Wernke, Dr. Steven A., U. of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC - To aid 'Andean Interfaces: An Archaeo-History of Community, State, and Landscape in the Peruvian Highlands' - Richard Carley Hunt Fellowship
STEVEN A WERNKE, Vanderbilt University, received a Hunt Postdoctoral Fellowship in 2006 to support research and writing on 'Andean Interfaces: An Archaeo-History of Community, State, and Landscape in the Peruvian Highlands'. The book (under contract, University Press of Florida) integrates archaeological and ethnohistorical research to produce a local-scale view of the negotiation and transformation of community and land-use organization during terminal prehispanic and early colonial times in the Colca Valley of southern Peru. It traces the development of the regionally important Collagua ethnic polity and explores how local Inka provincial administrative centers grafted onto local communities, how such provincial outposts were transformed into missionary outposts during early colonial times, and how a subsequent viceroyalty-wide resettlement program in the 1570s built upon and transformed local conceptions and features of community and landscape. Through Geographical Information System-based analysis of a series of Spanish colonial administrative surveys in the Colca Valley, Andean Interfaces presents a detailed reconstruction of early colonial land tenure patterns, which are used to interpret pre- and post-Hispanic patterns of settlement, political organization, and land use. The fellowship also supported the publication of journal articles for American Anthropologist, the International Journal of Historical Archaeology, and two edited volume chapters. Two further journal articles near completion were initiated with the support of this fellowship.
Wernke, Steven A. 2007. Negotiating Community and Landscape In the Peruvian Andes: A Transconquest View. American Anthropologist 109(1):130-152.
Bray, Dr. Tamara L., Wayne State U., Detroit, MI; and Echeverria Almeida, Mr. Jose, Fondo de Salvamento del Patrimonio Cultural, Canton Ibarra, Ecuador - To aid collaborative research on 'Imperial Inca Statecraft and the Architecture of Power'
DR. TAMARA L. BRAY, Wayne State University, Detroit, Michigan, and JOSE ECHEVERRIA ALMEIDA, Fondo de Salvamento del Patrimonio Cultural, Canton Ibarra, Ecuador, were awarded an International Collaborative Research Grant in October 2008, to aid collaborative research on 'Imperial Inca Statecraft and the Architecture of Power.' The focus of this project was the late imperial site of Inca-Caranqui located in the northern Ecuadorian highlands. Situated at the northernmost edge of the Inca Empire, this site is believed to constitute the last imperial construction episode prior to the Spanish invasion. The aim of the project was to explore the role of imperial architecture as a material strategy of Inca statecraft and reveal how such strategies evolved as a function of time and distance from the imperial capital of Cuzco. Using a combination of archaeological, ethnohistoric, and remote-sensing techniques, it was possible to precisely document the main architectural features at the site, create an architectural plan of the site layout, gain insight into the kinds of activities that occurred within the ceremonial core of the site, and establish the presence of a significant earlier Caranqui occupation at the site. These data provide the baseline for the comparative study with Inca installations closer to the heartland and from earlier phases of empire that offer insight into evolving state interests, local dynamics, and imperial innovation. The training component of the project, comprising a two-week seminar on archaeological site conservation, was conducted in collaboration with the INPC, well-attended, and resulted in a practical conservation plan for the site of Inca-Caranqui.
Bray, Tamara L. 2013. Water, Ritual, And Power in the Inca Empire. Latin American Antiquity 24(2):164-190.
Duke, Guy Stephen, U. of Toronto, Toronto, Canada - To aid research on 'Consuming Identities: Culinary Practice in the Late Moche Jequetepeque Valley, Peru,' supervised by Dr. Edward Rueben Swenson
GUY S. DUKE, then a graduate student at University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada, received funding in April 2013 to aid research on 'Consuming Identities: Culinary Practice in the Late Moche Jequetepeque Valley, Peru,' supervised by Dr. Edward R. Swenson. The archaeological study of culinary practices provides an excellent point of entry to investigate everything from status and ethnicity to group and individual identity. This project was designed to shed light on the cultural politics of food preparation and consumption within the specific context of sociopolitical and environmental transformations distinguishing the Late Moche Period (AD 600-850) in the Jequetepeque Valley. The 2013 field season investigated a rural site on the north side of the valley (Je-64) for comparison with previously excavated data from the large ceremonial centre of Huaca Colorada on the south side of the valley. Preliminary results from Je-64 indicate that the site was composed of seven discrete sectors including two residential/domestic areas and a ritual core marked by differential architecture and ceramic and lithic assemblages. Food remains revealed the presence of llama, cuy, maize, squash, beans, peppers (ají), guava, and potato. The preliminary evidence suggests that distinct 'culinary packages' shaped the experience and perception of different places at Je-64 and Huaca Colorada. The data from both sites are beginning to point to the existence of multiple corporate and individual identities during the Late Moche period in the Jequetepeque Valley.
