Sauer, Dr. Jacob, Vanderbilt U., Nashville, TN - To aid engaged activities on 'Presenting the Archaeological Past to Mapuche Communities and the Public in South-Central Chile,' 2014, Chile
Preliminary abstract: The Mapuche, also known as the Araucanians, of south-central Chile are one of the few indigenous societies in the Americas to successfully resist and expel the Spanish from their ancestral lands, maintaining their independence for more than 350 years. Many historical treatments of Mapuche culture argue, however, that the Mapuche are a result of European influence rather than a continuation of previous cultural development. This has directly influenced the modern conflict between Mapuche communities and the Chilean state, as well as the perception of the Mapuche by many Chileans. This project will present the results of archaeological, ethnographic, and ethnohistoric research in south-central Chile, which argues that Mapuche culture developed in the centuries before the arrival of the Spanish, and that development directly influenced the ability of the Mapuche to successfully expel the Spanish while maintaining their previous cultural patterns and practices with limited outside influence. Presentations will be given to modern Mapuche communities, museums, and academic institutions in order to communicate the results of this research and to foster discussion on Mapuche culture history among academics, Chileans, and the Mapuche themselves.
VanValkenburgh, Dr. Nathaniel Parker, Harvard U., Cambridge, MA - To aid research on 'Reducción and Policía: Spanish Colonial Forced Resettlement and Daily Praxis at Carrizales (Zaña Valley, Peru)'
DR. NATHANIEL VanVALKENBURGH, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts, was awarded funding in April 2012 to aid research on 'Reducción and Policía: Spanish Colonial Forced Resettlement and Daily Praxis at Carrizales (Zaña Valley, Peru)'. During this course of research, the grantee and collaborators examined the impacts of the Spanish colonial reducción movement on the daily lives of indigenous populations in Peru's lower Zaña valley. 'Reducción' was a wholesale attempt to refashion indigenous subjects by forcibly resettling them into gridded - planned towns and reassembling extended native households into nuclear family units. Through excavations at the sites of Carrizales (a reducción abandoned a few years after its foundation in 1572 CE) and Conjunto 125 (an adjacent late prehispanic site), the team household spatial organization and foodways, with the goal of understanding how reduccion's grand aims were articulated and contested within quotidian spaces. Following an excavation field season in 2012, laboratory research in 2013 concentrated on the analysis of zooarchaeological and archaeobotanical remains. Architectural comparisons revealed broad similarities in the organization of domestic space before and after reducción, even as settlement took on a radically different shape. Analysis of malacological and vertebrate assemblages demonstrated a drastic drop in marine species diversity between late prehispanic and early colonial times and a reorientation towards less time - intensive fishing and mollusk - gathering strategies. Across the same time period, terrestrial species presence and diversity increased markedly, and the residents of Carrizales intensified their production of products that tribute records indicate they owed their encomendero. Based on these results, the grantee and collaborators have secured additional funding and will continue to expand their results in future field sessions.
Baca Marroquin, Ancira Emily, U. of Illinois, Chicago, IL - To aid research on 'Provincial Economy in Chinchaysuyo: Imperial and Local Ceramic Distribution and Consumption, Asia Valley, Central-Coast, Peru,' supervised by Dr. Partick Williams
Preliminary abstract: My project investigates the multidirectional core-periphery interplay with focus on theories of expanding empires and provincial economy. More specifically, I will examine the differing economic participation that intermediate elites and commoners of a non-state coastal society engaged with The Inca empire (A.D. 1400-1532), the largest ancient economic system ever recorded in the Americas. To examine economic participation, I focus on imperial and local ceramic distribution and consumption patterns of intermediate elites and commoners at the site of Quellca, Asia Valley, Peru. The questions that guide my research can be summarized as follows: To what extend intermediate elites and commoners in the Asia Valley consume imported imperial, provincial, and regional ceramics, or did they exclusively consume local wares? Are there qualitative/quantitative differences in the ceramic distribution and consumption patterns between these social groups? To what extent and in what ways did intermediate elites and commoners participate to imperial economic policies? Working under the assumption that provincial economies reflect arrangements between empires and provincial societies, my investigation into the differing distribution and consumption patterns of imperial goods between intermediate elites and commoners offers opportunities to expand developing theories of imperial expansion and provincial economy in modern and ancient settings.
