Roddick, Dr. Andrew Paul, McMaster U., Hamilton, Canada - To aid research on 'The Proyecto Ollero Titicaca Sur: Community, Constellation and Genelogy in a Bolivian Potting Community'
Preliminary abstract: The aim of this project is to contribute to and advance anthropological research and theory on the materials and technical practices of learning, embodiment and skill-acquisition, by examining ceramic production in and around the community of Chijipata Alta, in the Lake Titicaca Basin of highland Bolivia. One of the most important developments in anthropological theory has been the emergence and focus on practice and embodiment. The scholarship on 'situated learning' is an essential subset of this theoretical engagement. Yet this work has paid little attention to the materiality of learning or to the larger temporal and spatial scales that are implicated in the histories of particular communities of practice. This project bridges cultural anthropological and archaeological approaches through an ethnographic and material study of a 'traditional' crafting village. We will examine technological choices within and between communities, and in the context of distinct local histories to highlight the agentive role of people in the reproduction of craft knowledge.
Trever, Lisa Senchyshyn, Harvard U., Cambridge, MA - To aid research on 'The Agency of Images: Mural Painting and Architectural Sculpture on the North Coast of Peru,' supervised by Dr. Thomas Bitting Foster Cummins
LISA S. TREVER, then a student at Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts, was awarded funding in October 2009 to aid research on 'The Agency of Images: Muralo Painting and Architectural Sculpture on the North Coast of Peru,' supervised by Dr. Thomas Bitting Foster Cummins. Archaeological and art historical research was carried out at Panamarca, the southernmost Moche (c. 200-800 CE) urban and ceremonial center on the Peruvian north coast. This project was designed to investigate and document the architectural and archaeological contexts of mural paintings known at the site since the 1950s. This fieldwork was successful in re-identifying, excavating, documenting, and conserving all previously known paintings, although some had suffered severe deterioration over time. The project also uncovered several new mural paintings and associated contexts. The corpus of known Moche mural paintings has thus been dramatically expanded. This fieldwork provides the foundation for a dissertation that will advance ancient Andean studies further into spatial analysis of image and architecture, including the phenomenological analysis of how these figurative paintings may have been seen, approached, and experienced within their built environment and how physical evidence of damage, libations, interment, reopening, and later dedicatory acts may demonstrate the ancient reception and memory of these monumental images. The mural paintings of Panamarca were not passive reflections of Moche thought but rather effective participants in ritual performance and in the construction of social memory and political presence on the southern Moche frontier.
Briz i Godino, Dr. Ivan, Catalan Institution for Advanced Research, Barcelona, Spain - To aid research on 'Social Aggregation: A Yamana Society's Short Term Episode to Analyse Social Interaction, Tierra del Fuego, Argentina'
DR. IVAN BRIZ I GODINO, Catalan Institution for Advanced Research, Barcelona, Spain, was awarded funding in May 2008 to aid research on 'Social Aggregation: A Yamana Society's Short-Term Episode to Analyze Social Interaction, Tierra del Fuego, Argentina.' This project attempted to identify aggregation and cooperative activities between hunter-fisher-gatherer groups of the Beagle Channel (Tierra del Fuego, Argentina) from an ethnoarchaeological perspective. To accomplish this goal extensive excavations and detailed analytical methods were carried out at Lanashuaia archaeological sites (I and II) located on the Beagle shore. The results reveal that the aggregation process, defined as temporary concentrations of peoples, may have taken place due to whale stranding long before the arrival of the Europeans. The radiocarbon and isotopic analysis show contemporaneity between both dwelling units (I and II) and the analysis of the material markers of past activities, indicating some cooperative practices may have developed during the occupation of these sites such as whale and off-shore fishing consumption. Evidence of sharing hunted prey is scarce but similar trends in technological practices were identified between Lanashuaia I and II. The chemical and morphological analysis of residues on archaeological artifacts and sediments reveal the context in which hunter-gatherer tools were used, while simultaneously providing valuable information to test their ethnographic sources.
Briz i Godino, Ivan, José Ignacio Santos, José Manuel Galán, et al. 2013. Social Cooperation and Resource Management Dynamics Among Late Hunter-Fisher-Gatherer Societies in Tierra del Fuego (South America). Journal of Archaeological Method and Theory.(DOI 10.1007/s10816-013-91914-3)
Harkey, Anna Elizabeth, U. of California, Berkeley, CA - To aid research on 'The Andean Home in a Shifting World: Local Perspectives on a Nested Colonial Encounter,' supervised by Dr. Christine Anne Hastorf
ANNA E. HARKEY, then a student at University of California, Berkeley, California, received funding in May 2010 to aid research on 'The Andean Home in a Shifting World: Local Perspectives on a Nested Colonial Encounter,' supervised by Dr. Christine Hastorf. In the late fifteen and early sixteenth centuries CE, the Upper Mantaro Valley in central Peru was the site of massive and rapid political change: communities were colonized first by the Inka, who set a provincial capital there at the site of modern day Jauja, and then mere decades later by the Spanish, who set their own first capital at that same location. This project investigates the impacts of such swift, large-scale change on the daily lives of the region's inhabitants. Specifically, this work examines two lines of evidence - ceramics and domestic architecture - which were made and used locally, as well as closely linked to daily practice. Thousands of previously excavated ceramic sherds were analyzed along nineteen distinct attributes, any of which may reflect conscious stylistic or technological choices, or unconscious results of those choices. These same techniques were then adapted to the study of domestic architecture, allowing detailed, quantifiable comparison of superficially similar structures. All these data are compiled in an ArcGIS database so that local impacts of those broad-scale political shifts, as reflected in these artifacts, may be discerned between sites, neighborhoods, and even households.