Klarich, Dr. Elizabeth A., Cotsen Inst (UCLA), Santa Monica, CA; and Flores Blanco, Luis A., Puno, Peru - To aid collaborative research on 'Evaluating Early Urbanism at Pukara, Peru'
Preliminary abstract: Funding is requested to support a collaborative archaeological research project in the Lake Titicaca Basin of Peru that includes (1) a field project at the site of Pukara, Department of Puno, and (2) a training component for Peruvian undergraduate students focused on local site museum development. First, the field project consists of two months of mapping and excavations within two major areas at the site--the central district and the site periphery--to evaluate models for why and how Pukara developed into the first regional center in the northern Lake Titicaca Basin during the Late Formative Period (500 BC- AD 400). The mapping and excavations will be co-directed by the ICRG co-applicants, Elizabeth Klarich and Luis Angel Flores Blanco, Andean archaeologists with distinct perspectives based on their regional field experience, academic training, and specific research interests. After the conclusion of the field project, recovered materials will be inventoried, analyzed, and curated. The co-applicants will work jointly in all stages of the field project, including publication of findings in both Spanish and English. Secondly, the proposed training component provides an opportunity for four undergraduate students to develop a permanent exhibit documenting prehistoric and modern pottery production within the Museo Lítico Pukara.
Klarich, Elizabeth. 2014. Crafting, Community, and Collaboration: Reflections on the Ethnographic Sala Project at the Pukara Lithic Museum, Peru. Museum Anthropology 37(2):118-132
Miotti, Dr. Laura L., Museo de La Plata, La Plata, Argentina - To aid conference on 'Early Man in America: A Hundred Years from the Ameghino-Hrdlicka Debate (1910-2010),' 2010, U. Nacional de La Plata, in collaboration with Dr. Monica Cira Salemme
Preliminary abstract: The International Symposium 'Early Man in America' was held in August 2002 for the first time in Mexico D.F. Since then the meeting was celebrated every two years in the same country and has gained a great interest among very well known researchers and specialists in the topic on Peopling of the Americas, from Mexico and other countries as well. Presentations and the visit to archaeological sites were great motivations for stimulating the discussion on this subject. This time, the Faculty of Natural Sciences and Museum of La Plata offers the possibility of a new edition of this event, this time celebrating 100 years of the debate about the antiquity of man in America between F. Ameghino and A. Hrdlicka. The aim is to seek in the history of these scientific ideas a framework for positioning the present state of knowledge --theoretical and methodological tendencies in different countries- and to know the academic and extra-academic impact that this topic has in the present complex, heterogeneous society, where the claim of material and intangible culture is increasing and, whereas the request of identity goes up in relationship with the remote past.
Schauer, Matthew Philip, U. of Illinois, Chicago, IL - To aid research on 'Warfare on the Inca Frontier: Fortification, Imperialism, and Interaction on the Frontier in Northern Ecuador,' supervised by Dr. Lawrence Harold Keeley
MATTHEW SCHAUER, then a student at University of Illinois, Chicago, Illinois, received funding in April 2009 to aid research on 'Warfare on the Inca Frontier: Fortification, Imperialism, and Interaction on the Frontier in Northern Ecuador,' supervised by Dr. Lawrence Keeley. In the northern Ecuadorian highlands, the Inca constructed fourteen fortifications at Pambamarca to subjugate a local chiefdom called the Cayambe. These sites are clustered together yet vary in the number of walls, structures, defensives, and size. The purpose of this dissertation project was to explain the variability and clustering of these sites and determine the types of activities that took place. This study was carried out in three phases. The first phase was survey using a combination of methods to establish a typology identifying a three-tier hierarchy of fortress sites. The next phase of research involved a systematic test sampling program from the three types. The purpose of this phase was to determine the density and distribution of occupation across a site. The final phase involved larger excavation units to expose what type of activities were happening at these sites, the sequence of occupation and who exactly was occupying these sites. Preliminary results suggest that different types fulfilled different roles. The imperial strategy of the Pambamarca complex of fortifications appears to have functioned as a complex network of imperial garrisons meant to prevent incursions from across the frontier with smaller sites serving as watchtowers for mutual support and defense.
Abraham, Sarah Jane, U. of California, Santa Barbara, CA - To aid research on 'Provincial Life in the Inca Empire: Continuity and Change at Hatun Lucanas, Peru,' supervised by Dr. Katharina Jeanne Schreiber
SARAH J. ABRAHAM, then a student at the University of California, Santa Barbara, California, received funding in April 2006 to aid research on 'Provincial Life in the Inca Empire: Continuity and Change at Hatun Lucanas, Peru,' supervised by Dr. Katharina J. Schreiber. This project investigates the imperial-provincial relationship between the Inca empire (AD 1438-1532) and the people of Hatun Lucanas in the southern highlands of Peru. Funding supported excavation, detailed mapping, and architectural analysis, and laboratory analysis were conducted to better understand the transition from autonomous polity to subjugated population. Excavations at Hatun Lucanas targeted residential compounds to expose domestic contexts and their associated artifacts and architectural elements. Those data were then used to identify changes in local political, economic, and social organization after Inca conquest. Preliminary observations suggest that this project provides the first documentation of Lucanas material culture including pottery styles, architectural canons, and mortuary practices. Additionally, data reveal a shift in local political organization with the emergence of local elites after Inca conquest. Finally, changes were detected in the local economy during the Late Horizon. Excavations uncovered evidence of textile production and metalworking at Hatun Lucanas as well as an intensification in processing, likely of food, metals, or pigments. Ongoing analysis will provide additional lines of evidence with which to reconstruct the nature and magnitude of imperialism at the local level.
