Thames, Horacio B., U. of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA - To aid research on 'Emergence and Development of Political Organization in the Tafi Valley (N.W. Argentina),' supervised by Dr. Robert D. Drennan
HORACIO B. THAMES, then a student at the University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, received funding in May 2002 to aid research on 'Emergence and Development of Political Organization in the Tafi Valley (N.W. Argentina),' supervised by Dr. Robert D. Drennan. Full-coverage survey of the Tafi Valley involved the detection and recording of architectural remains and surface scatters throughout the valley floor and piedmont zone. Instead of sites, collection units were used as the basic spatial unit of data recording and analysis. A collection unit represents a standardized area delineated in the field whose boundaries were marked on air photographs. Two types of artifact collections were made within each collection unit. Systematic collection circles were used to collect all visible artifacts until reaching a minimum sample size. When sherd density was low, an opportunistic general collection was carried out. In addition, diagnostic sherds were collected when available from each collection unit. A series of shovel probes was dug in collection units containing surface architecture when surface artifact density was low. Survey methodology utilized yielded representative collections of ceramics of various kinds that are suitable for quantitative analysis. The information provided by the regional survey primarily allowed the grantee to create a reliable database and to develop digital maps. Databases will allow the grantee to calculate both proportions of sherds of various kinds (of particular periods, or forms) and densities of surface ceramics. Digital maps compiled display areas occupied during Formative and Regional Development periods and exhibit the spatial distribution of different kinds of artifacts. A typology based on formal attributes was developed to categorize domestic, public, and productive (agricultural and pastoral) structures recorded. Intersite comparison of architectural composition will be used to assess character and magnitude of complexity (i.e., functional differentiation) throughout the sequence.
Belisle, Veronique, U. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI - To aid research on 'Wari Imperial Expansion and Household Change in Cusco, Peru,' supervised by Dr. Joyce Marcus
VERONIQUE BELISLE, then a student at the University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, received funding in May 2007 to aid research on 'Wari Imperial Expansion and Household Change in Cusco, Peru,' supervised by Dr. Joyce Marcus. From AD 600 to 1000 (a period called the Middle Horizon), the Wari empire started to expand out of its homeland in the highlands of Peru. The Wari began to establish regional administrative centers to control the areas it conquered. In the Cusco region the Wari built two large settlements and, based on archaeological evidence from these sites, scholars believe that the Wari empire came to control the Cusco area. Work at the two largest Wari settlements was important but could not provide any information on the extent to which the Wari affected Cusco's local population. To address this gap in our knowledge, the archaeological site of Ak'awillay was selected and some 233 square meters were excavated there. At Ak'awillay both pre-Wari and Wari-period households were excavated to assess the nature of any residential changes that occurred as a result of the Wari presence in the Cusco area. In addition to the excavation of residential units, a large public building, probably used for ceremonial gatherings, was also excavated. In sum, funds from the Wenner-Gren Foundation were used to excavate Ak'awillay to study household organization before and after the Wari expanded into the Cusco region.
Bélisle, Véronique. 2015. Understanding Wari State Expansion: A 'Bottom-Up' Approach at the Village of Ak'awillay, Cusco, Peru. Latin American Antiquity 26(2):180-199.
Cuellar, Dr. Andrea Maria, U. of Lethbridge, Lethbridge, Canada - To aid research on 'Social Complexity in Eastern Ecuador: A Household and Community Perspective'
DR. ANDREA M. CUELLAR, University of Lethbridge, Lethbridge, Canada, was awarded a grant in April 2008 to aid research on 'Social Complexity in Eastern Ecuador: A Household and Community Perspective.' This project explored the nature of political centralization among the pre-Columbian Quijos chiefdoms through full-coverage intensive survey and test excavations at two Late Period (ca. 500-1600 AD) central-place communities in the Quijos Valley, in the eastern Andes of Ecuador. These two excavations, Pucalpa and Bermejo, appeared to be similar in size and superficial characteristics, but the intensive survey program and test excavations at each revealed important differences in spatial layout, trajectory of occupation, the disposition of agrarian space, and possibly the scale of public-ceremonial activities. Internally, however, the central places do not display economic differentiation. Analyses conducted so far suggests that central place formation may have resulted more from the growth and expansion of kin corporations without much internal economic differentiation than from the aggregation of socially or economically differentiated households. In both cases, however, the longevity of residential areas seems to be associated with larger residential groups, with a more central location within the community, and with what appears to have constituted public-ceremonial space. These findings contribute to understanding the varied nature of the process of centralization in complex societies.
