Zovar, Jennifer Montgomery Johnson, Vanderbilt U., Nashville, TN - To aid research on 'Post-Collapse Formations of Community, Memory, and Identity: The Archaeology of Pukara de Khonkho, Bolivia,' supervised by Dr. John Wayne Janusek
JENNIFER M. ZOVAR, while a student at Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee, was awarded a grant in May 2008 to aid research on 'Post-Collapse Formations of Community, Memory, and Identity: The Archaeology of Pukara de Khonkho, Bolivia,' supervised by Dr. John W. Janusek. The goal of the investigation was to use the large, densely populated settlement of Pukara de Khonkho as a test case to examine community development following the collapse of the Tiwanaku state, specifically considering the roles of population movement and intercommunity interaction. This phase of research focused on intensive ceramic analysis of excavated material from Pukara de Khonkho and nearby sites. Vessel form, paste, decoration, finish and use wear were recorded. A comparison of the results illustrates that the inhabitants of Pukara de Khonkho shared a common ceramic style that was dissimilar from neighboring communities, and it is suggested that these differences represent one example of the material manifestation of distinct community identities. The results of additional laboratory tests, including ICPMS analysis of ceramic sherds, strontium isotope analysis of human bone, and radiocarbon dating will help to, respectively, provenience ceramic production, identify first generation migrants, and situate the Pukara de Khonkho in regional chronology.
Billman, Dr. Brian R., U. of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC - To aid 'The Cerro Oreja Archaeological Project'
Lambert, Patricia M., Clest M. Gagnon, Brian R. Billman, et al. 2012. Bone Chemistry at Cerro Oreja: A Stable Isotope Perspective on the Development of a Regional Economy in the Moche Valley, Peru during the Early Intermediate Period. Latin American Antiquity 23(20):144-166.
Duke, Guy Stephen, U. of Toronto, Toronto, Canada - To aid research on 'Consuming Identities: Culinary Practice in the Late Moche Jequetepeque Valley, Peru,' supervised by Dr. Edward Rueben Swenson
GUY S. DUKE, then a graduate student at University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada, received funding in April 2013 to aid research on 'Consuming Identities: Culinary Practice in the Late Moche Jequetepeque Valley, Peru,' supervised by Dr. Edward R. Swenson. The archaeological study of culinary practices provides an excellent point of entry to investigate everything from status and ethnicity to group and individual identity. This project was designed to shed light on the cultural politics of food preparation and consumption within the specific context of sociopolitical and environmental transformations distinguishing the Late Moche Period (AD 600-850) in the Jequetepeque Valley. The 2013 field season investigated a rural site on the north side of the valley (Je-64) for comparison with previously excavated data from the large ceremonial centre of Huaca Colorada on the south side of the valley. Preliminary results from Je-64 indicate that the site was composed of seven discrete sectors including two residential/domestic areas and a ritual core marked by differential architecture and ceramic and lithic assemblages. Food remains revealed the presence of llama, cuy, maize, squash, beans, peppers (ají), guava, and potato. The preliminary evidence suggests that distinct 'culinary packages' shaped the experience and perception of different places at Je-64 and Huaca Colorada. The data from both sites are beginning to point to the existence of multiple corporate and individual identities during the Late Moche period in the Jequetepeque Valley.
Klarich, Dr. Elizabeth A., Cotsen Inst (UCLA), Santa Monica, CA; and Flores Blanco, Luis A., Puno, Peru - To aid collaborative research on 'Evaluating Early Urbanism at Pukara, Peru'
Preliminary abstract: Funding is requested to support a collaborative archaeological research project in the Lake Titicaca Basin of Peru that includes (1) a field project at the site of Pukara, Department of Puno, and (2) a training component for Peruvian undergraduate students focused on local site museum development. First, the field project consists of two months of mapping and excavations within two major areas at the site--the central district and the site periphery--to evaluate models for why and how Pukara developed into the first regional center in the northern Lake Titicaca Basin during the Late Formative Period (500 BC- AD 400). The mapping and excavations will be co-directed by the ICRG co-applicants, Elizabeth Klarich and Luis Angel Flores Blanco, Andean archaeologists with distinct perspectives based on their regional field experience, academic training, and specific research interests. After the conclusion of the field project, recovered materials will be inventoried, analyzed, and curated. The co-applicants will work jointly in all stages of the field project, including publication of findings in both Spanish and English. Secondly, the proposed training component provides an opportunity for four undergraduate students to develop a permanent exhibit documenting prehistoric and modern pottery production within the Museo Lítico Pukara.
