Hayashida, Dr. Frances Mariko, U. of New Mexico, Albuuerque, NM; and Troncoso, Dr. Andres, U. of Chile, Santiago, Chile - To aid collaborative research on 'Agriculture and Empire in the High-Altitude Atacama'
Preliminary abstract: In the 15th Century, the Inka conquered the Atacama highlands to take control of its mineral wealth. To extract resources and administer the region, they expanded the road system, built new installations, and stationed officials at existing political centers. We propose that these activities were accompanied by the reorganization of irrigation agriculture to provision state personnel. With the shift from subsistence to tributary production, we also expect a change in the kinds or proportions of crops that were grown. Furthermore, community and household organization was likely transformed by state efforts to control and increase production. In a new collaboration, researchers from the U.S., Chile, and Spain will begin to collect data to test these ideas from two sites located between the Upper Loa and Salado drainages during a six week field season. Fieldwork will include mapping and surface observations, geological survey, test excavations, and sample collection for dating, soil, and botanical analyses. Participating Chilean students will learn how archaeologists study and interpret past land use and will gain hands-on experience in the field with specialists in geospatial technologies, dating and environmental archaeology. Results from the 2013 season will be used to formulate multi-year requests to other agencies for continued fieldwork.
Sauer, Dr. Jacob, Vanderbilt U., Nashville, TN - To aid engaged activities on 'Presenting the Archaeological Past to Mapuche Communities and the Public in South-Central Chile,' 2014, Chile
Preliminary abstract: The Mapuche, also known as the Araucanians, of south-central Chile are one of the few indigenous societies in the Americas to successfully resist and expel the Spanish from their ancestral lands, maintaining their independence for more than 350 years. Many historical treatments of Mapuche culture argue, however, that the Mapuche are a result of European influence rather than a continuation of previous cultural development. This has directly influenced the modern conflict between Mapuche communities and the Chilean state, as well as the perception of the Mapuche by many Chileans. This project will present the results of archaeological, ethnographic, and ethnohistoric research in south-central Chile, which argues that Mapuche culture developed in the centuries before the arrival of the Spanish, and that development directly influenced the ability of the Mapuche to successfully expel the Spanish while maintaining their previous cultural patterns and practices with limited outside influence. Presentations will be given to modern Mapuche communities, museums, and academic institutions in order to communicate the results of this research and to foster discussion on Mapuche culture history among academics, Chileans, and the Mapuche themselves.
Velasco, Matthew Carlos, Vanderbilt U., Nashville, TN - To aid research on 'Burials and Boundaries: Bioarchaeological Perspectives on Social Differentiation and Integration in the Late Prehispanic Andes,' supervised by Dr. Tiffiny Audrey Tung
Preliminary abstract: Where and how the dead are buried are powerful ideological statements that can transform sociopolitical relationships among the living. In the Andes, the proliferation of above-ground sepulchers during an era of political fragmentation (AD 1000-1450) has been linked to the exclusive land-holding practices of kin-based corporate groups. Yet whether burial towers and caves actually reified social boundaries between corporate groups, or alternatively promoted alliance and exchange among different political or economic factions, remains unexplored through skeletal analysis of the individuals buried therein. In the Colca valley (south-central highland Peru), distinctions between kin and subsistence-based groups mediated resource access in prehispanic times, but it is unknown if and how these social divisions were expressed in mortuary practice. Using biodistance, biochemical and morphological analyses, I will analyze skeletal populations from discrete tomb groups in the valley to assess variation in biological affinity, diet and cranial modification. The patterning of phenotypic and dietary variation across mortuary space will reveal whether above-ground tombs structured boundaries based on endogamy and subsistence. Research will enhance current understanding of the local strategies that shaped social interaction during a politically tumultuous period and contribute to anthropological knowledge on community formation and boundary maintenance in the past and present.
Acuto, Felix, CONICET, Buenos Aires, Argentina and Troncoso Melendez, Andres, U. of Chile, Santiago- To aid collaborative research on 'Inca Ritual Activities and Landscapes in the Southern Andes'
Acuto, Félix A. 2011. Encuentros Coloniales, Heterodoxia y Ortodoxia en el Valle Calchaqui Norte Bajo El Dominio Inka. Estudios Atacamenios. 42:5-32.
Acuto, Felix A. 2012. Landscapes of Inequality, Spectacle, and Control: Inka Social Order in Provincial Contexts. Revista de Antropologia 25(1):9-64.
Acuto, Félix A., Andrés Troncoso, and Alejandro Ferrari. 2012. Recognizing Strategies for Conquered Territories: A Case Study from the Inka North Calchaqui Valley. Antiquity 86: 1141-1154.
Acuto, Félix A., Marina Smith, and Ezequiel Gilardenghi. 2011. Reenhebrando El Pasado: Hacia Una Epistemologia de la Materialidad. Boletin del Museo Chileno de Arte Precolombino 16(2):9-26.
