Barton, Loukas William, U. of California, Davis, CA - To aid research on 'Human Diet and Domestication: A Critical Evaluation of Low-Level Food Production in Northwest China,'supervised by Dr. Robert Lawrence Bettinger
LOUKAS WILLIAM BARTON, then a student at University of California, Davis, California, was awarded funding in October 2006 to aid research on 'Human Diet and Domestication: A Critical Evaluation of Low-Level Food Production in Northwest China,' supervised by Dr. Robert Lawrence Bettinger. Stable isotope ratios (?13C and ?15N) extracted from animal remains are used here to identify plant and animal domestication in northwest China. The method is applicable to all cases where domesticated and wild plants differ photosynthetically. In northwest China, the earliest domesticated millets (C4 photosynthesis) are distinguishable from most all other plants (C3 photosynthesis). Here, a dominant C4 signature in animals indicates year round consumption and therefore storage of a plant otherwise available only seasonally. Dominant C4 signatures correlate well with high ?15N values suggesting that animals consuming stored grains also eat more meat. Together, these markers provide a reliable means of identifying intensive management of both plants and animals by humans. The method is illustrated by archaeological remains from Dadiwan, the earliest Neolithic site in northwest China. From 7900-7300 BP, the people at Dadiwan were feeding millet to their dogs year round, but eating wild pigs, deer, and cattle. A thousand years later, the site was reoccupied by people locked into an intensive symbiotic relationship with cultivated millet, and domestic pigs and dogs. Regional discontinuity between the two phases suggests that the early low-level agriculture in northwest China was abandoned soon after its initial development.
Barton, Loukas. 2009. Agricultural Origins and the Isotopic Identity of Domestication in Northern China. PNAS 106(14):5523-5528.
Bettinger, Robert L., Loukas Barton, and Christopher Morgan. 2010. The Origins of Food Production in North China: A Different Kind of Agricultural Revolution. Evolutionary Anthropology 19(1):9-21.
Dong, Yu, U. of Illinois, Urbana, IL - To aid research on 'Eating Identity: Millet Versus Rice Consumers in Neolithic Northern China,' supervised by Dr. Stanley H. Ambrose
YU DONG, then a student at University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois, received funding in April 2011 to aid research on 'Eating Identity: Millet versus Rice Consumers in Neolithic Northern China,' supervised by Dr. Stanley Ambrose. The Dawenkou Neolithic Culture (4300-2600 BC) in Shandong, northern Jiangsu and Anhui Provinces, China, provides insights into the origin of complex stratified society. The initial spread of rice from southern China to the millet agriculture-based societies of the Yellow River Valley occurred during this era. Analyses of burial style and richness of mortuary offerings, chemical profiles of human remains, and radiocarbon dating were performed to understand these fundamental changes. Radiocarbon dating results indicate that three investigated Dawenkou sites dated to 2800-2500 BC, while the fourth one is a few centuries later. Dietary and burial customs can be compared among three contemporary communities, and over a few centuries. Analysis of human chemical profiles (stable isotope analysis) suggests that the spread of rice agriculture did not occur till the end of period, starting with sites located further south. Females might have played a special role in the course. Rice consumption could have been used to publicly differentiate certain individuals from other social classes, hence facilitated the process of social stratification. Burial analysis is still underway to understand the relationship between diet, status, social organization, gender relations and complexity at Dawenkou sites.
Janz, Dr. Lisa, U. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ - To aid research on 'Diet Breadth and Landscape Ecology in Arid Northeast Asia'
Preliminary abstract: The end of the last Ice Age represents a period of substantial climatic and environmental change. As such, it is not surprising that it also marks a major shift in human diet and land-use - the Broad Spectrum Revolution marks a time when humans began using a wider range of foods, and intensively exploiting plants and smaller animals. This change in subsistence is believed to have altered forager economies and demography in a way that contributed substantially to the origins of agriculture. However, traditional theories holding resource depression as the cause of this change in human foraging are increasingly criticized as new archaeological data emerges. This research moves beyond generalized climate change scenarios and focus explicitly on the relationship between human adaptation and concurrent ecosystem change. The geographic focus, arid Northeast Asia, is a region where broad spectrum foraging coincides with dramatic environmental changes, particularly in terms of hydrology and the distribution of vegetation. Excavation of post-glacial hunter-gatherer sites in eastern Mongolia will provide multiple lines of evidence for local paleoecology and subsistence, to test the hypothesis that the Broad Spectrum Revolution was stimulated by increasingly patchy resource distribution rather than resource depression.