Cuellar, Andrea. 2009. The Quijos Chiefdoms: Social Change and Agriculture in the Eastern Andes of Ecuador. University of Pittsburgh Latin American Archaeology Publications: Pittsburgh
Hayashida, Dr. Frances Mariko, U. of New Mexico, Albuuerque, NM; and Troncoso, Dr. Andres, U. of Chile, Santiago, Chile - To aid collaborative research on 'Agriculture and Empire in the High-Altitude Atacama'
Preliminary abstract: In the 15th Century, the Inka conquered the Atacama highlands to take control of its mineral wealth. To extract resources and administer the region, they expanded the road system, built new installations, and stationed officials at existing political centers. We propose that these activities were accompanied by the reorganization of irrigation agriculture to provision state personnel. With the shift from subsistence to tributary production, we also expect a change in the kinds or proportions of crops that were grown. Furthermore, community and household organization was likely transformed by state efforts to control and increase production. In a new collaboration, researchers from the U.S., Chile, and Spain will begin to collect data to test these ideas from two sites located between the Upper Loa and Salado drainages during a six week field season. Fieldwork will include mapping and surface observations, geological survey, test excavations, and sample collection for dating, soil, and botanical analyses. Participating Chilean students will learn how archaeologists study and interpret past land use and will gain hands-on experience in the field with specialists in geospatial technologies, dating and environmental archaeology. Results from the 2013 season will be used to formulate multi-year requests to other agencies for continued fieldwork.
Roddick, Dr. Andrew Paul, McMaster U., Hamilton, Canada - To aid research on 'The Proyecto Ollero Titicaca Sur: Community, Constellation and Genelogy in a Bolivian Potting Community'
Preliminary abstract: The aim of this project is to contribute to and advance anthropological research and theory on the materials and technical practices of learning, embodiment and skill-acquisition, by examining ceramic production in and around the community of Chijipata Alta, in the Lake Titicaca Basin of highland Bolivia. One of the most important developments in anthropological theory has been the emergence and focus on practice and embodiment. The scholarship on 'situated learning' is an essential subset of this theoretical engagement. Yet this work has paid little attention to the materiality of learning or to the larger temporal and spatial scales that are implicated in the histories of particular communities of practice. This project bridges cultural anthropological and archaeological approaches through an ethnographic and material study of a 'traditional' crafting village. We will examine technological choices within and between communities, and in the context of distinct local histories to highlight the agentive role of people in the reproduction of craft knowledge.
Roddick, Andrew P., Maria C. Bruno, and Christine A. Hastorf. 2014. Political Centers in Context: Depositional Histories at Formative Period Kala Uyuni, Bolivia. Journal of Anthropological Archaeology 36:140-157
Trever, Dr. Lisa, U. of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, CA - To aid engaged activities on 'Panamarca Scholarly Exchange and Community Engagement Project,' 2014, Peru
DR. LISA TREVER, University of California, Berkeley, California, received a grant in August 2013 to aid engaged activities on 'Panamarca Scholarly Exchange and Community Engagement Project.' The Engaged Anthropology Grant allowed the grantee to return to Peru in July 2014 for the first time since completing the dissertation, 'Moche Mural Painting at Pafiamarca: A Study of Image Making and Experience in Ancient Peru,' which received support with a Dissertation Fieldwork grant in 2010. The research project made several important discoveries of previously unknown mural paintings, which represent a real contribution to the field and to knowledge of ancient American art and cultural heritage, the results of which will be forthcoming in publication. The Engaged Anthropology Grant, however, allowed the grantee to travel to Peru to present these findings to colleagues and audiences in Lima, Casma, and Trujillo, including a public lecture at the University of Trujillo's Museum of Archaeology, Anthropology, and History. Furthermore, support from the Engaged Anthropology Grant assisted collaboration with the staff of the Museo Regional 'Max Uhle' in Casma, Peru, to improve its storage facilities for archaeological collections.
