Kohut, Lauren Elizabeth, Vanderbilt U., Nashville, TN - To aid research on 'The Political Landscape of War: Late Pre-Hispanic Fortifications in the Colca Valley, Peru,' supervised by Dr. Steven A. Wernke
LAUREN E. KOHUT, then a student at Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee, was awarded a grant in April 2012 to aid research on 'The Political Landscape of War: Late Pre-Hispanic Fortifications in the Colca Valley, Peru,' supervised by Dr. Steven A. Wernke. The Late Intermediate Period (LIP; 1000-1400 CE) in the highland Andes of Peru has been defined as a time of heightened conflict and political fragmentation. Prior archaeological research on this period has focused on regional-scale surveys, which indeed show a largely fragmented political landscape. But while this characterization may be relevant at a regional scale, it overlooks the more local patterns of integration and affiliation that formed the basis of daily life for communities during the LIP. This research combines micro-regional survey of fortifications, systematic surface collection, and targeted excavation of a single fortified settlement to examine the meso and local scale interactions that have been absent from prior research on conflict during this period. Spatial analysis of defensive settlement patterns in the valley suggests local groups formed local alliance clusters that may have been integrated into a valley-wide alliance network. In addition to serving the defensive needs of individuals in the valley, fortifications provided a new context for community formation that existed in spite of, or more likely because of, regional fragmentation.
Swenson, Dr. Edward R., U. of Lethbridge, Lethbridge, AB, Canada - To aid research on 'Ritual, Household, and the Politics of Space in Canoncillio, Peru'
DR. EDWARD SWENSON, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada, received funding in April 2006 to aid research on 'Ritual, Household, and the Politics of Space in Cañoncillo, Peru.' Archaeological fieldwork at Cañoncillo in the Jequetepeque Valley has yielded valuable data to aid interpretations of ritual politics, domestic life, and urbanization in ancient Peru. The replication of iconic architectural forms and the strict standardization of ritual performance at the Gallinazo center of Jatanca constitute significant discoveries of the excavation program. Equivalent ceremonies, following a comparable spatial sequence and temporal structure, were staged in all five of the principal Jatanca compounds. The duplication of ceremonial space implies a 'competition between stages' and the existence of an ethos of political pluralism at Jatanca. At the same time, this pluralism was tempered by a singular ideology predicated on invariant ('orthodox') modes of ritual spectacle. Jatanca's built environment points to the possible existence of semi-autonomous, stratified parcialidades confederated into a larger moral community. The archaeological evidence further indicates that ritual performance, residence, production, and consumption were much more rigidly compartmentalized and spatially segregated at Jatanca than at later Moche sites of the hinterland. Finally, archaeological research conducted at the neighboring center of Huaca Colorada reveals that the physical association of domestic and ceremonial architecture changed dramatically between the Gallinazo and Moche Periods, suggesting fundamental transformations in urban sociopolitical structures.
Swenson, Edward. 2012. Warfare, Gender, and Sacrifice in Jequetepeque, Peru. Latin American Antiquity 23(2):167-193.
Acuto, Felix, CONICET, Buenos Aires, Argentina and Troncoso Melendez, Andres, U. of Chile, Santiago- To aid collaborative research on 'Inca Ritual Activities and Landscapes in the Southern Andes'
Acuto, Félix A. 2011. Encuentros Coloniales, Heterodoxia y Ortodoxia en el Valle Calchaqui Norte Bajo El Dominio Inka. Estudios Atacamenios. 42:5-32.
Acuto, Felix A. 2012. Landscapes of Inequality, Spectacle, and Control: Inka Social Order in Provincial Contexts. Revista de Antropologia 25(1):9-64.
Acuto, Félix A., Andrés Troncoso, and Alejandro Ferrari. 2012. Recognizing Strategies for Conquered Territories: A Case Study from the Inka North Calchaqui Valley. Antiquity 86: 1141-1154.
Acuto, Félix A., Marina Smith, and Ezequiel Gilardenghi. 2011. Reenhebrando El Pasado: Hacia Una Epistemologia de la Materialidad. Boletin del Museo Chileno de Arte Precolombino 16(2):9-26.
Andrés Troncoso, Daniel Pavlovic, Félix Acuto, Rodrigo Sánchez, A. César González-García. 2012. Complejo Arquitectonico Cerro Mercachas: Arquitectura y Ritualidad Incaica en Chile Central. Revista Espanola de Anthropologia Americana 42(2):293-319
Acuto, Felix A., Marisa Kergaravat, and Claudia Amuedo. 2014. Death, Personhood, and Relatedness in the South Andes a Thousand Years Ago. Journal of Material Culture 19(3):303-326
Bruno, Maria C., Washington U., St. Louis, MO - To aid research on 'Agricultural Intensification and Formative Period Society: An Ethnobotanical and Paleoethnobotanical Approach,' supervised by Dr. David L. Browman
MARIA C. BRUNO, while a student at Washington University in St. Louis, was awarded a grant in October 2003 to aid in research on agricultural intensification and its role in the development of complex societies during the Formative period (1500B.C. - A.D.500) in the southern Lake Titicaca Basin of the Andes. The research included an ethnobotanical study of present-day agricultural practices on the Taraco Peninsula, Bolivia, and a paleoethnobotanical study of plant remains from Formative period sites in the same region. The ethnobotanical field work provided insight into small-scale intensification processes (particularly weeding, tilling, and fertilizing), characteristics of soils and their productivity in relation to weather patterns, and social aspects of agricultural production. Extensive plant collections provided the link between the ethnobotanical observations and the archaeological plant record. Throughout the paleoethnobotanical analysis, the reference collection has facilitated identification of species that are associated with past agricultural and food practices, such as small-scale processes of intensification, changes in land use related to climate change, and the importance of local agricultural food products in early ceremonial contexts. Results from submitted AMS radiocarbon dates on identified carbonized remains will permit the researcher to track the timing of these agricultural trends and relate them to concomitant changes in climate and social complexity.
