Grillo, Katherine Mary, Washington U., St. Louis, MO - To aid research on 'Containing Life: Perspectives on Pastoralist Pottery in East Africa,' supervised by Dr. Fiona B. Marshall
KATHERINE M. GRILLO, then a student at Washington University, St. Louis, Missouri, was awarded funding in April 2008 to aid research on 'Containing Life: Perspectives on Pastoralist Pottery in East Africa,' supervised by Dr. Fiona B. Marshall. This project aims to provide archaeological insight into the complex relationships between mobile pastoralism and pottery production, use, and exchange. Food production in Africa followed a unique pathway: cattle pastoralism developed long before agriculture. Although pottery is very often associated with some degree of sedentism and agricultural production, little research has examined the ways in which the material cultures of mobile pastoral societies are represented in the archaeological record. Many archaeologists simply assume such groups are either incapable or unwilling to produce substantial amounts of pottery at all. However, this research has helped to describe and explain for the first time how ceramic production and use can be deeply economically, politically, and ideologically integrated into even highly mobile pastoralist societies. Ethnoarchaeological research was conducted among Samburu cattle pastoralists in northern Kenya, and collections-based research at the Nairobi National Museum provided a comparative case study in how the earliest pastoralists in East Africa utilized pottery as part of both their domestic and ceremonial lives. Ultimately this project will provide an empirically rigorous and ethnoarchaeologically grounded basis for interpreting pastoralist pottery found in archaeological contexts, advancing ongoing studies of the nature and spread of early food-producing communities throughout the Pastoral Neolithic of eastern Africa.
Keitumetse, Dr. Susan, U. of Botswana, Maun, Botswana; and Crossland, Dr. Zoe, Columbia U. NY, NY - To aid collaborative research on 'Historical Archaeology Of 'Marginal Landscapes' Of East-Central Botswana: Between Kgalagadi Desert & Limpopo Dry Valleys'
This project looks at archaeological material from the sparsely populated ecotone between the Kalahari desert and the rich subsidiary valleys of the Limpopo river ('marginal spaces'), in order to explore the social and political upheavals of the latter half of the 19th century in Botswana. This was a period characterized by Tswana polities' migrations into present-day Botswana who came across other Tswana and San communities such as Tswana of Bakgalagadi origin in Shoshong town later occupied by BaNgwato polity who had contact with them. Most archaeological work has been directed either towards earlier sites or the royal towns of BaNgwato of the 19th century. Little environmental and social research work has been carried out on what is generally considered as marginal zones, where other communities may have thrived. We propose to carry out surface survey and excavation in a cattle post near Mosolotshane area, along the dry Bonwapitse stream of the Limpopo River Basin (LRB), in order to better understand the changing patterns of landscape inhabitation and social stratification during migration byTswana communities. We will shift focus away from the hilltop settlements (Toutswe) and nucleated towns (e.g. Shoshong, Palatswe, etc), that have been the object of most anthropological research.
Patterson, David Burch, George Washington U., Washington, DC - To aid research on 'Ecological Niche Evolution in Homo and Paranthropus at East Turkana, Northern Kenya,' supervised by Dr. Rene Bobe
Preliminary abstract: The fossil record suggests that our genus, Homo, originated in eastern Africa around 2.4 million years ago (Ma), at which time our ancestors would have shared the environment with a closely related species, Paranthropus boisei. However, the record indicates that by 1.3 Ma the Paranthropus lineage went extinct and Homo had expanded outside of Africa. Although we understand they coexisted, we lack a relevant framework for testing hypotheses related to their ecologies during this period. The objective of this project is to use the quantitative methods of community ecology and stable isotope geochemistry to contrast the ecological niches of Homo and Paranthropus within a localized paleoecosystem. This study will use data collected directly from hominin localities and archaeological sites between 2 -- 1.4 Ma at East Turkana in northern Kenya to test a series of hypotheses related to the following research question: What role did ecological conditions play in the different fates of Homo and Paranthropus between 2 Ma and 1.4 Ma? This study will create the first high-resolution reconstruction of the niches of these two taxa and provide key insights into the mechanisms behind the survival of our genus on landscapes that witnessed the extinction of our close fossil relatives.