Belmar Pantelis, Carolina Andrea, U. of Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires, Argentina - To aid research on 'Plant Exploitation amoung Steppe Hunter Gatherers: An Approach from Plant Microfossils, Baño Nuevo 1 Cave Site,' supervised by Dr. Cristian Favier Dubois
CAROLINA BELMAR PANTELIS, then a student at University of Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires, Argentina, received a grant in May 2010 to aid research on 'Plant Exploitation among Steppe Hunter Gatherers: An Approach from Plant Microfossils, Baño Nuevo 1 Cave Site,' supervised by Dr. Cristian Favier Dubois. This project was oriented to study the plant remains at a Patagonian steppe hunter-gatherer site, Baño Nuevo (11,480-3000 AP, Aisén, Chile), which is a type of evidence not commonly used in hunter-gatherer investigations. In order to determine what plants are being exploited at Baño Nuevo, our studies focused on plant microfossils present in stone tool residues and fruits and seeds recovered from the Early, Middle and Late Holocene Occupations defined for the site. The archaeological seeds and fruits demonstrate the exploitation of local plants -- shrubs with edible fruits and herbaceaous plants -- that are recurrent during the three periods of occupation. Residue analysis show the use of a diverse set of stone tools for the procurement and/or processing of plant resources, indicating the multifunctionality of these instruments. There is also a constant in the plants that were identified for each occupation, which corresponds to local herbaceaous plants. Tus we were able to identify plant remains for the three Holocene occupations of Baño Nuevo, indicating a tendency to exploit local plants near to the site, as well as the presence of a plant from humid environments signaling access to these areas and, thus, mobility or exchange.
Belmar, Carolina, and Verónica Lema (eds.) 2015. Avances y Desafíos Metodológicos en Arqueobotánica: Miradas Consensuadas y Diálogos Compartidos desde Sudamérica. Monografías Arqueológicas, Facultad de Patrimonio Cultural y Educación, Universidad SEK: Chile.
Cuellar, Andrea M., U. of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA - To aid research on 'The Organizations of Agricultural Production in the Emergence of Chiefdoms in Valle de Los Quijos, Ecuador,' supervised by Dr. Robert D. Drennan
ANDREA M. CUELLAR, while a student at the University of Pittsburgh in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, received an award in January 2002 to aid research on the organization of agricultural production in the emergence of chiefdoms in Valle de los Quijos, Ecuador, under the supervision of Dr. Robert D. Drennan. Cuellar was concerned with the emergence of chiefly societies in the eastern piedmont of Ecuador, particularly with two main issues: the history of occupation in the region and patterns of agricultural production, emphasizing how both were related to the emergence of chiefly authority. A full-coverage, systematic regional survey was conducted to reconstruct settlement patterns at different moments of the sequence, in order to account for changes in sociopolitical structure through time. In addition, a series of test pits was excavated to collect samples for analysis of pollen and macroremains at different sites belonging to the period of chiefdom emergence. Site selection criteria targeted contrasting environmental and social contexts that might account for any observed regional differences in the organization of agricultural production as seen through the analysis of botanical remains.
Hayashida, Dr. Frances Mariko, U. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM - To aid 'The Ynalche Project: Water, Land, Politics, and Society on the Late Prehispanic North Coast of Peru'
DR. FRANCES M. HAYASHIDA, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, New Mexico, received a grant in May 2008 to aid research on 'The Ynalche Project: Water, Land, Politics, and Society on the Late Prehispanic North Coast of Peru.' The Ynalche Project investigates the politics and ecology of prehispanic agriculture on the north coast of Peru. Our study area is the Pampa de Chaparri in Lambayeque, where abandonment shortly after the Spanish Conquest has resulted in the preservation of a pre-Columbian rural landscape. The pampa was originally occupied in A.D. 900 during Sicán rule and was conquered by the Chimú and then the Inka Empires. Previous fieldwork documented significant shifts in settlement pattern following conquest as water management shifted from local communities to the state. During the 2008 season, researchers examined the effects of conquest at the scale of the community and the household by mapping Site 256A01, a large settlement with Sicán through Inka occupations, and through excavation of domestic structures at the site. The work documented a significant shift in the layout and style of structures under imperial rule. Excavations included collecting samples for macrobotanical and microfossil analyses to evaluate changes in landscape, and diet. Mapping and excavation also revealed ample evidence for craft (particularly metallurgical) production during the Sicán occupation of the site. Analysis of production tools and by-products will allow us to compare rural production with previously excavated workshops at or near the Sicán capital.