Klarich, Elizabeth. 2014. Crafting, Community, and Collaboration: Reflections on the Ethnographic Sala Project at the Pukara Lithic Museum, Peru. Museum Anthropology 37(2):118-132
Miotti, Dr. Laura L., Museo de La Plata, La Plata, Argentina - To aid conference on 'Early Man in America: A Hundred Years from the Ameghino-Hrdlicka Debate (1910-2010),' 2010, U. Nacional de La Plata, in collaboration with Dr. Monica Cira Salemme
Preliminary abstract: The International Symposium 'Early Man in America' was held in August 2002 for the first time in Mexico D.F. Since then the meeting was celebrated every two years in the same country and has gained a great interest among very well known researchers and specialists in the topic on Peopling of the Americas, from Mexico and other countries as well. Presentations and the visit to archaeological sites were great motivations for stimulating the discussion on this subject. This time, the Faculty of Natural Sciences and Museum of La Plata offers the possibility of a new edition of this event, this time celebrating 100 years of the debate about the antiquity of man in America between F. Ameghino and A. Hrdlicka. The aim is to seek in the history of these scientific ideas a framework for positioning the present state of knowledge --theoretical and methodological tendencies in different countries- and to know the academic and extra-academic impact that this topic has in the present complex, heterogeneous society, where the claim of material and intangible culture is increasing and, whereas the request of identity goes up in relationship with the remote past.
Brant, Erika Marie, U. of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA - To aid research on 'Ancestors and Aggrandizers: Modeling Political Power and Ancestor Veneration in a Post-collapse Andean Society (AD 1000-1450),' supervised by Dr. Stephen Plog
ERIKA M. BRANT, then a student at University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia, was awarded funding in April 2013 to aid research on 'Ancestors and Aggrandizers: Modeling Political Power and Ancestor Veneration in a Post-collapse Andean Society (AD 1000-1450),' supervised by Dr. Stephen Plog. Anthropologists have long viewed ancestors as a source of kin-based authority that leaders draw upon to validate claims to power. An alternative viewpoint posits that ancestor worship may prevent the emergence of centralized authority and provide the ideological foundations for more equitable forms of sociality. This dissertation research project evaluates contrasting models of ancestor veneration in the Titicaca Basin of Peru through surface collection and targeted excavations at Sillustani-the foremost necropolis of the Colla ethnic group (AD 1000-1450). Following the collapse of the Tiwanaku state (c. AD 1000), the proliferation of modest forms of burial and commemoration in the Colla region seem to indicate a rejection of aggrandizing ideologies and the use of ancestors to promote more equitable social relations. Excavations at Sillustani revealed evidence for multiple elite residences, lineage-based ancestral shrines, an obsidian workshop, and also served to define the extent of the domestic sector. Materials recovered from Sillustani point to the performance of ancestor-focused rites by multiple and/or situational leaders. Forthcoming analyses of ceramic and faunal materials will further clarify the role of ancestor veneration in the reorganization of post-collapse Titicaca Basin societies.
Echenique, Ester, U. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ - To aid research on 'Style, Ideology, and Empire: Rethinking Materiality in the Southern Inka Expansion,' supervised by Dr. David Killick
Preliminary abstract: While scholars have emphasized administrative architecture and spatial organization in studies of Inka state control of conquered provinces, portable objects have also played a key role in legitimating Inka state ideology. Drawing on theories of ideology and materiality, this research asks how Inka imperialism was materialized in portable objects by examining how the Inka used and manipulated provincial ceramic styles. The decorated and stylistically distinct Yavi-Chicha ceramics from the Chicha region (Río Grande de San Juan Basin in the Bolivia-Argentina border), widely distributed in the Circumpuna region (the tri-border region of S Bolivia, NW Argentina, and N Chile), provides the ideal subject for this inquiry. This proposed project will examine ceramics from the core Chicha region and from two key areas of circulation and interaction, the Quebrada de Humahuaca in Argentina and the Loa/San Pedro de Atacama region in Chile, where the Inka transformed local societies. Technological styles and the life-history of Yavi-Chicha ceramics will be investigated with the purpose of understanding people-object interactions, in this case the role of material objects in producing and legitimating state power and ideologies. Variation and similarities of low and high visibility technological and compositional attributes documented through macroscopic and compositional analyses will be used to infer technological choices at all levels of manufacturing processes and will serve as indicators of production groups, geographic distribution, interaction networks, and the relationship between local knowledge and state power.