Lema, Dr. Veronica, U. Nacional de La Plata, Buenos Aires, Argentina - To aid workshop on 'Paleoethnobotanical Studies in South America: Problems and Updates,' 2012, U. Internacional Santiago, Chile, in collaboration with Dr. Carolina Belmar Pantelis
Preliminary Abstract: In recent years, Paleoethnobotanical studies have been integrated as important axes in archaeological investigations, opffering significant contributions to South American archaeology and has had an exponential growth, with numerous specialist. This is reflected on the diversification of topics, specialties and, consequently, lines of evidence. This developement has been materialized in the organization of many symposia and seminars in Latin America designed to present and discuss the achievements of this line of investigation. While these proceedings have been complied to collect, disseminate and discuss theoretical and practically research, the implementation of an event where purely methodological issues arise, with the required infrastructure and implements to observe and compare the materials directly is lacking.
The objective of the workshop is to create a space where investigators in the field of South American Paleoethnobotany can bring up to date and discuss methodological problems that are common in this discipline. This necessity has arisen from the need of dealing with these methodological questions that are left to be treated in a local level of the research teams, since most Paleoethnobotanical meeting and symposiums focus on theoretical issues and case studies. Our aim is to create the appropriate conditions of participation and organization so as to stimulate dialogue, exchange of experiences and the obtention of consensus, within the scientific community, with regard to the different options and directions that can be taken in relation to the methods and techniques used in the treatment of archaeobotanical macro and micro remains. In summary, the workshop seeks to provide the necessary framework and infrastructure to resolve the recurrent and most common methodological and practical problems faced by the investigators in this discipline in the South American region.
Rostain, Dr. Stephen, CNRS Paris, France & IFEA, Quito, Ecuador - To aid '3rd International Congress of Amazonian Archaeology,' 2013, Quito
Preliminary abstract: The International Congress of Amazonian Archaeology or EIAA is the only academic meeting on the ancient past of the largest tropical rainforest in the world. It brings together most of --if not all-- the archaeologists working on this theme, but also scientists of different fields (anthropologists, ecologists, historians, botanists, pedologists, etc.) concerned by Amazonia. Over the years, EIAA meetings have become the major venue for specialists of Amazonian precolonial past, where the current topics are discussed and the most recent data and results of current research are presented for this region. The 85 invited scholars are recognized authorities in the field. More than 300 participants are expected to attend this Congress. The event will be organized in single sessions opened to the public during 6 days. There will be a keynote speech every morning followed by 3 symposia and another keynote speech at the end of the day. Parallel to the sessions, there will be scientific posters and two archaelogical exhibitions featuring research results from Ecuador's Upper Amazon. Three books on the archaeology of the Ecuadorian Amazon will be presented during the Congress. Some of the papers will be published in a peer-review volume at the end of the Congress.
VanValkenburgh, Dr. Nathaniel Parker, Harvard U., Cambridge, MA - To aid research on 'Reducción and Policía: Spanish Colonial Forced Resettlement and Daily Praxis at Carrizales (Zaña Valley, Peru)'
Preliminary abstract: Through this course of research, I seek to extend the Proyecto Arqueológico Zaña Colonial's (PAZC) study of the impacts of the Spanish colonial reducción movement on the indigenous populations of the Zaña valley (Peru). Reducción was a wholesale attempt to refashion indigenous subjects by forcibly resettling them into a gridded-planned towns and reassembling extended native households into nuclear family units. The site of Carrizales, located in the lower Zaña valley, represents a unique context for studying reduccion's effects on indigenous daily life and family structure. This project will conduct excavations of domestic areas at two locales: Carrizales and an adjacent late Prehispanic site ('Conjunto 139') whose residents were likely forced to move to Carrizales. Field research will focus on the recovery of architectural plans, detailed mapping of artifact distribution on floor surfaces, and the recovery of food remains. Laboratory analysis will emcompass spatial analysis of artifact distribution, species identification and measurement of faunal, botanical, and malacological remains, and ceramic characterization. Rubust comparison of these data will address how the grand imperial aims of reduccion were articulated and contested within quotidian spaces and provide a valuable case study for examining the relationship between imperial urban design and daily praxis.