Bruno, Maria C. 2014. Beyond Raised Fields: Exploring Farming Practices and Processes of Agricultural Change in the Ancient Lake Titicaca Basin of the Andes. American Anthropologist 116(1):130-145.
Korstanje, Dr. Maria, CONICET, San Miguel de Tucuman, Argentina - To aid workshop on 'Micro Paleoethnobotany: Significance of interdisciplinary web on phytoliths & starch research,' 2014, Montevideo, Uruguay, in collaboration with Dr. Laura Del Puerto
Preliminary abstract: In disciplines as Paleoethnobotany, Archaeology of Plants, and Anthropology of Food in general, micro remains have raised more and more as important alternatives to understand production, consumption and circulation of food and goods in the long term, due to their special preservation conditions. Although there is ample knowledge of some micro plant remains (cf. pollen) others as phytoliths and starch granules have had a more restricted development in research. The same as pollen, their study is interdisciplinary, covering Botany, Archaeology, Paleontology, Geology, Agricultural Sciences, Soil Sciences and Food Industry mainly. As an example of this, we can mention that thanks to the micro remains it has been determined that in areas of the Andes where native crops have been completely lost, its recovery in archaeological contexts allowed agreements with national agencies to promote agriculture (cf. INTA in Argentina) for their reintegration and small farmers production in these areas (often marginal to agricultural markets).
The workshop intends to open a forum for discussion on some issues which require regional and international consensus to enhance de discipline strength and visibility, such as the minimum required parameters descriptions, repositories location, collections and databases organization and other ways to share this information. We also expect to discuss some less technical but equally important subjects for the discipline, as social application lines for these studies, and the challenges that they promote in disciplinary and interdisciplinary aspects.
As a final product, we visualize an organized community for microfossil studies in Latin America, a publication and a specific web site to maintain its strength and aims
Politis, Dr. Gustavo Gabriel, U. National de la Plata, La Plata, Argentina - To aid research on 'Mounds, Maize, and 'Caciques' in the Upper Delta of the Paranñá River, Argentina'
DR. GUSTAVO POLITIS, Universdad Nacional de La Plata, La Plata, Argentina, was awarded funding in May 2010 to aid research on 'Mounds, Maize and 'Caciques' in the Upper Delta of the Paraná River (Argentina).' The project focused on four main topics: 1) the southernmost presence of Lowland pre-Hispanic horticulture based on the starch content of ceramic and lithic tools, which helped determine the dispersal of continentally widespread cultigens such as corn (Zea mays) and beans (Phaseolus spp.) in addition to the identification of the use of wild resources, such as algarrobo (Proposis nigra), which had not been previously recorded in the area; 2) analysis of the human-made earthen mounds ( 'cerritos'), which allowed the identification of a 'pre-mound' occupation as well as evidence of cultural activities, such as mound construction, between ca. 1000-500 BP; 3) the development of low-level social hierarchies among foragers and small-scale horticulturists; and 4) the southern expansion of the Guaraní people and their relationship with local indigenous groups. The results obtained contribute to the archaeology and anthropology of the Delta of the Paraná River, an area which will likely play a crucial role in understanding a variety cultural processes and population dynamics in the South American Lowlands.
Bonomo, Mariano, Gustavo Politis, and Camila Gianotti. 2011. Montículos, Jerarquía Social y Horticultura en las Sociedade Indígenas del Delta del Río Paraná (Argentina). Latin American Antiquity 22(3):297-333.
Swenson, Dr. Edward Reuben, U. of Toronto, Toronto, Canada - To aid research 'The Politics of Time and Space at Huaca Colorada, Jequetepeque Peru'
Preliminary abstract: A Wenner-Gren Foundation grant would permit analysis of a recently discovered Transitional/Early Lambayeque period occupation (AD 800-950) at the Late Moche religious center of Huaca Colorada in the southern Jequetepeque Valley, Peru. The contexts include a large feasting midden, an adjacent domestic area, and ceremonial architecture built in the predominately Moche-period monumental zone of the site (AD 650-800). Our research will test whether the onset of the Transitional Period and the likely adoption of new religious ideologies translated to shifts in the periodicities of practice and rituals of social memory at Huaca Colorada. Therefore, the proposed research is designed to shed light on the social impact of the 'collapse' of Moche political theology in the region. It also aims to develop more sophisticated archaeological methods for explaining historical process. In fact, profound sociopolitical disjunctures are often directly related to changes in the temporalities of practice and the ideological regulation of time itself, and our research will examine how changing depositional practices possibly underwrote alterations in the pace and tempo of everyday life. In addition, the project stands to make important contributions to anthropological research on the interrelationships of religious and political change. Ideological innovations, often related to social unrest or environmental perturbations, have the potential to disrupt longstanding cultural dispositions, leading to new material realities and naturalizing novel experiences of time and place. Ultimately, we plan to investigate the degree to which the collapse of the Moche ideological complex affected everyday routines and social practices in the southern Jequetepeque Valley.