Cuellar, Andrea M., U. of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA - To aid research on 'The Organizations of Agricultural Production in the Emergence of Chiefdoms in Valle de Los Quijos, Ecuador,' supervised by Dr. Robert D. Drennan
ANDREA M. CUELLAR, while a student at the University of Pittsburgh in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, received an award in January 2002 to aid research on the organization of agricultural production in the emergence of chiefdoms in Valle de los Quijos, Ecuador, under the supervision of Dr. Robert D. Drennan. Cuellar was concerned with the emergence of chiefly societies in the eastern piedmont of Ecuador, particularly with two main issues: the history of occupation in the region and patterns of agricultural production, emphasizing how both were related to the emergence of chiefly authority. A full-coverage, systematic regional survey was conducted to reconstruct settlement patterns at different moments of the sequence, in order to account for changes in sociopolitical structure through time. In addition, a series of test pits was excavated to collect samples for analysis of pollen and macroremains at different sites belonging to the period of chiefdom emergence. Site selection criteria targeted contrasting environmental and social contexts that might account for any observed regional differences in the organization of agricultural production as seen through the analysis of botanical remains.
Hayashida, Dr. Frances Mariko, U. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM - To aid 'The Ynalche Project: Water, Land, Politics, and Society on the Late Prehispanic North Coast of Peru'
DR. FRANCES M. HAYASHIDA, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, New Mexico, received a grant in May 2008 to aid research on 'The Ynalche Project: Water, Land, Politics, and Society on the Late Prehispanic North Coast of Peru.' The Ynalche Project investigates the politics and ecology of prehispanic agriculture on the north coast of Peru. Our study area is the Pampa de Chaparri in Lambayeque, where abandonment shortly after the Spanish Conquest has resulted in the preservation of a pre-Columbian rural landscape. The pampa was originally occupied in A.D. 900 during Sicán rule and was conquered by the Chimú and then the Inka Empires. Previous fieldwork documented significant shifts in settlement pattern following conquest as water management shifted from local communities to the state. During the 2008 season, researchers examined the effects of conquest at the scale of the community and the household by mapping Site 256A01, a large settlement with Sicán through Inka occupations, and through excavation of domestic structures at the site. The work documented a significant shift in the layout and style of structures under imperial rule. Excavations included collecting samples for macrobotanical and microfossil analyses to evaluate changes in landscape, and diet. Mapping and excavation also revealed ample evidence for craft (particularly metallurgical) production during the Sicán occupation of the site. Analysis of production tools and by-products will allow us to compare rural production with previously excavated workshops at or near the Sicán capital.
Sauer, Jacob James, Vanderbilt U., Nashville, TN - To aid research on 'The Creation of Araucanian Anti-Colonial Identity During the Contact Period, AD 1552-1602,' supervised by Dr. Thomas Dalton Dillehay
JACOB JAMES SAUER, then a student at Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee, received a grant in October 2008, to aid research on 'The Creation of Araucanian Anti-Colonial Identity during the Contact Period, AD 1552-1602,' supervised by Dr. Thomas Dalton Dillehay. Unlike the majority of indigenous groups in the Americas, the Araucanians (today known as the Mapuche) of south-central Chile resisted and rejected Spanish attempts to colonize ancestral lands, managing to maintain social, political, and economic autonomy for more than 350 years. Archaeological excavations conducted at the Contact period (AD 1550-1602) site of Santa Sylvia, ethnographic research in the surrounding area of Pucón-Villarrica, and ethnohistoric investigation of primary source documents from the colonial period indicate that the Araucanians in the region used pre-existing cultural patterns, systems, and practices that allowed them to defeat the Spanish and retain control of their territory. The Spanish were unable to inhabit the site for more than five years, and Araucanian material culture (ceramics, tools, etc.) show limited influence from the Spanish. The Araucanians adopted useful goods, such as horses, wheat, and barley, but rejected Spanish religious and political influence and experienced further cultural development, including expansion across the Andes into Argentina.
