Scotti Michelle, Vanderbilt U., Nashville, TN - To aid research on 'Understanding Cultural Transformation Through Revitalization: Taki Onqoy and Early Spanish Rule (Chicha-Soras Valley, Peru),' supervised by Dr. Steven A. Wernke
Preliminary abstract: This project undertakes the first archaeological investigation of Taki Onqoy (Quechua: 'Dancing Sickness'), an Andean revitalization cult in the 1560s that preached the rejection of Spanish practices and the return of the reign of Andean huacas (landscape deities) (Albornoz 1990 ). Specifically, it maps, excavates, and analyzes materials from Iglesiachayoq (Chicha), an Inka- to Early Colonial-era settlement located in the Chicha-Soras Valley (Ayacucho, Peru) whose inhabitants were central figures in this movement. Using a combination of spatial analysis and excavation, the anthropological and historical question addressed by this research asks if Taki Onqoy challenged budding Spanish colonial authority--despite its covert nature--in the 1560s by promoting behaviors which were anti-Catholic during the early years of Spanish colonial rule in Peru (Early Colonial Period AD 1532-1581). Through analysis of the material and spatial practices of Taki Onqoy, this project contributes to longstanding debates in the extensive document-based literature on the topic (Cock and Doyle 1979; Duviols 1971; Estenssoro 1992; Gose 2008; Guibovich 1990; MacCormack 1988; Millones 1990; Mumford 1998; Pease 1973; Ramos 1992; Stern 1982). More broadly, my project considers how cultural revitalization movements articulate autochthonous and foreign practices to address the dislocations and exploitations of the colonial condition.
Swenson, Dr. Edward Reuben, U. of Toronto, Toronto, Canada - To aid research 'The Politics of Time and Space at Huaca Colorada, Jequetepeque Peru'
Preliminary abstract: A Wenner-Gren Foundation grant would permit analysis of a recently discovered Transitional/Early Lambayeque period occupation (AD 800-950) at the Late Moche religious center of Huaca Colorada in the southern Jequetepeque Valley, Peru. The contexts include a large feasting midden, an adjacent domestic area, and ceremonial architecture built in the predominately Moche-period monumental zone of the site (AD 650-800). Our research will test whether the onset of the Transitional Period and the likely adoption of new religious ideologies translated to shifts in the periodicities of practice and rituals of social memory at Huaca Colorada. Therefore, the proposed research is designed to shed light on the social impact of the 'collapse' of Moche political theology in the region. It also aims to develop more sophisticated archaeological methods for explaining historical process. In fact, profound sociopolitical disjunctures are often directly related to changes in the temporalities of practice and the ideological regulation of time itself, and our research will examine how changing depositional practices possibly underwrote alterations in the pace and tempo of everyday life. In addition, the project stands to make important contributions to anthropological research on the interrelationships of religious and political change. Ideological innovations, often related to social unrest or environmental perturbations, have the potential to disrupt longstanding cultural dispositions, leading to new material realities and naturalizing novel experiences of time and place. Ultimately, we plan to investigate the degree to which the collapse of the Moche ideological complex affected everyday routines and social practices in the southern Jequetepeque Valley.
Belmar Pantelis, Carolina Andrea, U. of Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires, Argentina - To aid research on 'Plant Exploitation amoung Steppe Hunter Gatherers: An Approach from Plant Microfossils, Baño Nuevo 1 Cave Site,' supervised by Dr. Cristian Favier Dubois
CAROLINA BELMAR PANTELIS, then a student at University of Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires, Argentina, received a grant in May 2010 to aid research on 'Plant Exploitation among Steppe Hunter Gatherers: An Approach from Plant Microfossils, Baño Nuevo 1 Cave Site,' supervised by Dr. Cristian Favier Dubois. This project was oriented to study the plant remains at a Patagonian steppe hunter-gatherer site, Baño Nuevo (11,480-3000 AP, Aisén, Chile), which is a type of evidence not commonly used in hunter-gatherer investigations. In order to determine what plants are being exploited at Baño Nuevo, our studies focused on plant microfossils present in stone tool residues and fruits and seeds recovered from the Early, Middle and Late Holocene Occupations defined for the site. The archaeological seeds and fruits demonstrate the exploitation of local plants -- shrubs with edible fruits and herbaceaous plants -- that are recurrent during the three periods of occupation. Residue analysis show the use of a diverse set of stone tools for the procurement and/or processing of plant resources, indicating the multifunctionality of these instruments. There is also a constant in the plants that were identified for each occupation, which corresponds to local herbaceaous plants. Tus we were able to identify plant remains for the three Holocene occupations of Baño Nuevo, indicating a tendency to exploit local plants near to the site, as well as the presence of a plant from humid environments signaling access to these areas and, thus, mobility or exchange.
