Barham, Dr. Lawrence S., U. of Bristol, Bristol, United Kingdom - To aid 'Excavation and Dating of the Oldowan Industry in the Luangwa Valley, Zambia'
DR. LAWRENCE S. BARHAM, of the University of Bristol in Bristol, England, received funding in July 2003 to aid excavation and dating of the Oldowan tool industry in the Luangwa Valley, Zambia. The Luangwa rift valley in eastern Zambia is the setting for a five-year archaeological and paleoenvironmental project, the aim of which is to develop a chronology of human use of the valley from the first stone tool makers to the first farmers. Artifacts representing all the major phases of the African Stone Age have been found there, including Oldowan cores and flakes, Acheulean bifaces, Middle Stone Age points, and Late Stone Age microliths, as well as the distinctive geometric rock art of central Africa. Early and later Iron Age settlements have also been located. Archaeologists have not systematically studied the valley, but research elsewhere in Zambia points to the region as a possible refuge for humans during the prolonged arid periods that characterized Pleistocene glacial cycles. The Luangwa River, with its many tributaries, lagoons, and nearby hot springs, may have provided critical food resources for hunter-gatherers throughout the last two million years. One aim of the project is to test this hypothesis by looking for continuity in occupation during known arid phases. The valley also forms a natural corridor linking eastern and southern Africa, making it a likely route of dispersal for early hominids and later humans, including farmers. In this first season, with a team of seven students, Barham sampled six sites covering key periods in the region's prehistory. Specialists from the universities of Lancaster (V. Karloukovski, paleomagnetism) and Edinburgh (W. Phillips, cosmogenic nuclides) took samples for dating.
Mitchell, Dr. Peter, U. of Oxford, UK - To aid workshop on 'Advancing Archaeology & Heritage in Lesotho: Lessons from the Metolong Dam Cultural Resource Management Project,' 2014, National U. of Lesotho, Roma, in collaboration with Dr. Rachel King
'Advancing Archaeology & Heritage in Lesotho: Lessons from the Metolong Dam Cultural Resource Management Project'
July 10-12, 2014, National University of Lesotho, Roma, Lesotho
Organizers: Peter Mitchell and Rachel King (U. Oxford)
The workshop was convened to discuss the outcomes of the Metolong Cultural Resource Management (MCRM) Project associated with western Lesotho's Metolong Dam, and their relevance for heritage management in Lesotho. With its broad mandate and long tenure (from 2008-2012), the MCRM Project has completed excavations of Middle and Later Stone Age and Iron Age sites, rock art recording and removal, archival and intangible heritage assessments, and has trained ten Basotho archaeologists in a range of field skills. These accomplishments are major improvements on earlier dam-related cultural resource management in Lesotho, and this workshop was held to discuss the applicability of its outcomes to similar future projects. The meeting thus had two aims: 1) to discuss the outcomes of Metolong's heritage program with an audience of Basotho, South African, and international heritage managers, government representatives, and academics; and 2) to identify future directions for similar projects that productively combine archaeological research with local capacity-building initiatives. Importantly, this workshop was partly conducted by graduates of Metolong's training program, who have formed the Lesotho Heritage Network (lesothoheritage.wordpress.com), which allowed them to make valuable professional connections and to draw out those issues that they think are most relevant for their future as Lesotho's largest body of professional heritage managers. Workshop outcomes included specific recommendations with a focus on coupling responsible heritage management protocols with capacity building, applicable to: governmental measures to make heritage consultation compulsory in construction schemes; southern African professional archaeological associations pursuing accreditation schemes for field trainees and technicians; and the potential for training Basotho heritage managers in specific skills as part of modules within the National University of Lesotho or Morija Museum and Archives.
Wilmsen, Dr. Edwin Norman, U. of Edinburgh, Scotland - To aid research on 'Precolonial Botswana Social Formations: Optical Petrography of Pottery and Clays Linking Peoples, Pots, and Places'
DR. EDWIN N. WILMSEN, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, Scotland, received funding in April 2006 to aid research on 'Precolonial Botswana Social Formations: Optical Petrography of Pottery and Clays Linking Peoples, Pots, and Places.' Clays from 66 locations in Botswana and adjacent parts of Namibia and South Africa were collected for comparison with Iron Age and Historic pottery. In addition, samples of major plant species growing in different parts of the Delta were collected in order to compare their phytoliths with biogenic silica observed in pot shards. Both clay and shard samples were prepared as thin section slides and examined with petrographic microscopes in both plain and cross polarized light. Variations in trace minerals and biosilica in both clays and shards plus the different mineralogical history of different parts of the region allow the identification of the area from which clays to make specific vessels were obtained. These mineralogical data combined with particulars of ceramic design make it clear that vessels circulated between sites in all parts of the region for as far as 400km. That this movement took place despite the fact that at most sites clays were available locally, and pots were made at the individual sites from these clays, points to the mobility of pots being a function mainly of social rather than technological considerations. Further research on contemporary potting will be undertaken; technological variables of potting will be noted, which will add insights into the present work.