Pan, Yichung, U. of Aberdeen, Aberdeen, UK - To aid research on 'The Colonisation and Abandonment of Neolithic Islandscapes: A Case Study from the Penghu Archipelago, Taiwan,' supervised by Dr. Keith Dobney
Preliminary abstract: This project aims to reinvestigate the evidence for the early occupation and exploitation of the Penghu archipelago, Taiwan by Neolithic settlers between 5000 to 4000B.P and to explore if the islands were abandoned by end of the Neolithic. By combining zooarchaeological, geoarchaeological and GIS approaches the project will enable the key relationships between site location, resource availability/exploitation and environmental factors to be established in order to throw new light on the important role this relatively unknown but key island archipelago played in the early expansion of Austronesian-speaking peoples from mainland ISEA. This research will apply and modify archaeological theory of both island and landscape archaeology and will help highlight and promote the combination of advanced GIS, geoarchaelogical and island zooarchaeological research within Taiwanese archaeology.
Bauer, Radhika L., U. of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA - To aid research on 'Animals in Social Life during the South Indian Early Historic Period,' supervised by Dr. Gregory L. Possehl
RADHIKA L. BAUER, then a student at University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, was awarded a grant in November 2004 to aid research on 'Animals in Social Life during the South Indian Early Historic Period,' supervised by Dr. Gregory L. Possehl. Funding aided completion of doctoral fieldwork research at the Iron Age (c. 1000 - 300 BC) site of Kadebakale, Karnataka, India during the period of December 10, 2004 through May 30, 2005. This research was aimed to address two research questions: 1) what animal-based subsistence strategies were Iron Age inhabitants participating in?; and 2) are there differences in consumption patterns throughout the site that relate to various social practices? Towards this end, analysis of archaeological faunal remains took place in the field laboratory took place over a period of 12 weeks. This work sought to identify and describe the Kadebakale faunal assemblage by counting, weighing, measuring, and recording attributes such as exposure to heat and the presence (or absence) of modifications or pathologies. Species identifications were secured over a period of four weeks spent using the comparative collection housed at Deccan College (Maharashtra) in order to determine the most precise level of identity that could be attributed to a bone. In addition, reference to a photographic and morphometric database of South Indian fauna curated in US museums (created by the author in 2004) were used to identify species that were not represented in the Deccan College material. Approximately eight weeks were spent interviewing and observing pastoralists and fisherfolk in the Tungabhadra region to understand local ecology and animal husbandry. This research provided regionally-specific information about herd management, hunting of wild animals, and the ecology of endemic taxa.
Eusebio, Michelle S., U. of Florida, Gainesville, FL - To aid research on 'Pottery, Cuisine, and Community Identity in Prehistoric Southeast Asia: A View from Southern Vietnam,' supervised by Dr. John S. Krigbaum
Preliminary abstract: My research uses biomolecular methods to establish links between food, pottery, and people during the Neolithic and Metal Age (3000 BC-AD 500) in Southeast Asia (SEA), specifically in southern Vietnam. Through the perspectives of Practice theory and Community of Practice, this project addresses the linkages between pottery and culinary practices by focusing on the role of pottery and food utilized in prehistoric SEA communities. I will address how the preparation and/or consumption of food varied between different sites of the same time period; explore change and continuity of culinary practices between succeeding time periods in the same region; and infer community identities based on shared culinary practices. To achieve these goals, I will apply organic residue analysis on sampled pottery vessels recovered from four archaeological sites in southern Vietnam to identify specific foodstuffs. Results will be integrated with technofunctional data collected on these same vessels to infer form and function, and the data will be integrated with findings from allied studies of recovered organic remains and material culture. Findings of this research will demonstrate that prehistoric SEA provides an ideal spatial and temporal benchmark for comparing to other regions with respect to diversity of cuisine and identity.
Law, Randall W., U. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI - To aid research on 'Inter-regional Interaction and Urbanism in the Indus Valley: Lithic Source Provenance Studies at Harappa,' supervised by Dr. Jonathan M. Kenoyer
RANDALL W. LAW, while a student at the University of Wisconsin in Madison, Wisconsin, received funding in August 2003 to aid research on lithic source provenances as indicators of interregional interaction in the Indus Valley, under the supervision of Dr. Jonathan M. Kenoyer. Law's objective was to produce a diachronic model of interregional interaction and resource access at the Indus civilization (ca. 2600-1700 B.C.E.) city of Harappa. This was accomplished through an analysis of the geological sources of important components of the site's large assemblage of rock and mineral artifacts. Harappa was well suited for the project, because its stratigraphic sequence spans the period in which the first urban, state-level society in South Asia developed. Law first identified and characterized lithic artifacts from Harappa using x-ray diffraction and electron microprobe analysis. During fieldwork, he then collected comparative geological materials from potential rock and mineral sources in more than 70 localities in the states of Gujarat, Rajasthan, Jammu, Himachal Pradesh, and Uttaranchal. These samples were compared with steatite, chert, and agate-carnelian artifacts from Harappa using instrumental neutron activation analysis. Strontium isotope analysis was also used to determine the geologic age, and thus the regional provenance, of alabaster artifacts. Some of the resulting provenance determinations confirmed existing theories of trade and interaction in the prehistoric Indus region, whereas others raised new questions for further investigation.
