Hayashida, Dr. Frances Mariko, U. of New Mexico, Albuuerque, NM; and Troncoso, Dr. Andres, U. of Chile, Santiago, Chile - To aid collaborative research on 'Agriculture and Empire in the High-Altitude Atacama'
Preliminary abstract: In the 15th Century, the Inka conquered the Atacama highlands to take control of its mineral wealth. To extract resources and administer the region, they expanded the road system, built new installations, and stationed officials at existing political centers. We propose that these activities were accompanied by the reorganization of irrigation agriculture to provision state personnel. With the shift from subsistence to tributary production, we also expect a change in the kinds or proportions of crops that were grown. Furthermore, community and household organization was likely transformed by state efforts to control and increase production. In a new collaboration, researchers from the U.S., Chile, and Spain will begin to collect data to test these ideas from two sites located between the Upper Loa and Salado drainages during a six week field season. Fieldwork will include mapping and surface observations, geological survey, test excavations, and sample collection for dating, soil, and botanical analyses. Participating Chilean students will learn how archaeologists study and interpret past land use and will gain hands-on experience in the field with specialists in geospatial technologies, dating and environmental archaeology. Results from the 2013 season will be used to formulate multi-year requests to other agencies for continued fieldwork.
Rostain, Dr. Stephen, CNRS Paris, France & IFEA, Quito, Ecuador - To aid '3rd International Congress of Amazonian Archaeology,' 2013, Quito
'3rd International Congress of Amazonia Archaeology'
September 8-14, 2013, Quito, Ecuador
Organizer: Stephen Rostain (CNRS Paris)
The 3rd International Congress of Amazonia Archaeology (3 EIAA) was organized by the French Institute for Andean Studies (IFEA), the Latin American Social Science Institute (FLACSO), the Andean French Regional Cooperation, and the Ecuadorian Coordinator Ministry for Knowledge and Human Talent (MCCTH). The meetings brought together approximately 400 academics from around the world (mostly archaeologists but also including scientists from closely related fields) to discuss the world's largest rainforest and its connections to the human past. The meetings featured 80 invited speakers, from nineteen countries, as well as exhibitions, a book fair, paper presentations, and a documentary film screening, all highlighting the importance of interdisciplinary collaboration and, to a large degree, a growing acceptance of the idea of a domesticated Amazonian rainforest, blowing away old theories on ecological determinism and diffusionism. This international congress provides a unique forum for scholars studying the human past in Amazonia to come together, present their most recent findings, and review projects presented by fellow colleagues working in this region.
Trever, Lisa Senchyshyn, Harvard U., Cambridge, MA - To aid research on 'The Agency of Images: Mural Painting and Architectural Sculpture on the North Coast of Peru,' supervised by Dr. Thomas Bitting Foster Cummins
LISA S. TREVER, then a student at Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts, was awarded funding in October 2009 to aid research on 'The Agency of Images: Muralo Painting and Architectural Sculpture on the North Coast of Peru,' supervised by Dr. Thomas Bitting Foster Cummins. Archaeological and art historical research was carried out at Panamarca, the southernmost Moche (c. 200-800 CE) urban and ceremonial center on the Peruvian north coast. This project was designed to investigate and document the architectural and archaeological contexts of mural paintings known at the site since the 1950s. This fieldwork was successful in re-identifying, excavating, documenting, and conserving all previously known paintings, although some had suffered severe deterioration over time. The project also uncovered several new mural paintings and associated contexts. The corpus of known Moche mural paintings has thus been dramatically expanded. This fieldwork provides the foundation for a dissertation that will advance ancient Andean studies further into spatial analysis of image and architecture, including the phenomenological analysis of how these figurative paintings may have been seen, approached, and experienced within their built environment and how physical evidence of damage, libations, interment, reopening, and later dedicatory acts may demonstrate the ancient reception and memory of these monumental images. The mural paintings of Panamarca were not passive reflections of Moche thought but rather effective participants in ritual performance and in the construction of social memory and political presence on the southern Moche frontier.
Augustine, Jonah Michael, U. of Chicago, Chicago, IL - To aid research on 'The Aesthetic Constitution of Polity: Ceramic Production and Material Politics in the Tiwanaku Valley, AD 500-1100,' supervised by Dr. Alan L. Kolata
JONAH M. AUGUSTINE, then a student at University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois, was awarded a grant in April 2011 to aid research on 'The Aesthetic Constitution of Polity: Ceramic Production and Material Politics in the Tiwanaku Valley (AD 500-1100),' supervised by Dr. Alan L. Kolata. The central problem that this project examined was the relationship between aesthetics and politics within the ancient Andean polity Tiwanaku. Focusing on various locations within the Tiwanaku Valley, the project analyzed the iconographic characteristics of ceramics, one of the central media through which Tiwanaku images were presented. The preliminary results reveal that during the early phases of the polity, there were convergences between elite and non-elite iconography in the open areas of large-scale, urban rituals. This suggests that shared aesthetic experiences mediated disparate social positions and fostered bonds between groups. Beyond the city, it was noted that characteristic 'Tiwanaku' forms (i.e. those associated with the urban rituals) were reproduced in non-canonical ways. This indicates that the subjective experience of Tiwanaku was predicated on an active and perhaps playful engagement with Tiwanaku materiality. Finally, there was a decrease in the diversity of representational forms as the Tiwanaku polity became more rigidly hierarchical during later phases. This may reflect a tactic used by emergent elites to create a unified political imaginary within the valley. From these data, it is possible to better reconstruct the deeply important aesthetic dimension of Tiwanaku politics.