Klaus, Haagen D., Ohio State U., Columbus, OH - To aid 'Consequences of Contact in the Andes: A Holistic Bioarchaeological Case Study of Colonial Peru, ' supervised by Dr. Clark S. Larsen
HAAGEN D. KLAUS, then a student at Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio, was awarded a grant in May 2005 to aid research on 'Consequences of Contact in the Andes: A Holistic Bioarchaeological Case Study of Colonial Peru,' supervised by Dr. Clark S. Larsen. Contact between Native Americans and Europeans beginning in 16th century AD represented the most complex and violent biological and cultural interchange in history. This research initiated the bioarchaeological study of Central Andean contact as the first empirical, dynamic, humanized, and contextualized study of Colonial Peru. With the excavation and analysis of human remains from the Colonial Chapel of San Pedro de Morrope, Lambayeque valley, north coast Peru, three hypotheses were tested: 1.) health of the indigenous Mochica peoples declined following contact; 2.) historically inferred postcontact depopulation resulted in significantly lowered Mochica genetic diversity; and 3.) the Mochica adopted Christian burial rites that replaced traditional rituals.
These hypotheses were tested via a broadly conceived and methodologically diverse approach, examining interlinked human skeletal and dental biological phenomena: demography, skeletal infection, developmental stress, physical activity, violent trauma, and inherited dental traits. Data were drawn from 1,142 individuals spanning the late pre-Hispanic and Colonial Lambayeque Valley (AD 900-1750). Reconstruction of burial practices and indigenous culture were based on corresponding archaeological documentation of mortuary patterns and ethnohistoric documents. Initial findings support the first two hypotheses, with unprecedented negative declines in childhood and adult health marked by elevated prevalence of periosteal infection, enamel hypoplasias, growth stunting, and degenerative joint disease. A dietary shift away from marine foods is indicated by decreased oral health and lowered prevalence of porotic hyperostosis lesions (linked to anemia caused by marine parasitism) as more starchy carbohydrates were consumed. Low variability of inherited dental traits likely reflects catastrophic postcontact depopulation. However, reproduction of precontact burial rituals indicates native culture was not exterminated. The Mochica remained an embodied, agency-driven group who forged their traditions with that of the colonizers into a hybrid Euro-Andean culture, encoding symbolisms expressing indigenous identity, social memory, and symbolic resistance. This first study of Colonial Peru contributes to in-depth perspectives of consequences of social conditions on human health, European colonization of the Americas, and social interpretation of mortuary rituals in revealing how a profound turning point global history indelibly impacted the peoples of the Andes.
Klaus, Haagan. 2008. Paleopathology during the Postcontact Adaptive Transition: A View from the Colonial North Coast of Peru. Paleopathology Newsletter(143):12-28.
Klaus, Haagen D., and Manuel E. Tam. 2009. Contact in the Andes: Bioarchaeology of Systemic Stress in Colonial Mórrope, Peru. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 138(3):356-368.
Klaus, Haagen D., Clark Spencer Larsen, and Manuel E. Tam. 2009 Economic Intensification and Degenerative Joint Disease: Life and Labor on the Postcontact North Coast of Peru. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 139(2):204-221.
Moore, Dr. Jerry D., California State U. Dominguez Hills, Carson, CA - To aid workshop on 'Divergent Trajectories to Prehistoric Social Complexity in the Equatorial Andes: Un Taller Móvil,' 2010, Quito, Ecuador, in collaboration with Dr. Francisco Valdez
'Divergent Trajectories towards Social Complexity: Formative Transformations in the Equatorial Andes'
July 1-17, 2010, Ecuador and Peru (multiple locations)
Organizers: Jerry D. Moore (California State U. Dominguez Hills) and Francisco Valdez (Institute de Recherche pour la Développement)
This workshop brought together Peruvian and Ecuadorian archaeologists investigating the prehistoric origins of social complexity and settled village life in the equatorial Andes of southern Ecuador and northern Peru. These Formative societies apparently were broadly contemporary (circa 3000 - 1000 BCE), independent, but interacting-resulting in a complex mosaic of archaeological patterns on both sides of the international border between Peru and Ecuador. Rather than a conventional conference, this seminar occurred at multi-sited venues over 2500 km-archaeological sites, museums, research labs and field stations-where archaeologists could examine and discuss artifactual materials and sites first-hand. In addition, a series of events were held in La Libertad and Cuenca, Ecuador, and in Tumbes and Piura, Peru; these four seminars were open to the public, and were attended by more than 300 people. The workshop also established the ground-work for future, binational collaborative archaeological research and heritage management programs such as field investigations, publications, and the establishment of a moderated Web page to support the continued exchange of scientific information between Peruvian and Ecuadorian archaeologists.