Hastorf, Dr. Christine A., U. of California, Berkeley, CA - To aid research on 'Multi-Community Formation in the Lake Titicaca Basin Bolivia'
DR. CHRISTINE A. HASTORF, University of California, Berkeley, California, was awarded a grant in October 2003, to aid research on 'Multi-Comunity Formation in the Lake Titicaca Basin Bolivia.' The high (3800 m) Titicaca Basin of altiplano Peru and Bolivia is one of the few regions of the world with primary and pristine state formation. This state, the Tiwanaku Polity, has been the focus of ongoing archaeological interest for the better part of the past century. Understanding the regional processes that lead to the formation of the Tiwanaku state is the focus of this field project on the Taraco Peninsula of Lake Titicaca. This peninsula is just 15 km from the Tiwanaku urban core. At the time of the first permanent settlements in the basin, the more protected peninsula had more and denser populations and was a locus for early political dynamism. As part of the long-term research by the Taracao Archaeological Project, these past two field seasons have focused on the Late Formative, pre- Tiwanaku state phase. This is the time of socio-political consolidation and population aggregation. Found in Bandy's 2001 full coverage survey of the peninsula, the site, Kala Uyuni, was the largest ceremonial settlement during the pre-Tiwanaku phase build-up on the peninsula. The 2003 and 2005 excavations at Kala Uyuni hope to clarify the development of this aggregation with its related ceremonial and political changes. Three major excavations were completed at Kala Uyuni. The third excavation, the focus of this funding, uncovered both ceremonial and domestic Late Formative structures. The grantee now has in situ activities within two ceremonial structures and associated plaza surface material, as well as a nearby domestic structure, helping us understand the ceremonial activities of this important political phase.
Lima, Dr. Helena, Museu Paraense Emilio Goeldi, Belem, Brazil - To aid workshop on 'Archaeological Ceramics in the Amazon: Towards a New Synthesis,' 2014, Belem, in collaboration with Dr. Cristiana Barreto
Preliminary abstract: The main goal of this workshop is to promote information exchange and debate about Amazonian ceramic complexes in order to reach new and common parameters of description, comparison and interpretation. Although Amazonian archaeological research has been undergoing many shifts of paradigms fostered by methodological advances and new and diverse types of discoveries, very little has been done in the area of ceramic analysis in order to improve understanding about the wide array of techno-stylistic patterns being identified. The idea for this workshop came out of the need ceramic specialists working in the Amazon feel to establish new parameters for how ceramic complexes can be described, compared and related to subsistence, settlement, social, political and religious patterns. The workshop will comprise presentations by a group of 18 participants sharing well structured synthesis about ceramic complexes from which they have in depth knowledge, including the main procedures of analysis and proposed parameters for comparisons across the basin. As a result of this five days-long workshop participants aim at not only a better view of archaeological ceramic complexes and their distribution across the region but also to identify those areas and topics in need to concentrate new research efforts, including bi-national colaborations.
Rostain, Dr. Stephen, CNRS Paris, France & IFEA, Quito, Ecuador - To aid '3rd International Congress of Amazonian Archaeology,' 2013, Quito
Preliminary abstract: The International Congress of Amazonian Archaeology or EIAA is the only academic meeting on the ancient past of the largest tropical rainforest in the world. It brings together most of --if not all-- the archaeologists working on this theme, but also scientists of different fields (anthropologists, ecologists, historians, botanists, pedologists, etc.) concerned by Amazonia. Over the years, EIAA meetings have become the major venue for specialists of Amazonian precolonial past, where the current topics are discussed and the most recent data and results of current research are presented for this region. The 85 invited scholars are recognized authorities in the field. More than 300 participants are expected to attend this Congress. The event will be organized in single sessions opened to the public during 6 days. There will be a keynote speech every morning followed by 3 symposia and another keynote speech at the end of the day. Parallel to the sessions, there will be scientific posters and two archaelogical exhibitions featuring research results from Ecuador's Upper Amazon. Three books on the archaeology of the Ecuadorian Amazon will be presented during the Congress. Some of the papers will be published in a peer-review volume at the end of the Congress.