Cuellar, Dr. Andrea Maria, U. of Lethbridge, Lethbridge, Canada - To aid research on 'Social Complexity in Eastern Ecuador: A Household and Community Perspective'
DR. ANDREA M. CUELLAR, University of Lethbridge, Lethbridge, Canada, was awarded a grant in April 2008 to aid research on 'Social Complexity in Eastern Ecuador: A Household and Community Perspective.' This project explored the nature of political centralization among the pre-Columbian Quijos chiefdoms through full-coverage intensive survey and test excavations at two Late Period (ca. 500-1600 AD) central-place communities in the Quijos Valley, in the eastern Andes of Ecuador. These two excavations, Pucalpa and Bermejo, appeared to be similar in size and superficial characteristics, but the intensive survey program and test excavations at each revealed important differences in spatial layout, trajectory of occupation, the disposition of agrarian space, and possibly the scale of public-ceremonial activities. Internally, however, the central places do not display economic differentiation. Analyses conducted so far suggests that central place formation may have resulted more from the growth and expansion of kin corporations without much internal economic differentiation than from the aggregation of socially or economically differentiated households. In both cases, however, the longevity of residential areas seems to be associated with larger residential groups, with a more central location within the community, and with what appears to have constituted public-ceremonial space. These findings contribute to understanding the varied nature of the process of centralization in complex societies.
Cuellar, Andrea. 2009. The Quijos Chiefdoms: Social Change and Agriculture in the Eastern Andes of Ecuador. University of Pittsburgh Latin American Archaeology Publications: Pittsburgh
Hayashida, Dr. Frances Mariko, U. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM - To aid 'The Ynalche Project: Water, Land, Politics, and Society on the Late Prehispanic North Coast of Peru'
DR. FRANCES M. HAYASHIDA, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, New Mexico, received a grant in May 2008 to aid research on 'The Ynalche Project: Water, Land, Politics, and Society on the Late Prehispanic North Coast of Peru.' The Ynalche Project investigates the politics and ecology of prehispanic agriculture on the north coast of Peru. Our study area is the Pampa de Chaparri in Lambayeque, where abandonment shortly after the Spanish Conquest has resulted in the preservation of a pre-Columbian rural landscape. The pampa was originally occupied in A.D. 900 during Sicán rule and was conquered by the Chimú and then the Inka Empires. Previous fieldwork documented significant shifts in settlement pattern following conquest as water management shifted from local communities to the state. During the 2008 season, researchers examined the effects of conquest at the scale of the community and the household by mapping Site 256A01, a large settlement with Sicán through Inka occupations, and through excavation of domestic structures at the site. The work documented a significant shift in the layout and style of structures under imperial rule. Excavations included collecting samples for macrobotanical and microfossil analyses to evaluate changes in landscape, and diet. Mapping and excavation also revealed ample evidence for craft (particularly metallurgical) production during the Sicán occupation of the site. Analysis of production tools and by-products will allow us to compare rural production with previously excavated workshops at or near the Sicán capital.
Sauer, Dr. Jacob, Vanderbilt U., Nashville, TN - To aid engaged activities on 'Presenting the Archaeological Past to Mapuche Communities and the Public in South-Central Chile,' 2014, Chile
Preliminary abstract: The Mapuche, also known as the Araucanians, of south-central Chile are one of the few indigenous societies in the Americas to successfully resist and expel the Spanish from their ancestral lands, maintaining their independence for more than 350 years. Many historical treatments of Mapuche culture argue, however, that the Mapuche are a result of European influence rather than a continuation of previous cultural development. This has directly influenced the modern conflict between Mapuche communities and the Chilean state, as well as the perception of the Mapuche by many Chileans. This project will present the results of archaeological, ethnographic, and ethnohistoric research in south-central Chile, which argues that Mapuche culture developed in the centuries before the arrival of the Spanish, and that development directly influenced the ability of the Mapuche to successfully expel the Spanish while maintaining their previous cultural patterns and practices with limited outside influence. Presentations will be given to modern Mapuche communities, museums, and academic institutions in order to communicate the results of this research and to foster discussion on Mapuche culture history among academics, Chileans, and the Mapuche themselves.
VanValkenburgh, Dr. Nathaniel Parker, Harvard U., Cambridge, MA - To aid research on 'Reducción and Policía: Spanish Colonial Forced Resettlement and Daily Praxis at Carrizales (Zaña Valley, Peru)'
DR. NATHANIEL VanVALKENBURGH, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts, was awarded funding in April 2012 to aid research on 'Reducción and Policía: Spanish Colonial Forced Resettlement and Daily Praxis at Carrizales (Zaña Valley, Peru)'. During this course of research, the grantee and collaborators examined the impacts of the Spanish colonial reducción movement on the daily lives of indigenous populations in Peru's lower Zaña valley. 'Reducción' was a wholesale attempt to refashion indigenous subjects by forcibly resettling them into gridded - planned towns and reassembling extended native households into nuclear family units. Through excavations at the sites of Carrizales (a reducción abandoned a few years after its foundation in 1572 CE) and Conjunto 125 (an adjacent late prehispanic site), the team household spatial organization and foodways, with the goal of understanding how reduccion's grand aims were articulated and contested within quotidian spaces. Following an excavation field season in 2012, laboratory research in 2013 concentrated on the analysis of zooarchaeological and archaeobotanical remains. Architectural comparisons revealed broad similarities in the organization of domestic space before and after reducción, even as settlement took on a radically different shape. Analysis of malacological and vertebrate assemblages demonstrated a drastic drop in marine species diversity between late prehispanic and early colonial times and a reorientation towards less time - intensive fishing and mollusk - gathering strategies. Across the same time period, terrestrial species presence and diversity increased markedly, and the residents of Carrizales intensified their production of products that tribute records indicate they owed their encomendero. Based on these results, the grantee and collaborators have secured additional funding and will continue to expand their results in future field sessions.