Wilmsen, Edwin N., David Killick, Dana Drake Rosenstein, et al. 2009. The Social Geography of Pettery in Botswana as Reconstructed by Optical Petrography. Journal of African Archaeology 7(1):3-39.
Wilmsen, Edwin N. 2009. The Structure of San Property Relations: Constitutional Issues and
Interventionist Politics. Anthropologica 51:53-65.
Wilmsen, Edwin. 2009. Botswana Notes and Records. The Botswana Society: Gaborone.
Wilmsen, Edwin. 2010. Early Villages at Tsodilo: The Introduction of Livestock, Crops, and Metalworking. In Tsodilo Hills: Copper Bracelet of the Kalahari, eds. Alec Campbell, Larry Robbins, and Michael Taylor. Michigan State University Press: East Lansing. The Botswana Society: Gaborone.
Wilmsen, Dr. Edwin, U. of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK - To aid engaged activities on 'Reciprocal Relations: Expanding the Benefits of Research in the Study Area,' 2015, Botswana
Preliminary abstract: This project has two foci. The first emphasizes outreach possibilities at two villages - Manaledi and Pilikwe, Botswana. Potters in both need greater exposure of their wares to potential buyers to increase income and encourage younger women's desire to expand their livelihood and hone entrepreneurial skills through potting. We will conduct discussions in each village presenting results of our studies in terms of initiatives to strengthen their ability to be active agents in their economic-political development and showing our films of their work, emphasizing their promotional value. Ownership of clay mines is a major concern of villagers; therefore current Tswana concepts of land and its resources and the potential of archaeological evidence for ascertaining legatee status with respect to such resources will be a key topic. The second focus is on a joint day-long seminar followed by a workshop for archaeologists in the University of Botswana and the National Museum. The seminar will begin with screening of the films stressing transformation of rock into clay, something with little attention in the literature. The workshop will interrogate a pluralist ethnoarchaeology concerned with the study of reciprocal transformations of technical systems and the socioeconomic organizations of a society in which they operate.
Blumenschine, Dr. Robert J., Rutgers U., New Brunswick, NJ; and Masao, Dr. Fidelis T., U. of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania - To aid collaborative research on 'Predation Risk And Oldowan Hominin Land Use At Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania'
Blumenschine, Robert J., Ian G. Stanistreet, Jackson K. Njau, et al. 2012. Environments and Hominin Activities across the FLK Peninsula during Zinjanthropus Times (1.84 Ma), Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania. Journal of Human Evolution 63(2)364-383.
Blumenschine, Robert J., Fidelis T. Masao, Harald Stollhofen, Ian G. Stanistreet, et al. 2012. Landscape Distribution of Oldowan Stone Artifact Assemblages across the Fault Compartments of the Eastern Olduvai Lake Basin during Early Lowermost Bed II Times. Journal of Human Evolution 63(2):384-394.
Smith, Abigail Chipps, Washington U., St. Louis, MO - To aid research on 'Mobility and Urbanism: The Place of Mobile Pastoralists in Mali's Iron Age Cities,' supervised by Dr. Fiona B. Marshall
ABIGAIL C. SMITH, then a student at Washington University, St. Louis, Missouri, was awarded funding in October 2010 to aid research on 'Mobility and Urbanism: The Place of Mobile Pastoralists in Mali's Iron Age Cities,' supervised by Dr. Fiona B. Marshall. This project investigates the relationship between mobile pastoral groups and urban populations in the past, focusing on the site of Jenné-jeno and its surrounding landscape. The project draws on four months of extensive excavation at two archaeological sites, Tato à Sanouna and Thiel, near the modern town of Djenné in Mali's Inland Niger Delta. Multiple lines of evidence are used to identify past modes of life in these sites and at the well-known ancient city of Jenné-jeno between about 200 to 1500 CE, particularly the interrelationship between sedentary urbanism, subsistence specialization, and mobile pastoralism. As the first large-scale excavation of smaller, outlying sites in the area, this project increases our understanding of the extent and variability of local human settlement. Additionally, the project's focus on subsistence and specialization provides empirical data about the trajectories of West African pastoralism and agriculture. This information enables discussion of the role of pastoral populations in the Jenné-jeno urban system and impacts our understanding of Jenné-jeno's trade relationships and political organization. Given the unique trajectories of African food production when compared to other world areas, this project is an important contribution to our understanding of variability in global pastoral strategies and mobile-sedentary interactions.