VanValkenburgh, Dr. Nathaniel Parker, Harvard U., Cambridge, MA - To aid research on 'Reducción and Policía: Spanish Colonial Forced Resettlement and Daily Praxis at Carrizales (Zaña Valley, Peru)'
Preliminary abstract: Through this course of research, I seek to extend the Proyecto Arqueológico Zaña Colonial's (PAZC) study of the impacts of the Spanish colonial reducción movement on the indigenous populations of the Zaña valley (Peru). Reducción was a wholesale attempt to refashion indigenous subjects by forcibly resettling them into a gridded-planned towns and reassembling extended native households into nuclear family units. The site of Carrizales, located in the lower Zaña valley, represents a unique context for studying reduccion's effects on indigenous daily life and family structure. This project will conduct excavations of domestic areas at two locales: Carrizales and an adjacent late Prehispanic site ('Conjunto 139') whose residents were likely forced to move to Carrizales. Field research will focus on the recovery of architectural plans, detailed mapping of artifact distribution on floor surfaces, and the recovery of food remains. Laboratory analysis will emcompass spatial analysis of artifact distribution, species identification and measurement of faunal, botanical, and malacological remains, and ceramic characterization. Rubust comparison of these data will address how the grand imperial aims of reduccion were articulated and contested within quotidian spaces and provide a valuable case study for examining the relationship between imperial urban design and daily praxis.
Abraham, Sarah Jane, U. of California, Santa Barbara, CA - To aid research on 'Provincial Life in the Inca Empire: Continuity and Change at Hatun Lucanas, Peru,' supervised by Dr. Katharina Jeanne Schreiber
SARAH J. ABRAHAM, then a student at the University of California, Santa Barbara, California, received funding in April 2006 to aid research on 'Provincial Life in the Inca Empire: Continuity and Change at Hatun Lucanas, Peru,' supervised by Dr. Katharina J. Schreiber. This project investigates the imperial-provincial relationship between the Inca empire (AD 1438-1532) and the people of Hatun Lucanas in the southern highlands of Peru. Funding supported excavation, detailed mapping, and architectural analysis, and laboratory analysis were conducted to better understand the transition from autonomous polity to subjugated population. Excavations at Hatun Lucanas targeted residential compounds to expose domestic contexts and their associated artifacts and architectural elements. Those data were then used to identify changes in local political, economic, and social organization after Inca conquest. Preliminary observations suggest that this project provides the first documentation of Lucanas material culture including pottery styles, architectural canons, and mortuary practices. Additionally, data reveal a shift in local political organization with the emergence of local elites after Inca conquest. Finally, changes were detected in the local economy during the Late Horizon. Excavations uncovered evidence of textile production and metalworking at Hatun Lucanas as well as an intensification in processing, likely of food, metals, or pigments. Ongoing analysis will provide additional lines of evidence with which to reconstruct the nature and magnitude of imperialism at the local level.
Brown Vega, Margaret, U. of Illinois, Urbana, IL - To aid 'An Examination of War and Social Life at the Late Prehispanic Settlement of Acaray, Peru,' supervised by Dr. Helaine Silverman
MARGARET BROWN VEGA, then a student at University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois, was awarded funding in October 2005 to aid 'An Examination of War and Social Life at the Late Prehispanic Settlement of Acaray, Peru,' supervised by Dr. Helaine Silverman. The project tested the hypothesis that the people at the fortress of Acaray in the Huaura Valley, Peru were living under conditions of war. I sought to measure the diversity of that experience in various segments of society. Architectural and surface evidence consistent with conflict can now be interpreted in light of excavation data which indicate that Acaray was not a permanent settlement in late prehispanic times, but rather was used ephemerally between the 13th and 15th centuries. Expectations for deep, undisturbed stratigraphic contexts were not met. There was a lack of domestic contexts and additional data for conflict did not materialize. However, episodes of destruction and rebuilding at this fortress are visible. There are indications that the people who built Acaray were negotiating regional political and social landscapes characterized by conflict, resulting in the reconstruction of an expanded and more extensive configuration of the fortress. The unanticipated recovery of data associated with ritual activities confirms there were non-militaristic social practices taking place in the fortress that were nevertheless related to war and defense at Acaray. Radiocarbon dates revealed two separate occupations of Acaray: 800-400 B.C. and 1200-1450 A.D, each corresponding to periods of conflict identified in the Central Andes.