Pryce, Dr. Thomas, CNRS, Nanterre, France - To aid '15th International Conference of the European Association of Southeast Asian Archaeologists (EurASEAA),' 2015, U. de Paris Ouest, Nanterre, in collaboration with Dr. Berenice Bellina
Preliminary abstract: The European Association of Southeast Asian Archaeologists (EurASEAA) was established in 1986 as a parallel association of the already existing South Asian Archaeology Association. The main aim of the association is to bring together every two years, at a European venue, scholars who are working in the field of Southeast Asian archaeology, including prehistory and early history, ethnoarchaeology, art history, epigraphy and philology, to present and discuss new data. This international initiative aims to foster scholarly cooperation within Europe, as well as world-wide cooperation between Southeast Asian scholars. The Association is striving to find funds to facilitate the participation of Southeast Asian colleagues. EurASEAA held its first conference in London and has since moved around various European cities: Berlin (1998, 2010), Bougon (2006), Brussels (1990), Dublin (2012), Leiden (1996, 2008), London (1986, 2004), Paris (1988, 1994), Rome (1992), Sarteano (2000), and Sigtuna (2002). EurASEAA 15 will run for five days from Monday 6th July to Friday 10th July, 2015. We invite panels on any topic or theme related to Southeast Asian archaeology. Papers on South Asia and China which are important for issues of long-distant contact and regional modelling will be considered if they relate closely to Southeast Asian themes.
Bellwood, Dr. Peter S., Australian National U., Canberra, Australia - To aid 17th Congress of the Indo-Pacific Prehistory Association, 2002, Academia Sinica Campus, Nankang, Taipei, in collaboration with Dr. Cheng-hwa Tsang
'17th Congress of the Indo-Pacific Prehistory Association,' September 9-15, 2002 , Academia Sinica in Taipei, Taiwan -- Organizers: Dr. Peter Bellwood, Australian National University, and Dr. Tsang Cheng-Hwa, Institute of History and Philology, Academia Sinica. 276 papers were given in a total of 30 sessions, with themes ranging from the earliest human settlement of Asia, through early farmers and civilizations, to issues related to the preservation of cultural and archaeological heritage at the present day. The delegates represented 30 countries spread through Europe (including Russia), South Asia, Southeast Asia, East Asia, Australasia and North America. Funding was used to support the attendance of 30 delegates from Cambodia, India, Indonesia, Philippines, Russia, Sri Lanka and Thailand, out of a total of 80 funded delegates from developing countries. The publications from the conference will appear over the next few years in several issues of the Bulletin of the Indo-Pacific Prehistory Associat
Bellwood, Peter, Ben Marwick, and Richard Pearson (eds.) 2007. Proceedings of the 17th Congress of the Indo-Pacific Prehistory Association. Taipei, Taiwan: 9 to 15 September 2002.
Evans, Dr. Damian Harold, U. of Sydney, Sydney, Australia - To aid research and writing on 'Redefining Angkor: The Landscape Archaeology of Southeast Asia's Great 'Hydraulic City'' - Hunt Postdoctoral Fellowship
Preliminary Abstract: This project involves the development and publication of a monograph tentatively titled 'Redefining Angkor: The landscape archaeology of Southeast Asia's great 'Hydraulic City''. For the past decade the author has been responsible for archaeological mapping at the medieval city of Angkor, in Cambodia, using field surveys and the analysis of a diverse range of remote sensing datasets. The work has revealed the existence of an extended settlement complex stretching far beyond the main temples, as well as a vast and intricate water management system. The emergence of a comprehensive picture of settlement structure at Angkor creates the opportunity to rigorously evaluate competing theories of Angkor's subsistence, growth and decline for the first time. The implications of the new data for the 'hydraulic city' hypothesis, in which the collapse of the water control system is held to be a cause of Angkor's decline, are covered in detail. Alternative interpretations are considered, and the mapping activities are located within the overall history of archaeological mapping and remote sensing at Angkor. The work will develop new perspectives on the nature of early urban centres in Southeast Asia, which have traditionally been considered to be neatly defined spaces that developed from the circular moated sites of prehistory to the walled cities of the medieval era. In fact, the morphology of the dispersed, low-density urban complexes of that period, of which Angkor is the largest, suggest a clear affinity with the modern conurbations of the late twentieth century in which a peri-urban fringe extends far beyond the well-defined urban core.