Andrés Troncoso, Daniel Pavlovic, Félix Acuto, Rodrigo Sánchez, A. César González-García. 2012. Complejo Arquitectonico Cerro Mercachas: Arquitectura y Ritualidad Incaica en Chile Central. Revista Espanola de Anthropologia Americana 42(2):293-319
Bruno, Maria C., Washington U., St. Louis, MO - To aid research on 'Agricultural Intensification and Formative Period Society: An Ethnobotanical and Paleoethnobotanical Approach,' supervised by Dr. David L. Browman
MARIA C. BRUNO, while a student at Washington University in St. Louis, was awarded a grant in October 2003 to aid in research on agricultural intensification and its role in the development of complex societies during the Formative period (1500B.C. - A.D.500) in the southern Lake Titicaca Basin of the Andes. The research included an ethnobotanical study of present-day agricultural practices on the Taraco Peninsula, Bolivia, and a paleoethnobotanical study of plant remains from Formative period sites in the same region. The ethnobotanical field work provided insight into small-scale intensification processes (particularly weeding, tilling, and fertilizing), characteristics of soils and their productivity in relation to weather patterns, and social aspects of agricultural production. Extensive plant collections provided the link between the ethnobotanical observations and the archaeological plant record. Throughout the paleoethnobotanical analysis, the reference collection has facilitated identification of species that are associated with past agricultural and food practices, such as small-scale processes of intensification, changes in land use related to climate change, and the importance of local agricultural food products in early ceremonial contexts. Results from submitted AMS radiocarbon dates on identified carbonized remains will permit the researcher to track the timing of these agricultural trends and relate them to concomitant changes in climate and social complexity.
Hayashida, Dr. Frances Mariko, U. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM - To aid 'The Ynalche Project: Water, Land, Politics, and Society on the Late Prehispanic North Coast of Peru'
DR. FRANCES M. HAYASHIDA, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, New Mexico, received a grant in May 2008 to aid research on 'The Ynalche Project: Water, Land, Politics, and Society on the Late Prehispanic North Coast of Peru.' The Ynalche Project investigates the politics and ecology of prehispanic agriculture on the north coast of Peru. Our study area is the Pampa de Chaparri in Lambayeque, where abandonment shortly after the Spanish Conquest has resulted in the preservation of a pre-Columbian rural landscape. The pampa was originally occupied in A.D. 900 during Sicán rule and was conquered by the Chimú and then the Inka Empires. Previous fieldwork documented significant shifts in settlement pattern following conquest as water management shifted from local communities to the state. During the 2008 season, researchers examined the effects of conquest at the scale of the community and the household by mapping Site 256A01, a large settlement with Sicán through Inka occupations, and through excavation of domestic structures at the site. The work documented a significant shift in the layout and style of structures under imperial rule. Excavations included collecting samples for macrobotanical and microfossil analyses to evaluate changes in landscape, and diet. Mapping and excavation also revealed ample evidence for craft (particularly metallurgical) production during the Sicán occupation of the site. Analysis of production tools and by-products will allow us to compare rural production with previously excavated workshops at or near the Sicán capital.
Sauer, Jacob James, Vanderbilt U., Nashville, TN - To aid research on 'The Creation of Araucanian Anti-Colonial Identity During the Contact Period, AD 1552-1602,' supervised by Dr. Thomas Dalton Dillehay
JACOB JAMES SAUER, then a student at Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee, received a grant in October 2008, to aid research on 'The Creation of Araucanian Anti-Colonial Identity during the Contact Period, AD 1552-1602,' supervised by Dr. Thomas Dalton Dillehay. Unlike the majority of indigenous groups in the Americas, the Araucanians (today known as the Mapuche) of south-central Chile resisted and rejected Spanish attempts to colonize ancestral lands, managing to maintain social, political, and economic autonomy for more than 350 years. Archaeological excavations conducted at the Contact period (AD 1550-1602) site of Santa Sylvia, ethnographic research in the surrounding area of Pucón-Villarrica, and ethnohistoric investigation of primary source documents from the colonial period indicate that the Araucanians in the region used pre-existing cultural patterns, systems, and practices that allowed them to defeat the Spanish and retain control of their territory. The Spanish were unable to inhabit the site for more than five years, and Araucanian material culture (ceramics, tools, etc.) show limited influence from the Spanish. The Araucanians adopted useful goods, such as horses, wheat, and barley, but rejected Spanish religious and political influence and experienced further cultural development, including expansion across the Andes into Argentina.
Warwick, Matthew Christopher, U. of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI - To aid research on 'Diet, Economy, and Sociopolitical Change in the Pukara Polity, North Titicaca Basin, Peru,' supervised by Dr. Jean Leslee Hudson
MATTHEW WARWICK, then a student at University of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, Wisconsin, received funding in November 2007 to aid research on 'Diet, Economy, and Sociopolitical Change in the Pukara Polity, North Titicaca Basin, Peru,' supervised by Dr. Jean Hudson. In the Lake Titicaca Basin, the Formative period featured extensive changes in sociopolitical complexity, ritual practice, and economic organization following the transition from villages to the regional Late Formative polities of Pukara and Tiwanaku. These changes were fueled through development and intensification of agro-pastoral economies. Thus, it becomes imperative that subsistence and herding strategies supporting life at both the village- and polity-level are understood. The database for the southern basin is robust, due to long-term research at Chiripa, Tiwanaku, and associated sites. This project was designed to collect comparable data for Formative contexts within the northern basin, the heartland of the Pukara polity. Large faunal assemblages from Huatacoa and Pukara -- two sites spanning the Early to Late Formative periods -- were studied. These sites represent a small village site and the nearby polity center, where domestic contexts, public area, and ritual architecture had been excavated. The completed project seeks to address animal use in everyday meals, commensal politics, and ritual activity. Camelids are being studied to investigate site and polity-wide herd management practices. Additional data collected included taxonomic abundance; camelid osteometrics, mortality profiles, and body part distribution; taphonomy; and methods of butchery, food preparation, and bone tool production.