Williams Dr. Veronica Isabel, U. of Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires, Argentina - To aid research on 'Contested Spaces: Social Conflict in the Mid Calchaqui Valley (ca. 900-1400 AD), Salta, Northwest Argentina'
DR. VERONICA I. WILLIAMS, University of Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires, Argentina, received funding in October 2008 to aid research on 'Contested Spaces: Social Conflict in the Mid-Calchaqui Valley (ca. 900-1400 AD), Salta, Argentina.' Several scholars have mentioned to an endemic conflict situation in the Central and Southern Andes prior to the Inca expansion (ca. AD 900-1430). This project tried to evaluate whether such a situation existed in the Angastaco and Molinos basins in the mid-Calchaquí Valley in northwestern Argentina. Several extensive archaeological surveys located a significant number of Prehispanic settlements on highly visible flat areas (pukaras). This particular geographic location appears to be a local expression of this warfare situation, as well as a direct consequence of a demographic increase that caused the widening of agricultural lands and growing social stress among neighboring communities. Mappings, excavations, and surveys were conducted in eight of these settlements, yielding different archaeological material including ceramic, lithic, faunal, and botanical remains. Radiocarbon dating was also performed to get a better understanding of the chronology of the area. All these lines of evidence allowed the grantee to posit that local populations were subjected to some situation of insecurity, which led them to settle in high-altitude sites with defensive architecture, difficult access, but away from primary resources that forced them to transport and store goods in these settlements.
Bray, Dr. Tamara L., Wayne State U., Detroit, MI - To aid research on 'Copacabana and the Imperial Inca State: Topography and Temporality of a Sacred Place'
Preliminary abstract: The modest town of Copacabana has been a pilgrimage destination and a site of extraordinary reverence from Formative times to the present. Situated on the Bolivian side of a rugged peninsula at the south end of Lake Titicaca, Copacabana--together with the Islands of the Sun and Moon--formerly comprised one the most sacred ceremonial complexes in the Inca Empire. While the islands have received at least some archaeological attention over the past century, Copacabana proper has been little studied, likely due to the fact of its continuous occupation from the Colonial period onward. The proposed project will focus on the central religious precinct of Copacabana with the principal concern being the nature of Inca engagement with this powerful locale as evidenced through spatial and material patterns and practices. We will begin our investigations with a geophysical survey of the area known as Intinqala, a municipally-owned space within the town proper containing numerous, carved stone outcrops of Inca affiliation, and proceed from there with mapping and test excavations. Working from the idea that significant places are continuously made and re-made through the agency of 'doings'--be such doings spoken, performed, or materialized--we ultimately hope to address whether the imperial approach to making and engaging the sacred in the particular context of Copacabana differed significantly from earlier forms of engagement and doings at this site. At a broader level, we anticipate that the proposed study will provide insights into the ways in which topographies of the sacred are constructed; how attachments to place are formed and transformed over time; and how power, place, and identity are materially and mutually constituted.
Echenique, Ester, U. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ - To aid research on 'Style, Ideology, and Empire: Rethinking Materiality in the Southern Inka Expansion,' supervised by Dr. David Killick
Preliminary abstract: While scholars have emphasized administrative architecture and spatial organization in studies of Inka state control of conquered provinces, portable objects have also played a key role in legitimating Inka state ideology. Drawing on theories of ideology and materiality, this research asks how Inka imperialism was materialized in portable objects by examining how the Inka used and manipulated provincial ceramic styles. The decorated and stylistically distinct Yavi-Chicha ceramics from the Chicha region (Río Grande de San Juan Basin in the Bolivia-Argentina border), widely distributed in the Circumpuna region (the tri-border region of S Bolivia, NW Argentina, and N Chile), provides the ideal subject for this inquiry. This proposed project will examine ceramics from the core Chicha region and from two key areas of circulation and interaction, the Quebrada de Humahuaca in Argentina and the Loa/San Pedro de Atacama region in Chile, where the Inka transformed local societies. Technological styles and the life-history of Yavi-Chicha ceramics will be investigated with the purpose of understanding people-object interactions, in this case the role of material objects in producing and legitimating state power and ideologies. Variation and similarities of low and high visibility technological and compositional attributes documented through macroscopic and compositional analyses will be used to infer technological choices at all levels of manufacturing processes and will serve as indicators of production groups, geographic distribution, interaction networks, and the relationship between local knowledge and state power.