Breunig, Dr. Peter, J.W. Goethe-Universitat, Frankfurt, Germany - To aid 19th Meeting of the Society of Africanist Archaeologists (SAfA): 'Cultural Diversity of Africa's Past,' 2008, Frankfurt, in collaboration with Dr. Carlos A. Magnavita Santos
'Cultural Diversity of Africa's Past: 19th Meeting of the Society of Africanist Archaeologists (SAfA)'
September 7-12, 2008, Goethe-University, Frankfurt/Main, Germany
Organizers: Dr. Peter J.W. Breunig and Dr. Carlos A. Magnavita Santos (Geothe-University)
The Society of Africanist Archaeologists (SAfA) was founded in the United States and is today one of the largest organizations in the field of African archaeology, with members mainly from North America, Europe, and Africa. With 260 participants from 33 countries and about 200 presentations, its 2008 conference was the largest so far in the field of Africa archaeology worldwide. This important meeting was hosted by the Goethe-University (Frankfurt, Germany), and organized by Prof. Peter Breunig, in cooperation with the archaeology departments of the Universities of Cologne and Geneva. A wide range of regions, time periods, and subjects was presented and discussed. The opportunity to get together and present the latest research results is very important in a field where university departments are rare and spread worldwide. Such a meeting is thus the basis for establishing a global network of joint research projects and the discussion of important new methods and directions in African archaeology. Wenner-Gren funding helped over 30 scientists and students, mainly from Africa, with travel support. The next meeting will be in 2010 in Dakar, Senegal, in cooperation with the Pan-African Congress of Pre-and Protohistory and Related Studies.
Smith, Abigail Chipps, Washington U., St. Louis, MO - To aid research on 'Mobility and Urbanism: The Place of Mobile Pastoralists in Mali's Iron Age Cities,' supervised by Dr. Fiona B. Marshall
ABIGAIL C. SMITH, then a student at Washington University, St. Louis, Missouri, was awarded funding in October 2010 to aid research on 'Mobility and Urbanism: The Place of Mobile Pastoralists in Mali's Iron Age Cities,' supervised by Dr. Fiona B. Marshall. This project investigates the relationship between mobile pastoral groups and urban populations in the past, focusing on the site of Jenné-jeno and its surrounding landscape. The project draws on four months of extensive excavation at two archaeological sites, Tato à Sanouna and Thiel, near the modern town of Djenné in Mali's Inland Niger Delta. Multiple lines of evidence are used to identify past modes of life in these sites and at the well-known ancient city of Jenné-jeno between about 200 to 1500 CE, particularly the interrelationship between sedentary urbanism, subsistence specialization, and mobile pastoralism. As the first large-scale excavation of smaller, outlying sites in the area, this project increases our understanding of the extent and variability of local human settlement. Additionally, the project's focus on subsistence and specialization provides empirical data about the trajectories of West African pastoralism and agriculture. This information enables discussion of the role of pastoral populations in the Jenné-jeno urban system and impacts our understanding of Jenné-jeno's trade relationships and political organization. Given the unique trajectories of African food production when compared to other world areas, this project is an important contribution to our understanding of variability in global pastoral strategies and mobile-sedentary interactions.
Chirikure, Dr. Shadreck, U. of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa - To aid 'Biennial Conference of Association of Southern African Professional Archaeologists (ASAPA),' 2015, U. of Zimbabwe, in collaboration with Dr. Plan Nyabezi
Preliminary abstract: The biennial Association of Southern African Professional Archaeologists (ASAPA) Conference brings together, after every two years, a vibrant community of professional archaeologists and allied specialists from Southern Africa as well as international scholars whose research interests lie in the region. The main aim of the conference is to provide these professionals with an international platform to share new knowledge, network and seek collaboration in the fields of archaeology and archaeological heritage management. This provides a solid platform for the transmission of new techniques, new theories and field approaches to ensure that southern African archaeology is locally and globally relevant. The theme of ASAPA 2015 is promoting inter-disciplinary research. This is highly significant given that there are globally significant research themes such as the origins of modern human behaviour, demography, isotopes and materials analysis that have failed to take off in southern Africa, with the exception of South Africa. Therefore, interdisciplinary research provides an unrivalled opportunity to develop various research areas in our region. The conference provides a solid pedestal for students to net work with professionals to forge lifelong networks. The conference attracts other stakeholders such as members of communities that live around archaeological sites, traditional custodians, policy makers and museum curators. It provides an opportunity for dialogue in theory and practice between different archaeological practioners. The conference involves oral and poster presentations as well as roundtable discussions on topical issues in archaeological theory and practice. The scope of the conference covers the full span of Southern African archaeology, from the earliest hominids to the historical period. Topics covered include palaeoanthropology, palaeo-environments and climate change, Stone Age, farming communities, ethnoarchaeology among others reflecting the multi-disciplinary nature of archaeology.
Tsheboeng, Dr. Alfred, U. of Botswana, Gaborone, Botswana - To aid the 12th Congress of the Pan African Archaeological Association for Prehistory and Related Studies, 2005, U. of Botswana, in collaboration with Dr. Gilbert Pwiti
Kelly, Dr. Kenneth, U. of South Carolina, Columbia, SC; and Fall, Dr. Elhadj Ibrahima, University Nelson Mandala, Conakry, Guinea - To aid Landlords & Strangers: Entanglement, Archaeology & The 19th Century 'Illegal' Slave Trade On