Abraham, Sarah Jane, U. of California, Santa Barbara, CA - To aid research on 'Provincial Life in the Inca Empire: Continuity and Change at Hatun Lucanas, Peru,' supervised by Dr. Katharina Jeanne Schreiber
SARAH J. ABRAHAM, then a student at the University of California, Santa Barbara, California, received funding in April 2006 to aid research on 'Provincial Life in the Inca Empire: Continuity and Change at Hatun Lucanas, Peru,' supervised by Dr. Katharina J. Schreiber. This project investigates the imperial-provincial relationship between the Inca empire (AD 1438-1532) and the people of Hatun Lucanas in the southern highlands of Peru. Funding supported excavation, detailed mapping, and architectural analysis, and laboratory analysis were conducted to better understand the transition from autonomous polity to subjugated population. Excavations at Hatun Lucanas targeted residential compounds to expose domestic contexts and their associated artifacts and architectural elements. Those data were then used to identify changes in local political, economic, and social organization after Inca conquest. Preliminary observations suggest that this project provides the first documentation of Lucanas material culture including pottery styles, architectural canons, and mortuary practices. Additionally, data reveal a shift in local political organization with the emergence of local elites after Inca conquest. Finally, changes were detected in the local economy during the Late Horizon. Excavations uncovered evidence of textile production and metalworking at Hatun Lucanas as well as an intensification in processing, likely of food, metals, or pigments. Ongoing analysis will provide additional lines of evidence with which to reconstruct the nature and magnitude of imperialism at the local level.
Brown Vega, Margaret, U. of Illinois, Urbana, IL - To aid 'An Examination of War and Social Life at the Late Prehispanic Settlement of Acaray, Peru,' supervised by Dr. Helaine Silverman
MARGARET BROWN VEGA, then a student at University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois, was awarded funding in October 2005 to aid 'An Examination of War and Social Life at the Late Prehispanic Settlement of Acaray, Peru,' supervised by Dr. Helaine Silverman. The project tested the hypothesis that the people at the fortress of Acaray in the Huaura Valley, Peru were living under conditions of war. I sought to measure the diversity of that experience in various segments of society. Architectural and surface evidence consistent with conflict can now be interpreted in light of excavation data which indicate that Acaray was not a permanent settlement in late prehispanic times, but rather was used ephemerally between the 13th and 15th centuries. Expectations for deep, undisturbed stratigraphic contexts were not met. There was a lack of domestic contexts and additional data for conflict did not materialize. However, episodes of destruction and rebuilding at this fortress are visible. There are indications that the people who built Acaray were negotiating regional political and social landscapes characterized by conflict, resulting in the reconstruction of an expanded and more extensive configuration of the fortress. The unanticipated recovery of data associated with ritual activities confirms there were non-militaristic social practices taking place in the fortress that were nevertheless related to war and defense at Acaray. Radiocarbon dates revealed two separate occupations of Acaray: 800-400 B.C. and 1200-1450 A.D, each corresponding to periods of conflict identified in the Central Andes.
Hastorf, Dr. Christine A., U. of California, Berkeley, CA - To aid research on 'Multi-Community Formation in the Lake Titicaca Basin Bolivia'
DR. CHRISTINE A. HASTORF, University of California, Berkeley, California, was awarded a grant in October 2003, to aid research on 'Multi-Comunity Formation in the Lake Titicaca Basin Bolivia.' The high (3800 m) Titicaca Basin of altiplano Peru and Bolivia is one of the few regions of the world with primary and pristine state formation. This state, the Tiwanaku Polity, has been the focus of ongoing archaeological interest for the better part of the past century. Understanding the regional processes that lead to the formation of the Tiwanaku state is the focus of this field project on the Taraco Peninsula of Lake Titicaca. This peninsula is just 15 km from the Tiwanaku urban core. At the time of the first permanent settlements in the basin, the more protected peninsula had more and denser populations and was a locus for early political dynamism. As part of the long-term research by the Taracao Archaeological Project, these past two field seasons have focused on the Late Formative, pre- Tiwanaku state phase. This is the time of socio-political consolidation and population aggregation. Found in Bandy's 2001 full coverage survey of the peninsula, the site, Kala Uyuni, was the largest ceremonial settlement during the pre-Tiwanaku phase build-up on the peninsula. The 2003 and 2005 excavations at Kala Uyuni hope to clarify the development of this aggregation with its related ceremonial and political changes. Three major excavations were completed at Kala Uyuni. The third excavation, the focus of this funding, uncovered both ceremonial and domestic Late Formative structures. The grantee now has in situ activities within two ceremonial structures and associated plaza surface material, as well as a nearby domestic structure, helping us understand the ceremonial activities of this important political phase.