Velasco, Matthew Carlos, Vanderbilt U., Nashville, TN - To aid research on 'Burials and Boundaries: Bioarchaeological Perspectives on Social Differentiation and Integration in the Late Prehispanic Andes,' supervised by Dr. Tiffiny Audrey Tung
MATTHEW C. VELASCO, then a graduate student at Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee, was awarded a grant in April 2012 to aid research on 'Burials and Boundaries: Bioarchaeological Perspectives on Social Differentiation and Integration in the Late Prehispanic Andes,' supervised by Dr. Tiffiny A. Tung. This project examined how the emergence of new burial traditions contributed to social cohesion and identity formation during a period of widespread ecological and political upheaval in the ancient Andes (AD 1000-1450). Funding supported archaeological excavation, digital mapping, and skeletal analysis of a large collection of human remains (representing over 200 individuals) recovered from two cemetery sites in the southern highlands of Peru. Using a bioarchaeological approach, this study explored if diverse social groups utilized mortuary buildings to integrate their dead and promote alliance formation, or if they alternatively maintained separate cemeteries to reify group boundaries based on kinship and resource rights. Preliminary results reveal heterogeneity in the style and degree of cranial modification within single tombs, tentatively supporting a model in which mortuary practices promoted solidarity and exchange between different kinship and ethnic groups. However, the elongated form of modification is virtually absent from the earliest burial contexts, suggesting that the consolidation of a regional ethnic identity may have occurred relatively late in prehistory, perhaps in response to Inka imperial expansion. Ongoing analysis will provide additional insights into the social identities of the dead and how they intervened in broader political and social transformations among the living.
Bardolph, Dana Nicole, U. of California, Santa Barbara, CA - To aid research on 'Exploring Migration, Identities, and Inequalities through Foodways in the Moche Valley of North Coastal Peru,' supervised by Dr. Amber VanDerwarker
Preliminary abstract: The goal of this project is to examine the relationships between food, identity, and social inequality through a paleoethnobotanical perspective. Specifically, this project seeks to reconstruct household culinary practices in order to address the roles that food played in the migrant experience of highlanders that settled in a traditionally coastal river valley just prior to the consolidation of the Southern Moche polity of north coastal Peru. Archaeologists have long recognized that highland-coastal interaction resulted in new forms of sociopolitical organization that shaped the development of the Southern Moche polity, one of the largest and most complex prehistoric political systems to have developed in the New World; however, the historical details of highland colonization are not well understood. The proposed project will examine household foodways during the Gallinazo/Early Moche phases (A.D. 1-300) through a synchronic analysis of paleoethnobotanical data from recent large-scale excavations of highland and coastal residential compounds in the middle Moche Valley. Macrobotanical data, along with starch/phytolith and ceramic residue analyses, will be used to reconstruct the resources targeted by highland migrants; the staging of foodways within a highland colony; and the ways in which migrant highland agricultural strategies differed from those of local coastal groups. Through detailed contextual analysis at the microscale, this project aims to evaluate the ways in which labor related to the production, processing, and consumption of foodstuffs may have reinforced gender and status-based inequalities in the tumultuous sociopolitical environment of the pre-state Moche Valley.
Cutright, Robyn E., U. of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA - To aid research on 'Cuisine and Empire: A Domestic View of Chimu Expansion from the Jequetepeque Valley, Peru, 'supervised by Dr. Marc P. Bermann
ROBYN E. CUTRIGHT,then a student at University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, was awarded a grant in May 2005 to aid research on 'Cuisine and Empire: A Domestic View of Chimu Expansion from the Jequetepeque Valley, Peru,' supervised by Dr. Marc P. Bermann. Archaeological field excavations were carried out at Pedregal, a Late Intermediate Period (AD 1000-1460) village in the Jequetepeque Valley, Peru. The excavations targeted the domestic occupation of the site in order to reconstruct the range of domestic activities at the site and identify the ways in which domestic and culinary practice may have shifted during the valley's conquest by the Chimú state in AD 1350. Materials recovered during excavation and examined during subsequent laboratory analysis suggest that the site's residents were heavily engaged in agricultural production, as well as animal husbandry, textile production, and the processing and preparation of food. Though the site's occupational sequence was more complex than originally believed, dramatic changes do not seem to have occurred during the Late Intermediate Period. Instead, continuity at the domestic level may have characterized the Chimú conquest of the valley.