Fox, Jason R., U. of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA - To aid research on 'Continuity and Change in Social Organization of an Early Village Society,' supervised by Dr. Marc P. Bermann
JASON R. FOX, then a student at the University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, received funding in May 2003 to aid research on 'Continuity and Change in Social Organization of an Early Village Society,' supervised by Dr. Marc P. Bermann. Excavations at two Formative Period (ca. 2000 BC- 200 AD) mound sites of the Wankarani Complex in western Bolivia indicate considerable inter-settlement diversity in socioeconomic organization during this period. Using a series of deep trench and test pit excavations (2-5 m) at the settlements of Pusno and Chuquifta, this investigation has revealed sequences of deposits spanning at least six centuries, from ca. 1000 BC to 400 BC. This study represents the first diachronic investigation of the Wankarani Complex, with the objectives of examining settlement variability in both space and time. The broad spatial and temporal excavation samples taken from the two sites permit comparisons of changing site structure and site function using both feature and artifact databases. Contrasts in these databases suggest that these two settlements played very different roles in the Formative Period settlement system of the La Joya area.
Kohn, Alison S., U. of Chicago, Chicago, IL - To aid research on 'Towards an Archaeology of Urban Process in a Post-Colonial Context: An Ethnographic Case Study in La Paz, Bolivia,' supervised by Dr. Michael D. Dietler
ALISON S. KOHN, then a student at the University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois, received funding in September 2003 to aid research on 'Towards an Archaeology of Urban Process in a Post-Colonial Context: An Ethnographic Case Study in La Paz, Bolivia,' supervised by Dr. Michael D. Dietler. As in most Latin American cities, under Spanish colonialism the city of La Paz, Bolivia consisted of spatialized hierarchies of race and class, in which Spanish and mestizo occupied the center of town, pushing the much larger indigenous Aymara population to the periphery. Today, postcolonial La Paz consists of a melange of modern and colonial architecture, of planned and unplanned design, of city-built and inhabitant-built neighborhoods sprawling from its Spanish colonial core. Together, La Paz's neighborhoods still represent a vertical sociology of unequal politicoeconomic social relations -- a conspicuous colonial artifact. Social scientists suggest that the built environment mediates social relations in particular ways -- indeed, contributes to their reproduction. This ethnoarchaeological research has asked: How do spatial and temporal practices in La Paz contribute to the reproduction of this vertical sociology? And, in what ways has it changed over time? Ultimately, this research has sought to understand how the built environment mediates relations of power in postcolonial cities. Thus this project has investigated the intersection of political authority, history and urbanization through a case study of the historical social production of one vernacular neighborhood in La Paz, including its relation to the city and its institutions as a whole. There were two major phases of research. Phase I: Vernacular Construction Practices through Time, was a detailed inquiry into the production of the built environment, how things are built, who builds them, how labor is organized and mobilized, where people get materials, and what social relationships are involved in this production. These processes were traced temporally and spatially through Munaypata's history through the collection of narratives from first generation residents and their descendants, urban planning officials, as well as through archival, museum, and urban planning documents. Phase II: Spatio-temporal Knowledge and Practice, added social action to the research focusing mainly on the residents of Munaypata. It sought to theorize how the logic of production engages with the logic of practice. Thus, this part of the research was concerned with gathering detailed information about residents' lifecycles in relation to the built environment -- in other words human histories as related to building histories or settlement biographies. This approach sought to understand how temporality is integrated with the urban landscape to produce a spatio-temporally organized social life. How is space-time reckoned through practice in La Paz? Are social roles distributed across different spatio-temporal networks? How? This second phase of research also examined spatial schemas or mental maps. These ideas about space were gathered through the use of strategies developed in the field of environmental psychology in which subjects are asked to draw representations of space such as representations of the neighborhood, representations of the city as a whole, and representations of important localities that individuals experience regularly. The idea was to record how people understand and imagine the city.