Hayashida, Dr. Frances Mariko, U. of New Mexico, Albuuerque, NM; and Troncoso, Dr. Andres, U. of Chile, Santiago, Chile - To aid collaborative research on 'Agriculture and Empire in the High-Altitude Atacama'
Preliminary abstract: In the 15th Century, the Inka conquered the Atacama highlands to take control of its mineral wealth. To extract resources and administer the region, they expanded the road system, built new installations, and stationed officials at existing political centers. We propose that these activities were accompanied by the reorganization of irrigation agriculture to provision state personnel. With the shift from subsistence to tributary production, we also expect a change in the kinds or proportions of crops that were grown. Furthermore, community and household organization was likely transformed by state efforts to control and increase production. In a new collaboration, researchers from the U.S., Chile, and Spain will begin to collect data to test these ideas from two sites located between the Upper Loa and Salado drainages during a six week field season. Fieldwork will include mapping and surface observations, geological survey, test excavations, and sample collection for dating, soil, and botanical analyses. Participating Chilean students will learn how archaeologists study and interpret past land use and will gain hands-on experience in the field with specialists in geospatial technologies, dating and environmental archaeology. Results from the 2013 season will be used to formulate multi-year requests to other agencies for continued fieldwork.
Sauer, Dr. Jacob, Vanderbilt U., Nashville, TN - To aid engaged activities on 'Presenting the Archaeological Past to Mapuche Communities and the Public in South-Central Chile,' 2014, Chile
Preliminary abstract: The Mapuche, also known as the Araucanians, of south-central Chile are one of the few indigenous societies in the Americas to successfully resist and expel the Spanish from their ancestral lands, maintaining their independence for more than 350 years. Many historical treatments of Mapuche culture argue, however, that the Mapuche are a result of European influence rather than a continuation of previous cultural development. This has directly influenced the modern conflict between Mapuche communities and the Chilean state, as well as the perception of the Mapuche by many Chileans. This project will present the results of archaeological, ethnographic, and ethnohistoric research in south-central Chile, which argues that Mapuche culture developed in the centuries before the arrival of the Spanish, and that development directly influenced the ability of the Mapuche to successfully expel the Spanish while maintaining their previous cultural patterns and practices with limited outside influence. Presentations will be given to modern Mapuche communities, museums, and academic institutions in order to communicate the results of this research and to foster discussion on Mapuche culture history among academics, Chileans, and the Mapuche themselves.
Velasco, Matthew Carlos, Vanderbilt U., Nashville, TN - To aid research on 'Burials and Boundaries: Bioarchaeological Perspectives on Social Differentiation and Integration in the Late Prehispanic Andes,' supervised by Dr. Tiffiny Audrey Tung
Preliminary abstract: Where and how the dead are buried are powerful ideological statements that can transform sociopolitical relationships among the living. In the Andes, the proliferation of above-ground sepulchers during an era of political fragmentation (AD 1000-1450) has been linked to the exclusive land-holding practices of kin-based corporate groups. Yet whether burial towers and caves actually reified social boundaries between corporate groups, or alternatively promoted alliance and exchange among different political or economic factions, remains unexplored through skeletal analysis of the individuals buried therein. In the Colca valley (south-central highland Peru), distinctions between kin and subsistence-based groups mediated resource access in prehispanic times, but it is unknown if and how these social divisions were expressed in mortuary practice. Using biodistance, biochemical and morphological analyses, I will analyze skeletal populations from discrete tomb groups in the valley to assess variation in biological affinity, diet and cranial modification. The patterning of phenotypic and dietary variation across mortuary space will reveal whether above-ground tombs structured boundaries based on endogamy and subsistence. Research will enhance current understanding of the local strategies that shaped social interaction during a politically tumultuous period and contribute to anthropological knowledge on community formation and boundary maintenance in the past and present.