Assefa, Dr. Zelalem, Smithsonian Inst., WDC; Pleurdeau, Dr. David, Institut de Paleontologie Humaine, Paris, France - To aid research on
'Archaeological Investigations of the Middle/Later Stone Age Occupation at Goda-Buticha, Southeastern Ethiopia'
DR. ZELALEM ASSEFA, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC, and DR. DAVID PLEURDEAU, Institut de Paleontologie Humaine, Paris, France, were awarded an International Collaborative Research Grant in November 2010, to aid collaborative research on 'Archaeological Investiations of the Middle/Later Stone Age Occupation at Goda-Buticha, Southeastern Ethiopia.' This ICRG-funded project was the systematic excavation of Goda Buticha, a cave site in southeastern Ethiopia discovered during an archaeological survey in 2007. A test excavation conducted in 2008 at this site revealed well-stratified deposits containing a diversity of Later Stone Age (LSA) and Middle Stone Age (MSA) material. A series of AMS and U-Th dates obtained in 2008 from charcoal and speleothem samples, respectively, provided dates ranging from mid-Holocene to 46 ka, but also indicated some complexities in the sedimentary and cultural sequence. The 2011 excavation at Goda Buticha clarified the sedimentary sequence and recovered a rich collection of archaeological materials using controlled excavation methods. Many LSA and MSA artifacts and faunal remains were recovered. Additional ostrich eggshell beads and isolated human skeletal remains were also found in the MSA levels. Sedimentological samples were collected for OSL dating and micro-morphological analysis. While thorough assessment of the significance of the site rests with the archaeological analysis and the chronometric dating that are in progress, the 2011 excavation has demonstrated the potential of Goda Buticha to provide insight into the late Middle Stone Age and later prehistory of the region.
Tryon, Christian A., U. of Connecticut, Storrs, CT - To aid research on 'The Acheulian to Middle Stone Age Transition in the Southern Kapthurin Formation, Kenya,' supervised by Dr. Sally McBrearty
CHRISTIAN A. TRYON, while a student at the University of Connecticut in Storrs, Connecticut, was awarded a grant in June 2001 to aid research on the Acheulean to Middle Stone Age transition in the southern Kapthurin Formation, Baringo, Kenya, under the supervision of Dr. Sally McBrearty. Excavations at Koimilot (GnJh-74) have revealed two stratified, in situ, early Middle Stone Age (MSA) archaeological assemblages in the southern Kapthurin Formation. Tephrostratigraphic correlation has shown that these assemblages are the youngest known from the formation and overlie a sequence of interstratified Acheulean, Sangoan, and MSA sites dated by 4OArp/39Ar to more than 284,000 years ago. The Kapthurin Formation preserves one of the few well-dated, continuous sedimentary and archaeological sequences appropriate for assessing the nature of the Acheulean-MSA transition, a technological shift reflecting profound behavioral changes in the later middle Pleistocene, the likely time and place of the appearance of modern humans. Preliminary sedimentological data from Koimilot, artifact size and distribution studies, and analysis of refitted flakes suggested an intact flaking floor at Koimilot Locus 1, with hominid activities directed toward raw material acquisition and the production of typically oval flakes by Levallois methods. The stratigraphically younger Koimilot Locus 2 showed a technology that targeted the production of large Levallois points or elongated flakes. These data suggested a diversification during the early MSA of methods initially developed within the local Acheulean. Additional landscape-scale studies of sites and paleoenvironmental features linked through tephrostratigraphic studies were expected to contribute to an understanding of this variability and to facilitate extraregional comparisons of the end of the Acheulean.
Kelly, Dr. Kenneth, U. of South Carolina, Columbia, SC; and Fall, Dr. Elhadj Ibrahima, University Nelson Mandala, Conakry, Guinea - To aid Landlords & Strangers: Entanglement, Archaeology & The 19th Century 'Illegal' Slave Trade On The Rio Pongo, Guinea.
Preliminary abstract: This proposal aims to conduct archaeological work at 3 19th c sites along the Rio Pongo in Guinea, to explore the cultural entanglement manifest in the interaction of European and American traders with local elites, and the impacts of the slave trade on local societies. Following the early 19th c. close of the slave trade, the 'illegal' slave trade shifted away from the long-standing entrepots of the Slave and Gold coasts to the Upper Guinea coast. Taking advantage of the traditional 'landlord/stranger' relationships of obligation, European and American traders established a series of trading 'factories' linked with local, small scale polities. These traders married into local elite families, creating trader elite lineages that controlled the trade in captives and commodities. We will: 1) document and examine discrete archaeological contexts; 2) map changes in social organization and economy through an analysis of material culture; and 3) situate these changes in light of the traditional 'landlord-stranger relationship' of elite obligation to host foreign traders (Mouser 1973). Success of this project requires collaboration which marries the methodological strengths of Kaba, trained in archaeology and a museum and heritage preservation professional and ethnographer since 1981, and Kelly, who has conducted archaeological research investigating the entanglements of the African Diaspora in Africa and Caribbean settings for over 25 years. This project has broad implications for anthropological research: 1) we document the dynamics of the 'illegal' trade for which the archival record is incomplete, and yet was an important part of the African Diaspora of the 19th c; 2) we contribute to current conversations about cultural identities, and the role material culture plays in the their expression; 3) we investigate the strategies employed in the negotiation of cultural entanglements; and 4) we contribute to a more nuanced understanding of the political economy of the slave trade and its impact on the Upper Guinea Coast.